Washington And Du Bois


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Washington And Du Bois

  1. 1. Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois:<br />Washington<br />Du Bois<br />The Debate Over<br />African-American Higher Education <br />
  2. 2. The Development of Black Colleges<br />I. Three types of Black CollegeS: A. Church related B. Privately Endowed C. Public D. 1854 - 1 Black College (Lincoln Univ. PA) E. 1865 - 1895 – More than 30 black colleges established in the south D. 1900 - New Growth for Black Colleges – Southern States and cities established or took over black colleges after 1900<br />
  3. 3.
  4. 4. Black College Funding<br />II. Funding Sources:<br /> A. State funding<br /> B. Church funding<br /> C. Tuition<br /> D. Northern Business<br /> E. Schools and colleges<br /> -school choirs Fisk Jubilee Singers, The <br />Moorehouse College Glee Club, later the NCCU Concert and Touring Choirs<br /> F. White phlanthropists<br /> 1. Ford<br /> 2. Rosenwald<br /> 3. Rockerfeller<br /> 4. Carnegie<br />
  5. 5. Booker Taliaferro Washington:Early Years<br />Childhood<br /> A. Born April 5, 1856 to a slave woman named Jane <br /> in Hale’s Ford, Virginia<br /> B. White father, name unknown<br /> C. Middle name Taliaferro was his master’s name <br /> (TAH-li-ver)<br /> D. Took the last name of Washington after his step-<br /> father, Washington Ferguson.<br /> E. Classified as a slave despite his heritage <br /> F. Worked in salt furnaces and coal mines in West Virginia after Emancipation<br />
  6. 6. Booker Taliaferro Washington:Education and early Adult Life<br />Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute<br /> A. Washington enrolled in 1872<br /> B. Learned the importance of self-reliance<br /> C. Became an apprentice teacher in 1876<br /> D. Left for Wayland Seminary (Washington,<br /> D.C.) in 1878 <br /> F. Returned to Hampton to teach in 1879<br />
  7. 7. Booker Taliaferro Washington:Education and early Adult Life (Continued)<br />II. Tuskegee Normal and Agricultural Institute<br /> A. Hampton president Samuel C. Armstrong recommended Washington to become the first principal at Tuskegee Institute, a similar school to Hampton in Alabama. (Washington’s home) <br />
  8. 8. Washington as a Leader:<br />President/Principal of Tuskegee Institute<br /> A. Tuskegee opened July 4, 1881<br /> B. Washington was one of the first black <br /> leaders of such an institution<br /> C. Bought a plantation in 1882 that became the permanent site of the campus<br /> C. Students literally built their school from <br /> the ground up, and raised their own food<br /> D. Both men and women learned a trade along with <br /> their coursework<br /> E. Tuskegee embodied Washington’s belief that African-<br /> Americans could become self-reliant with a little help and <br /> guidance<br />
  9. 9. Washington’s Rise to Prominence:<br />II. Political/Industrial Connections<br /> A. Washington worked and socialized with <br /> many white politicians and industry leaders.<br />Andrew Carnegie<br />William Howard Taft <br />John D. Rockefeller <br />Henry Huttleston Rogers <br />III. The 1895 Atlanta Compromise Address<br /> A. Given at the Cotton States and <br /> International Exposition in Atlanta, Georgia<br /> B. Stated that he valued "industrial“ education <br /> oriented toward the jobs then available to the <br /> majority of African Americans. <br />
  10. 10. William Edward Burghardt Du Bois: “W.E.B. Du Bois” <br />Early Life:<br /> A. Born Feb. 23, 1868 in Great Barrington, MA<br /> B. Father deserted the family in 1870<br /> C. Du Bois’s mother suffered a stroke when <br /> he was young, which prevented her from working, family gave them money to<br /> survive on<br /> D. Du Bois decided that he could improve <br /> their lives best if he got an education<br />
  11. 11. W. E. B. Du Bois<br />Education and Travels:<br /> A. Regarded as very bright and intellectual at a young age, encouraged by his teachers to further his education<br /> B. His success led him to believe that he could use his knowledge to empower African-Americans and encourage them to become educated <br /> C. Attended Fisk University, graduated in 1888<br /> D. Earned a second bachelor’s degree from Harvard University in 1890<br /> E. Received a stipend to attend the University of Berlin in 1892, traveled extensively throughout Europe and became a Marxist<br /> F. Became the first African-American to receive a Ph. D. from Harvard in 1895<br />
  12. 12. W. E. B. Du Bois<br />Academic Career and Public Service<br /> A. Taught at Wilberforce University and the University of Pennsylvania <br /> B. Later established the Sociology Department at Atlanta University <br /> C. Became a prolific author: <br />The Philadelphia Negro, The Souls of Black Folk<br /> D. Along with Booker T. Washington he helped organize the "Negro exhibition" at the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris. The exhibition aimed at showing African-Americans’ positive contributions to American society.<br /> F. Founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909 <br />
  13. 13. Du Bois’s African-American Criminology Theory <br />Three Part Theory:<br /> A. Negro crime is caused by the strain of the <br /> “social revolution” experienced by black Americans as they began to adapt to their newfound freedom and position in the nation<br /> B. Black crime declined as the African-<br /> American population moved towards a <br /> more equal status.<br /> C. The “Talented Tenth” or the "exceptional men" of <br /> the black race would be the ones to lead the race <br /> and save it from its criminal problems <br />
  14. 14. Washington and Du Bois<br />First Encounter<br /> A. Du Bois present at the Atlanta Compromise speech, and gave it its name<br /> B. Opposed the speech on the grounds that it was insufficiently committed to the pursuit of social and political equality for Blacks.<br /> C. Both sought to define the best means to improve the conditions of the post-Civil War African- American community.<br />
  15. 15. Washington and Du Bois (continued)<br />II. Beliefs and Differences:<br /> A. Washington: <br /> 1. Believed the two races should remain <br /> segregated<br /> 2. Believed assimilating and fitting into the "American" <br /> culture was the best way for blacks to move up in society<br /> 3. Saw the importance of higher education, but felt blacks<br /> should become teachers (their duty) and/or work in trades <br /> instead of confronting whites in their own world.<br /> B. Du Bois:<br /> 1. Thought blacks should seek higher education, preferably <br /> liberal arts.<br /> 2. Believed blacks should challenge and question<br /> whites on all grounds <br /> 3. Saw teaching as a calling, not a duty, the “Talented Tenth”<br /> should be the primary advocates for black rights<br />
  16. 16. Washington and Du Bois<br />Final Contributions<br /> A. Both men worked tirelessly towards the advancement of African-Americans<br /> B. Washington privately supported legal action against segregation<br /> C. Became first African- American leader to visit the White House in 1901, but died in 1915<br />from hypertension at age 59<br /> D. Dubois lived to be 96 years old, wrote 22 books (five novels) and helped establish four journals<br />
  17. 17. Washington’s funeral <br />
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