THE AGE OF CLASSICISM  (1700-1784) An Introduction…
Introduction <ul><li>1.The18th century in Europe was  The Age of Enlightenment  and literature explored themes of social u...
<ul><li>2.  The Age of Enlightenment advocated  reason  as the primary basis of authority. Developed in  France ,  Britain...
<ul><li>3.  Many of the United States'  Founding Fathers  were also heavily influenced by Enlightenment-era ideas, particu...
<ul><li>4. Enlightenment thinkers believed that systematic thinking might be applied to all areas of human activity, carri...
<ul><li>5.  The Enlightenment Period receives modern attention as a central model for many movements in the modern period....
<ul><li>What is </li></ul><ul><li>Classicism? </li></ul><ul><li>… in the arts </li></ul><ul><li>… in Literature </li></ul>
  Classicism  in the  Arts <ul><li>Refers generally to a high regard for  classical antiquity , as setting standards for t...
Classicism in Literature   <ul><li>Classicism is a specific genre of literature which has Greek and Roman influence </li><...
<ul><li>As a literary doctrine, classicism holds that the writer must be governed by rules, models, or conventions, rather...
<ul><li>is guided by admiration of the qualities of formal balance, proportion,  decorum , and restraint attributed to the...
What is a  Classic ? <ul><li>A  classic  is a work of the highest class, and has also been taken to mean a work suitable f...
Classical style in literature <ul><li>A classical style or approach to literary composition is usually one that imitates G...
<ul><li>A Short Biography of Jonathan Swift   </li></ul>
<ul><li>Jonathan Swift was born in Dublin 1667 and was educated at Trinity College in Dublin.  </li></ul><ul><li>Swift was...
<ul><li>Apparently Swift’s genius was often misunderstood and the morbid aspect of his nature was often exaggerated.   </l...
<ul><li>Swift was also a considerable poet. He often ridiculed the romantics of love in his poetry, and he viewed most wom...
<ul><li>Swift was first and foremost a political writer. Swift’s satire is often a product of this relentlessly moral writ...
<ul><li>Swift’s audience was whom he hoped to reform. He wanted to develop their venality, ignorance, vanity, pride.  </li...
Thoughts on Various Subject s by Jonathan Swift
<ul><li>WE have just Religion enough to make us  hate , but not enough to make us  love  one another .  </li></ul>
<ul><li>REFLECT on Things past, as Wars, Negotiations, Factions, and the like; we enter so little into those Interests tha...
<ul><li>WHEN   we desire or solicit any Thing; our Minds run wholly on the good Side, or Circumstances of it; when it is o...
<ul><li>THE greatest Inventions were produced in the Times of Ignorance; as the Use of the  Compass, Gunpowder , and  Prin...
<ul><li>THE latter Part of a wise Man's Life is taken up in curing the Follies, Prejudices, and false Opinions he had cont...
<ul><li>THE  Camelion , who is said to feed upon nothing but Air, hath of all Animals the nimblest Tongue.  </li></ul>
<ul><li>PHYSICIANS ought not to give their Judgment of Religion, for the same Reason that Butchers are not admitted to be ...
<ul><li>It’s the end of the slide presentation, but it’s the beginning of illumined wisdom. </li></ul><ul><li>I hoped you ...
<ul><li>I hope you could be able to reflect about the thoughts presented by Jonathan Swift , and apply the values you lear...
<ul><li>“  Be strong and courageous. Do not be afraid or terrified because of them, for the Lord your God goes with you; h...
Assignment <ul><li>Literary Criticism: </li></ul><ul><li>The students are to critique the ideas implied in the epigram ent...
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Slide T H E A G E O F C L A S S I C I S M (1700 1784)

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Slide T H E A G E O F C L A S S I C I S M (1700 1784)

