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Important

  1. 1. Final report Survey and study on the effect of rubber clones on breeding-biology of an important rubber wood borer in southern Thailand Wisut Sittichaya Assoc. Prof. Dr. Aran Ngampongsi Department of Pest Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University Kanchanawanich Road, Had Yai District, Songkhla Province, Thailand 90112
  2. 2. ii F F F F F F Survey and study on the effect of rubber clones on breeding-biology of an important rubber wood borer in southern Thailand F . . F F F F . F . F F : 2550 - 2552
  3. 3. iii F F F F F - F F F F F F F F Dr. Roger A. Beaver F F F Bostrichidae, Platypodidae Scolytidae Dr. Liu Lan- Yu, Department of Entomology, Chung Hsing University, Taiwan Dr. Hab. Jerzy Borowski, Department of Forest Protection and Ecology, Faculty of Forestry, Warsaw Agricultural University, Poland F F Bostrichidae F F F F F F . . F F F F F F F . F . F . F F F F
  4. 4. iv F F F F 4 F F F 10 3 F . . 2550 . . 2551 F F F 22 9 F F Bostrichidae 13 F 2 F F Scolytinae Platypodinae F F Curculionidae F 4 F F Cephalotoma tonkinea Lesne Lyctoxylon dentatum (Pascoe) Minthea reticulata Lesne (Bostrichidae) Euwallacea interjectus (Blandford) (Curculionidae) F F F Bostrichidae 4 F F Sinoxylon anale Lesne S. unidentatum (Fabricious) Heterobostrychus aequalis (Waterhouse) Lyctoxylon dentatum (Pascoe) 39.56% 18.09% 9.86% 8.79% F F Shannon F F (p<0.01) F F F F F F F F (p>0.05) F F F F F F F F F F F F F F 3 F F F RRIM600 PB234 F F (Para) F F S. anale F F F F F 3 F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F 86.31±12.56, 88.13±11.38 77±0.00 F F PB235, RRIM600 PARA F 50.70±22.68 45.80±23.61 F F F 1:1 F F F PB235 F 39.07±17.30 F 25.73±8.41
  5. 5. v 22.47±7.23 F (P<0.05 P<0.01) F F F RRIM600 PARA F F S. anale F F F PB235 F F F PB235 F F RRIM600 F (P<0.05) F 2 F RRIM600 PARA F (P<0.05) F F F F F F F PB235 F F RRIM 600 F (p<0.01)
  6. 6. vi Abstract A survey of species diversity and abundance of beetles destroying rubberwood sawn timbers was done in four provinces of each area including east coast and west coast of southern Thailand. The rubberwood sawn timbers were sampled three times from ten representative rubberwood-sawmills of each region during July 2007 to March 2008. The beetles emerged from the sampled sawn timbers were further identified and quantified. The results showed that twenty two species of wood borers were found in the rubberwood sawn timbers. Nine species were classified in the family Bostrichidae and thirteen species were grouped in two subfamilies, Scolytinae and Platypodinae belonging to family Curculionidae. Four species, Cephalotoma tonkinea Lesne, Lyctoxylon dentatum (Pascoe), Minthea reticulata Lesne (Bostrichidae; Lyctidae) and Euwallacea interjectus (Blandford) (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), were new recorded species of Thailand. Four key species which were abundantly present and the member of powder post beetles, family Bostrichidae included Sinoxylon anale Lesne, S. unidentatum (Fabricious) Heterobostrychus aequalis (Waterhouse), and Lyctoxylon dentatum (Pascoe). Their adult numbers were 39.56% 18.09% 9.86% and 8.79%, respectively, of a total adults captured. The Shannon diversity index of wood boring beetles on the east coast was significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of the western one, but there was no difference in infestation density between both regions. Three main factors influencing diversity and abundance of insect infestation in rubberwood sawn timbers were rainfall, number and consecutive availability of timbers and wood moisture content. Besides, effects of three rubber wood clones, RRIM600, PB235 and unidentified old growing rubber varieties (Para), on growth and reproduction of S. anale which was the key insect pest of the rubber wood timber were investigated. Host preferences of this insect were also done by using no choice test and multiple choice tests under laboratory and field conditions. The results revealed that times required for development from releasing male and female adults for mating until an emergence of the first offspring adult were 86.31±12.56, 88.13±11.38 and 77±0.00 days, when S. anale were fed on PB235, RRIM600 and PARA, respectively. The longevity of female and male adults averaged 50.70±22.68 and 45.80±23.61 days, respectively. The sex ratio was approximately 1:1. The female adult fed on PB235 gave
  7. 7. vii the largest number of progeny, averaging 39.07±17.30 progeny per one female which were significantly (P<0.05 and P<0.01) higher than 25.73±8.41 and 22.47±7.23 progeny per one female of female fed on RRIM600 and PARA, respectively. The results of preference tests showed that S. anale mostly preferred to feed on PB235. Based on no choice test, the feeding rate on the PB235 was significantly (P<0.05) higher than on the RRIM600. It was also significantly (P<0.05) higher than on the RRIM600 and the PARA, when the multiple choice test was performed. The results were similar to those obtained from the field trials which this insect significantly (P<0.01) preferred to feed on the PB235 rather than on the RRIM600.
