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WASTE
Methods of waste disposal <ul><li>Open Dumping  </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean Dumping </li></ul><ul><li>Incineration </li></ul><...
Open Dumping  <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Convenient (dump anywhere) </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap </li></ul><ul><li>Fa...
Ocean Dumping <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Source of nutrients for plants </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap to get </li></ul...
Incineration <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces volume of waste </li></ul><ul><li>Produces odourless stable wast...
Recycling <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>No waste produced </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Expensi...
Recycling <ul><li>Metals </li></ul><ul><li>Metals such as aluminium and steel cans can be collected and melted. </li></ul>...
Recycling <ul><li>Paper </li></ul><ul><li>It is sorted into grades, and then made into toilet and newspaper </li></ul><ul>...
Recycling <ul><li>Glass </li></ul><ul><li>Glass is sorted according to colors, and melted. </li></ul><ul><li>They are then...
Recycling <ul><li>Plastics </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic can be broken down by different processes: </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrolysi...
Nuclear Waste <ul><li>They are mainly from hospitals, power stations and labs. </li></ul><ul><li>They can be sorted into l...
Low Level <ul><li>Usually short half life </li></ul><ul><li>Kept in steel and concrete containers </li></ul>
Low level disposal methods <ul><li>Stored in cooled water as the waste gives off heat where it loses its activity  </li></...
High level <ul><li>long half life from spent fuel rods  </li></ul><ul><li>The radioactivity may last for a few thousand ye...
High level disposal method <ul><li>About 3% is high level liquid waste  </li></ul><ul><li>The liquid is dried in a furnace...
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Waste

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Waste

  1. 1. WASTE
  2. 2. Methods of waste disposal <ul><li>Open Dumping </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean Dumping </li></ul><ul><li>Incineration </li></ul><ul><li>Recyclicing </li></ul>
  3. 3. Open Dumping <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Convenient (dump anywhere) </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap </li></ul><ul><li>Fast </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Causes pollution in air, ground, and water </li></ul><ul><li>Easy for diseases to spread </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ocean Dumping <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Source of nutrients for plants </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap to get </li></ul><ul><li>Convenient </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Dumping of waste will cause danger to marine life. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Incineration <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces volume of waste </li></ul><ul><li>Produces odourless stable waste </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive to build, and generate the heat energy required for incineration. </li></ul><ul><li>Produces dioxins if burnt properly. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Recycling <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>No waste produced </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in separation </li></ul><ul><li>Time consuming </li></ul>
  7. 7. Recycling <ul><li>Metals </li></ul><ul><li>Metals such as aluminium and steel cans can be collected and melted. </li></ul><ul><li>As Aluminium takes a lot of energy to make, recycling would be less costly. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Recycling <ul><li>Paper </li></ul><ul><li>It is sorted into grades, and then made into toilet and newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>Paper can also be made into compost, acting as a fertilizer with rich minerals for the soil. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Recycling <ul><li>Glass </li></ul><ul><li>Glass is sorted according to colors, and melted. </li></ul><ul><li>They are then shaped and molded into other useful objects such as beer bottles and jugs. </li></ul><ul><li>It is very costly however, to make generate energy required to melt the glass. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Recycling <ul><li>Plastics </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic can be broken down by different processes: </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrolysis </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogenation </li></ul><ul><li>Gasification </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal cracking </li></ul><ul><li>Repolymerisation </li></ul><ul><li>One disadvantage is that plastic are very hard to separate. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Nuclear Waste <ul><li>They are mainly from hospitals, power stations and labs. </li></ul><ul><li>They can be sorted into low and high levels </li></ul>
  12. 12. Low Level <ul><li>Usually short half life </li></ul><ul><li>Kept in steel and concrete containers </li></ul>
  13. 13. Low level disposal methods <ul><li>Stored in cooled water as the waste gives off heat where it loses its activity </li></ul><ul><li>Filtered with an ion exchange resin to remove strontium and Caesium. </li></ul><ul><li>Discharged in to the sea where radioactivity is diluted </li></ul>
  14. 14. High level <ul><li>long half life from spent fuel rods </li></ul><ul><li>The radioactivity may last for a few thousand years </li></ul>
  15. 15. High level disposal method <ul><li>About 3% is high level liquid waste </li></ul><ul><li>The liquid is dried in a furnace and then mixed with glass </li></ul><ul><li>It solidifies in steel tubes, allowing air to flow around, keeping the tubes cool. </li></ul>

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