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  1. 1. Quality Circle SAIKAT GHOSH SR MGR(TQM)
  2. 2. Quality Circle <ul><li>A Quality Circle is a volunteer group composed of workers (or even students ) </li></ul><ul><li>usually under the leadership of their supervisor (but they can elect a team leader) </li></ul><ul><li>who are trained to identify, analyse and solve work-related problems </li></ul><ul><li>and present their solutions to management </li></ul><ul><li>in order to improve the performance of the organization </li></ul><ul><li>and motivate and enrich the work of employees </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>When matured, true quality circles become self-managing, having gained the confidence of management </li></ul><ul><li>. Quality circles are an alternative to the dehumanising concept of the Division of Labour, where workers or individuals are treated like robots </li></ul><ul><li>They bring back the concept of Craftsmanship, which when operated on an individual basis is uneconomic </li></ul><ul><li>but when used in group form (as is the case with Quality Circles), it can be devastatingly powerful </li></ul><ul><li>and enables the enrichment of the lives of the workers or students and creates harmony and high performance in the workplace </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Their name Quality Circles received from PDSA circles of Dr. W.Edward Deming. Quality circles were first established in Japan in 1962 </li></ul><ul><li>Kaoru Ishikawa has been credited with their creation. The movement in Japan was coordinated by the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers (JUSE). </li></ul><ul><li>The first circles were established at the Nippon Wireless and Telegraph Company but then spread to more than 32 other companies in the first year </li></ul><ul><li>By 1978 it was claimed that there were more than one million Quality Circles involving some 10 million Japanese workers </li></ul>
  5. 5. CONTOL CHART <ul><li>The control chart , also known as the Shewhart chart or process-behaviour chart </li></ul><ul><li>in statistical process control is a tool used to determine whether a manufacturing or business process is in a state of statistical control or not. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The control chart <ul><li>is one of the seven basic tools of quality control along with </li></ul><ul><li>the histogram </li></ul><ul><li>Pareto chart, check sheet </li></ul><ul><li>cause-and-effect diagram </li></ul><ul><li>flowchart </li></ul><ul><li>scatter diagram). </li></ul>
  7. 7. The control chart <ul><li>was invented by Walter A. Shewhart </li></ul><ul><li>while working for Bell Labs in the 1920s </li></ul>
  8. 9. HISTOGRAM <ul><li>In statistics, a histogram is a graphical display of tabulated frequencies </li></ul><ul><li>shown as bars </li></ul><ul><li>It shows what proportion of cases fall into each of several categories </li></ul><ul><li>it is a form of data binning. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Histograms <ul><li>are used to plot density of data </li></ul><ul><li>and often for density estimation estimating the probability density function of the underlying variable </li></ul><ul><li>The total area of a histogram always equals 1 </li></ul><ul><li>If the length of the intervals on the x-axis are all 1, then a histogram is identical to a relative frequency plot. </li></ul>
  10. 12. FISH-BONE DIAGRAM <ul><li>Ishikawa diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>also called fishbone diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>or cause-and-effect diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>are diagrams that show the causes of a certain event . </li></ul><ul><li>Common uses of the Ishikawa diagram are product design and quality defect prevention </li></ul><ul><li>to identify potential factors causing an overall effect. </li></ul>
  11. 13. Ishikawa diagrams <ul><li>Ishikawa diagrams were proposed by Kaoru Ishikawa [1] in the 1960s </li></ul><ul><li>who pioneered quality management processes in the Kawasaki shipyards </li></ul><ul><li>and in the process became one of the founding fathers of modern management. </li></ul>
  12. 14. fishbone diagram <ul><li>It was first used in the 1960s, and is considered one of the seven basic tools of quality management </li></ul><ul><li>along with the histogram </li></ul><ul><li>Pareto chart </li></ul><ul><li>check sheet </li></ul><ul><li>control chart </li></ul><ul><li>flowchart </li></ul><ul><li>and scatter diagram </li></ul><ul><li>It is known as a fishbone diagram because of its shape, similar to the side view of a fish skeleton. </li></ul>
  13. 15. The original 4 M's <ul><li>Machine (Equipment) </li></ul><ul><li>Method (Process/Inspection) </li></ul><ul><li>Material (Raw,Consumables etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Man </li></ul>
  14. 17. More categories <ul><li>Mother Nature (Environment) </li></ul><ul><li>Man Power (physical work) </li></ul><ul><li>Mind Power (Brain Work): Kaizens, Suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement (Inspection) </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Money Power </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul>
  15. 18. The 8 P's (Used In Service Industry) <ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Price </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Place/Plant </li></ul><ul><li>Product </li></ul>
  16. 19. The 4 S's (Used In Service Industry) <ul><li>Surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>Suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul>
  17. 20. Pareto chart <ul><li>A Pareto chart is a type of chart which contains both bars and a line graph </li></ul><ul><li>The bars display the values in descending order </li></ul><ul><li>and the line graph shows the cumulative totals of each category, left to right. </li></ul><ul><li>The chart was named for Vilfredo Pareto . </li></ul>
  18. 22. A simple flowchart <ul><li>A flowchart is a common type of chart , that represents an algorithm or process </li></ul><ul><li>showing the steps as boxes of various kinds </li></ul><ul><li>and their order by connecting these with arrows. </li></ul><ul><li>Flowcharts are used in analyzing, designing, documenting or managing a process or program in various fields. [1] </li></ul>
  19. 24. flow process chart <ul><li>The first structured method for documenting process flow, the &quot;flow process chart&quot;, was introduced by Frank Gilbreth </li></ul><ul><li>to members of ASME in 1921 as the presentation “Process Charts </li></ul><ul><li>First Steps in Finding the One Best Way. Gilbreth's tools quickly found their way into industrial engineering curricula. </li></ul>
  20. 25. flow process chart <ul><li>In the early 1930s, an industrial engineer, Allan H. Mogensen began training business people </li></ul><ul><li>in the use of some of the tools of industrial engineering </li></ul><ul><li>at his Work Simplification Conferences in Lake Placid , New York . </li></ul>
  21. 26. flow process chart <ul><li>Douglas Hartree explains that Herman Goldstine and John von Neumann </li></ul><ul><li>developed the flow chart (originally, diagram) to plan computer programs. [ </li></ul><ul><li>2] His contemporary account is endorsed by IBM engineers [3] and by Goldstine's personal recollections. [4] </li></ul>
  22. 27. TYPES <ul><li>[ 9] More recently Mark A. Fryman (2001) stated that there are more differences </li></ul><ul><li>. Decision flowcharts </li></ul><ul><li>logic flowcharts </li></ul><ul><li>systems flowcharts </li></ul><ul><li>product flowcharts </li></ul><ul><li>and process flowcharts </li></ul><ul><li>are &quot;just a few of the different types of flowcharts that are used in business and government. [10] </li></ul>
  23. 28. scatter plot <ul><li>A scatter plot is a type of display using Cartesian coordinates to display values for two variables for a set of data. </li></ul><ul><li>The data is displayed as a collection of points </li></ul><ul><li>each having the value of one variable determining the position on the horizontal axis </li></ul><ul><li>and the value of the other variable determining the position on the vertical axis </li></ul><ul><li>[2] A scatter plot is also called a scatter chart , scatter diagram and scatter graph . </li></ul>