  8. 8. viii F iii F iv Abstract vi 1. F 1 2. F 8 3. F F F 8 4. 9 5. 20 5.1 F F F F 20 5.1.1 20 5.1.2 21 5.1.3 F F 23 5.1.4 F F F F 25 5.1.5 F F F 32 5.1.6 F F 33 5.1.7 F 36 5.1.8 F F 37 5.1.9 F 39 5.1.10 F 42 5.1.11 F 43 5.2 (starch) (lignin) (wood extractive) F 46 F RRIM600 PB235 (PARA) F 5.3 F Sinoxylon anale Lesne (Coleoptera; 48 Bostrichidae) 5.3.1 F F Sinoxylon anale Lesne 48
  9. 9. ix ( F ) F 5.3.2 (course ship behavior) 49 Sinoxylon anale Lesne 5.3.3 (Territorial defense behavior) 50 5.3.4 F F (nesting behavior) 51 5.3.5 F F F 53 5.3.6 F F F 54 5.3.7 F F 55 5.3.8 55 5.3.9 F F F F 60 5.3.10 F F F 61 5.3.11 (adult longevity) 61 5.3.12 F F F F 62 Sinoxylon anale Lesne 5.4 F F F F 64 Sinoxylon anale Lesne 5.4.1 F F F F 64 Olfectometer (Wind tunnel) 5.4.2 F F F 65 (Dual choices test) 5.4.3 F F F F 66 5.4.3.1 F (No choice test 66 5.4.3.2 (Multiple choices test) 67
  10. 10. x ( F ) F 5.4.4 F F F F 69 (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) F 6. 72 7. F 73 8. 78 9. F 83
  11. 11. xi F 1 F F F F F F . . 2 2546-2551 2 F F F 4 3 F F F F 11 F (Sinoxylon anale Lesne) 4 F F F 12 F F F S. anale 5 F F 22 6 F F 8 25 F F . . 2550 . . 2551 7 F F F F 27 F F F 2550 2551 8 F F F 36 9 F ( / ) F F 37 F 10 F F F 54 S. anale 11 F S. anale F F 57 12 S. anale F F F F 61 F F F F F F 13 F S. anale F 63 F F 14 F F F S. 67 anale F 3 F (5 sample 25 sub-samples F ) F
  12. 12. xii ( F ) F 15 S. anale F F F F 68 F F 16 F F F F 69 F 17 F F F RRIM600 PB235 F 70 F F F F
  13. 13. xiii F 1 F F 10 2 F F F 14 3 Olfectometer (Wind tunnel) F F F 16 4 F F F (No choice test) 18 Multiple choices test 5 8 F F 20 F F F 6 F F 21 7 2550-2551 23 8 F F FF F F F 8 24 F 9 F F F F 28 F F 10 F : F Bostrichidae 30 11 F : wood boring bark beetles 31 F Curculionidae 12 F F F 35 13 F F F F F 40 F 3 14 F F F 41 15 F F F F F Ambrosia beetles 43 16 44 17 45 18 (%) F F RRIM600 PB235 PARA 46 19 (%) F F RRIM600 PB235 PARA 47
  14. 14. xiv ( F ) F 20 (%) F F RRIM600 PB235 48 PARA 21 F Sinoxylon anale Lesne 49 22 S. anale 50 23 F S. anale 52 24 F S. anale 54 25 S. anale F F 55 26 S. anale 59 27 Sinoxylon anale F F F F 64 Wind tunnel
  15. 15. 1 1. F 1.1 F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F 15 F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F (white teak) F F F F F F F beech, oak meranti F (Ratnasingam et al., 2002) 14.7 F F F F F F F F F 3 F F F F 1) F F 2) F F F F 3) F F F F F F F RRIM 600 F [h1]: F 68 ( F F, 2548) F F F ( 20-25 ) 3 F F ( F )8 F F ( F F F , 2547) F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F (particle board) F F F F . . 2546 F F F F 47,393 F F 15 F F F 16,778 F ( F F, 2548) F F F F F F F F F . . 2546-2551 1 . . 2547 F F 1.174 F . . F F 9,360.59 F [h2]: F F F ( F F, 2548) F F F F F