  1. 1. THE AGE OF CLASSICISM (1700-1784) An Introduction…
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>1.The18th century in Europe was The Age of Enlightenment and literature explored themes of social upheaval, reversals of personal status, political satire , geographical exploration and the comparison between the supposed natural state of man and the supposed civilized state of man. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>2. The Age of Enlightenment advocated reason as the primary basis of authority. Developed in France , Britain and Germany , it influenced the whole of Europe including Russia and Scandinavia . The era is marked politically by governmental consolidation, nation creation, and greater rights for the common people, and a diminuation of the influence of authoritarian institutions such as the nobility's role and power . </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>3. Many of the United States' Founding Fathers were also heavily influenced by Enlightenment-era ideas, particularly in the religious sphere ( deism ) and, in parallel with liberalism (which had a major influence on its Bill of Rights , in parallel with the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen ), socialism and anarchism in the political sphere. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>4. Enlightenment thinkers believed that systematic thinking might be applied to all areas of human activity, carried into the governmental sphere in their explorations of the individual , society and the state . Its leaders believed they could lead their states to progress after a long period of tradition , irrationality , superstition , and tyranny which they imputed to the Middle Ages . The movement led to the rise of classical liberalism , democracy , and capitalism . </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>5. The Enlightenment Period receives modern attention as a central model for many movements in the modern period. Another important movement in 18th century philosophy, closely related to it, focused on belief and piety. Some of its proponents, such as George Berkeley , attempted to demonstrate rationally the existence of a supreme being. Piety and belief in this period were integral to the exploration of natural philosophy and ethics , in addition to political theories of the age. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>What is </li></ul><ul><li>Classicism? </li></ul><ul><li>… in the arts </li></ul><ul><li>… in Literature </li></ul>
  8. 8. Classicism in the Arts <ul><li>Refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity , as setting standards for taste which the classicists seeks to emulate. The art of classicism typically seeks to be formal and restrained. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Classicism in Literature <ul><li>Classicism is a specific genre of literature which has Greek and Roman influence </li></ul><ul><li>had an emphasis on society, the enlightenment, and the age of reason. </li></ul><ul><li>is a self-conscious reference to the idea of axiomatic logic in the creation of a discipline, and the ideals of balance, proportion and moderation. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>As a literary doctrine, classicism holds that the writer must be governed by rules, models, or conventions, rather than by wayward inspiration: in its most strictly codified form in the 17th and 18th centuries (see neoclassicism ), it required the observance of rules derived from Aristotle's Poetics (4th century BCE) and Horace's Ars Poetica . </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>is guided by admiration of the qualities of formal balance, proportion, decorum , and restraint attributed to the major works of ancient Greek and Roman literature (‘the classics’) in preference to the irregularities of later vernacular literatures, and especially (since about 1800) to the artistic liberties proclaimed by Romanticism . </li></ul>
  12. 12. What is a Classic ? <ul><li>A classic is a work of the highest class, and has also been taken to mean a work suitable for study in school classes. During and since the Renaissance , these overlapping meanings came to be applied to (and to be virtually synonymous with) the writings of major Greek and Roman authors from Homer to Juvenal, which were regarded as unsurpassed models of excellence . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Classical style in literature <ul><li>A classical style or approach to literary composition is usually one that imitates Greek or Roman models in subject matter (e.g. Greek legends) or in form (by the adoption of genres like tragedy , epic , ode , or verse satire ), or both. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>A Short Biography of Jonathan Swift </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Jonathan Swift was born in Dublin 1667 and was educated at Trinity College in Dublin. </li></ul><ul><li>Swift was seen as a man who was a sound Anglican who detested superficiality, irrationality, and humbug in religion.  Swift’s attacks on human pride were inspired by his religious beliefs that Man was a fallen being. Swift dismisses the idea that men are naturally good, and he shows little pity for weak and abject people. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Apparently Swift’s genius was often misunderstood and the morbid aspect of his nature was often exaggerated.  </li></ul><ul><li>He pours his scorn on enthusiasm, selfish passion, the workings of imagination the subtleties speculative thought, the endless toil of scholarship and scientific research, the crooked ways of politics, and especially on the vileness of the human body and the preposterous pride of the human animal. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Swift was also a considerable poet. He often ridiculed the romantics of love in his poetry, and he viewed most women as ‘beasts in petticoats.’ He was also known for light satire in his poetry. It can be excessive, ungentle, and informal: equally it can be surprisingly conventional in form and dry in tone. Its language may be robust or almost prim. One of the things that make the poems so appealing and accessible is their gusto, which comes in part from the scorn for false solemnity, self pity, and existential complaints . </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Swift was first and foremost a political writer. Swift’s satire is often a product of this relentlessly moral writer. A persistent goal of his satires is to: “educate our capacity for critical reflection on the human condition, and hence, to enlarge our capacity for humanity”. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Swift’s audience was whom he hoped to reform. He wanted to develop their venality, ignorance, vanity, pride. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Thoughts on Various Subject s by Jonathan Swift
  21. 21. <ul><li>WE have just Religion enough to make us hate , but not enough to make us love one another . </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>REFLECT on Things past, as Wars, Negotiations, Factions, and the like; we enter so little into those Interests that we wonder how Men could possibly be so busy, and concerned for Things so transitory: Look on the present Times, we find the same Humour, yet wonder not at all. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>WHEN we desire or solicit any Thing; our Minds run wholly on the good Side, or Circumstances of it; when it is obtained, our Minds run only on the bad ones. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>THE greatest Inventions were produced in the Times of Ignorance; as the Use of the Compass, Gunpowder , and Printing ; and by the dullest Nation, as the Germans . </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>THE latter Part of a wise Man's Life is taken up in curing the Follies, Prejudices, and false Opinions he had contracted in the former. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>THE Camelion , who is said to feed upon nothing but Air, hath of all Animals the nimblest Tongue. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>PHYSICIANS ought not to give their Judgment of Religion, for the same Reason that Butchers are not admitted to be Jurors upon Life and Death. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>It’s the end of the slide presentation, but it’s the beginning of illumined wisdom. </li></ul><ul><li>I hoped you have learned something. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>I hope you could be able to reflect about the thoughts presented by Jonathan Swift , and apply the values you learned in your own life. In this way, you would be pleasing to your fellowmen, and much more to God who has the genuine model of all the thoughts in the world </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>“ Be strong and courageous. Do not be afraid or terrified because of them, for the Lord your God goes with you; he will never leave you nor forsake you.” </li></ul><ul><li> Deuteronomy 31:6 </li></ul>
  31. 31. Assignment <ul><li>Literary Criticism: </li></ul><ul><li>The students are to critique the ideas implied in the epigram entitled Thoughts on Various Subjects in terms of how Swift presented man as a “fallen being.” The students should encode their answers profoundly on a sheet of bond paper. 20 pts. </li></ul>

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