  16. 16. 2 F 34,058.78 F F F 70 F F F F F (Ratnasingam et al., 2002) F F F 1 F F F F F F . . 2546-2551 2546 2547 2548 2549 2550 2551 F F (F ) 47,393 55,431 64,448 73,141 83,137 94,612 F : F F (2548) FF F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F 1.2 F F FF F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F ( , 2549; Wong et al., 2005) F F F F F 7 F F F 12% F F F F F (wood borers) F F F (wood stain fungi) F (mold fungi) (Wong et al., 1998) F F F F F F F (560-640 F F ) (2524) Akhter (2005) F F F F Okahisa (2006) F F F F F F F (Creffield, 1991) F F F F F F
  17. 17. 3 F F Takahashi Kishima (1973) F F F F F F F F F (Harmatha and Nawrot, 2002; Nerg et al., 2003) F F F F F Nerg (2003) F F Old House Borer (Hylotrupes bajulus, Cerambycidae) F monoterpene F F F levopmaric-C palustric acid F F F F β-pinene monoterpene F F F F [h3]: F F F F F (vessel) F Cookson (2004) F F F F F Lyctinae (Bostrichidae) F F F F F F Cummins Wilson (1934) F F F F F (true powder port beetle) F ( ) F 90 1.3 F F F F F F F F F holocellulose F 8.2 alpha cellulose F 49.41 F [h4]: (pentosan) F 17.17 (lignin) F 18.06 F (ash) F 0.86 F [h5]: (extractives) F 13.28 ( F, 2538) F F F F Hong (1982) F holocellulose F F 70.0 Anonymous (2005) F F 5.59 F FF F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F (Anonymous, 2005) 1.4 F F F 13 4 F (Hutacharern and Tubtim, 1995) 2 F F F F F Bostrichidae 2 F F Heterobostrychus Sinoxylon ( ,
  18. 18. 4 2524) Hussein (1981) F F F F 25 3 F( 2 3 F 79 80 ) F F F F F F F F F F F Dinoderus bifoveolatus Wollaston, Xylopsocus ensifer, Xylopsocus capucinus Fabr. F Bostrichidae Hypothenemus setosus Eichhoff F Scolytidae F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F Lyctinae F F F 8-30 F F F F 12-15 F Bostrichidae F F F 30 F F F F 12-30 F ( , 2524) 2 F F F F Bostrichidae Bostrychidae 1. Apoleon edax Gorth. ( ) 2. Dinoderus sp. 3. Heterobostrychus aequalis Waterhause 4. Heterobostrychus pilates 5. Heterobostrychus unicornis Waterhause 6. Sinoxylon anale Lene 7. Xylothrips flavipes Illigen 8. Sinaxylon ruficorne Fahr. 9. Lyctus africanus Lesne 10. Lyctus sp. 11. Minthea rugicallis Walker Curculionidae (Platypodinae) 12. Platypus piniperda Schedl Cerambycidae 13. Gnatholea eburifera Thomson F : Hutacharern Tubtim (1995) Hussein (1981) 1.5 F F F F F F F F F F 15 F F F F F
  19. 19. 5 F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F 3-5 F F F F F Celcure® F F 5-8 F (1.9 ) 3 F ( , 2549) F F F F F F F 15 F F F F F F F F Lyctinae ( F Anobiidae) F F 8 F F( , 2524; , 2524; Cookson, 2004) F F F F F (boric acid and borax equivalent) F F F ( , 2549; Cookson, 2004) F potassium dichromate, sodium dichromate, arsenic pentoxide F F (Hugh, 2006) F F F F F F F F F F F (boron compounds) ( , 2549) F F F F F F F F F (Simpson and Barton, 1991; Peters et al., 2002) F (hardwood extractives) F F [h6]: F F F F F F F F F [h7]: F (Tectona grandis), Belian (Eusideroxylon zwageri), Cengal (Neobalanocarpus heimii) Padauk (Pterocarpus soyauxii) (Wong et al., 2005) F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F - F Secondary metabolites F
  20. 20. 6 1.6 F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F ( ) F F F F F F F Secondary metabolites F F F F F F F F F secondary metabolites F F F F F F F F Terpenoids (antifeedants) F secondary metabolites F F F F F F (Anonymous, 2005) Faccoli (2004) F F F Ips typographus L. (Scolytidae) F F F 3-Octanol, 1-hexanol Green Leaf Volatile (GLV)-blend F [h8]: F F F F monoterpenes, limonene a-pinene F F F F F F F F F Harmatha Nawrot (2002) F F lignans F phenylpropanoids F F 1.7 F F F Hank (1993) F F Phoracantha semipunctata (Fabricius) (Cerambycidae) F 5 F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F Morewood (2003) F F Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) F (polyphagous) F F F 1 F F F F F
  21. 21. 7 F F F F F (provenances) F F F F F Nerg (2003) F F F F F F Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) F F F F F
  22. 22. 8 2. F 1. F F F [h9]: F 2. F F F F [h10]: F [h11]: 3. F F F F F ‡ (host preference) F 1 F [h12]: F 3. F F F 1. F F F F F 2. F F F F 3. F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F ‡ F F Sinoxylon anale Lesne (Bostrichidae)
  23. 23. 9 4. F 3 F 1. F F 2. F Sinoxylon anale Lesne (Bostrichidae) F F( F 1) 3. F F F F F S. anale 4.1 F F F F F F8 F F F F 2 F F F F F F F F F 10 F F F F F F F F . F . F F F F F F F F F 3 2 2 3 F (. F . F )2 F 2 F F 5x100x3 F F F F F [h13]: 10 F F F F F F F 20x25x55 F F F F F F F F F F F ( 1a,b) 14.00 15.00 . F F microcentrifuge tube 1.5 F 95 F F F F F F 3 . . 2550 . . F [h14]: 2551 F F F F F (species diversity) F F F
  24. 24. 10 F Simson s index of diversity, Shannon wiener diversity index Shannon s evenness index F F Borror and Delong s Introduction to the Study of th Insects 7 Edition (Charles and Norman, 2005) F American Beetles volume II (Ross, 2002) F Bostrichidae Scolytidae F online Identification keys Pests and Diseases Image Library (PaDIL) (Walker, 2006) Dr. Roger Beaver F F F Platypodinae Scolytinae F Bostrichidae 1 55 cm 2 20 cm 3 25 cm 4 5 a b F [h15]: F F 1 F F F (a) 1. F F F 2. F F 3. F F F 4. F 5. F F (b) F F F F F F 24 4.2 F Sinoxylon anale Lesne (Coleoptera; Bostrichidae) 4.2.1 F F Sinoxylon anale Lesne (Coleoptera; Bostrichidae) F F 1 (39.56%) F F F F F (Sittichaya and Beaver, 2009) F F F F F F F F F F F
  25. 25. 11 F F F F 3 4.2.2 F F F F F F F F 3 F F F F F F F F F RRIM 600 F F F F PB 235 F F F F F F F F (PARA) ( 3) F F F 5 F (5 ) ( F F F F F F 1 F F F F F sub-samples) F F F F F F 25 ( F F PARA F 25 F 40 ) F F F F [h16]: ???? F 90 F F F F 80 48 F [h17]: /??? F F F 15 F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F -20 3 F F F F F (Sinoxylon anale Lesne) F F F F ( ) ( F ) RRIM 600 25 5 F PB 235 25 5 F (PARA)* 25 5 * F F F 25 F 40 4.2.3 F (starch) (lignin) (wood extractives) F F F F 10x20x3 F F F 3 F F 5 F (5 ) F 3 (3 subsamples) F F F F
  26. 26. 12 20 C F F F F F F [h18]: ????? Browning (1967) F Acid-insoluble lignin in wood and Pulp (T222 om-02) (TAPPI, 2002) F Solvent extractives of Wood and Pulp (T 204 cm-97) (TAPPI, 1997) F F F3 ( F F 3 ) F F F F F F F F F [h19]: F F One way ANOVA F F (Correlation coefficient) F F Pearson s correlation 4.2.4 F Sinoxylon anale Lesne F S. anale F F F 1 F F F F F F 2 F F F F ( ) F 4.2.4.1 F Sinoxylon anale Lesne F F F 1 F F F 9.5x14.5x5 F F 10x15x0.5 F F ( 2a) F F 3 F F 5 F 240 ( 4) 4 F F F F F F S. anale F F F 2 F 1 F RRIM600 25 5 F F 2 F PB253 25 5 3 F F 25 5 2 F 1 F RRIM600 25 15 F F F 2 F PB253 25 15 F 3 F F 25 15
  27. 27. 13 F F F F F F F F F F 12 F F 7 F F F F F F F F F F F F 5 F F F F F F [h20]: F F F F (larval tunnel) F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F One way ANOVA 4.2.4.2 F F F F (Reproductive biology) Sinoxylon anale Lesne . S. anale F F F F F F S. anale F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F One Way ANOVA F F F F F F Preason s correlation . (longevity) Sinoxylon anale Lesne F F F F F 10 F 27.54±0.99 F 81.57±3.65 F F F F 12 F F F F F 9.5
  28. 28. 14 F F F F ( 4a) F F F PB235 3x3x2 F 15 F F F F F F independent sample t-test . F F 3 F F F (reproductivity) Sinoxylon anale Lesne F 1 F F 25 F F F F F F 60 F F F F F [h21]: F ( 2c) F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F One way ANOVA F [h22]: F F F F F F Pearson s correlation (B) 4 (A) a b c 2 F F F (a.) (A) F (B) 1 F F F F , 2 F F F ,3 F F F ,4 F F F ,5 - F F (b.) F F F F 10x15x0.5 F F (c.) F F F F 60 F ( )
  29. 29. 15 4.3. F F F F S. anale 4.3.1 F F F F F Olfectometer (wind tunnel) F F Olfectometer 1( 3a, b) F central chamber F F F 10 F choice chambers F 4 F ( F F F F F F F F F ) F central chamber F central cambers choice chambers F F F F F F central chamber Olfectometer F F 1 F F F F (central chamber) ( 1) F F choice cambers F ( 2) F F F Olfectometer F choice cambers ( 3) F 4 F F F F 3 F ( F F F F) 5 F F 3x3x3 F F F F 5 F F F F F F choice cambers F F central chamber 1 10 F F choice chamber F F 10 5 F Olfectometer 2( 3) F F F F F LSD tests
  30. 30. 16 3 Olfectometer (Wind tunnel) F F F (a.) (b.) Olfectometer 1 (A) (B) F 1 2 F F central chamber 3 F F choice chamber 4 choice chamber 5 F F (c.) Olfectometer 2 F 1 F F 2 choice chamber 3 F 4.3.2 F F F Sinoxylon anale Lesne (Dual choices test) F F F RRIM600 F F 2.5x5x2 F 10 F 5 F 5 F F F F 5 F F F F F F 1 F F F (paxi-grass) 12x17x6 F F F F F F F 5 F F F F F F 10 F F F F F F F 5 F F F F F independent sample t-test
  31. 31. 17 4.3.3 F F F F S. anale 4.3.3.1 F (No choice test) F F 3 F F F RRIM600 PB235 PARA F 5 F ( F )(samples) F 5 F F (sub samples) 2.5x5x2 F F 12-15 F F F F 75 F F F F F F F F 12 . F F F F F ( 4a) F F F 1 F F F F F F F F F F F F F 12 F F F3 F 15 F F F F F ( 8%) F F F F F F F F F LSD-test F F F F F F F F F Pearson s correlation 4.3.3.2 F F F F Sinoxylon anale F (Multiple choices test) . 1 F F F F F [h23]: F F 3.1 F F F 3 F F F [h24]: 4.3.1??? F F F F 3 F F F RRIM600 PB235 PARA F 3 F F F F F 1-3 F F F F F F F F F F ( 4 b, c ) S. anale F F F 15 F F 5 3 F F F F F F F F

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