Learning Objects Tesol 2010

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Learning Objects Tesol 2010

  1. 1. Using Learning Objects Effectively in the Language Classroom Yoko Sakurai: Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey Rachel Donelson: Northern Arizona Univesity
  2. 2. Overview of the presentation <ul><li>Definition of Learning Objects </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths of LOs </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses of existing LOs and our solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Our bank of LOs and its application in our classes </li></ul><ul><li>Student responses </li></ul><ul><li>Future actions and questions </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating LOs </li></ul><ul><li>Questions from the audience </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is a Learning Object? <ul><li>Usually digital </li></ul><ul><li>Small, self-contained learning chunk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains objective, short explanation, interactive activity, assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Combinable with other chunks </li></ul><ul><li>Reusable </li></ul><ul><li>Organized with metadata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(ASTD & Smartforce, 2002; Cramer, 2007) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Think of Legos (TM)
  5. 5. Example LO from a different field <ul><li>Debussy’s Sonata for Cello & Piano (1915) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.lunanova.org/DebussyCello/Debussy2004.html </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Strengths in General <ul><li>Easy to access and use both for students and teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Gives teachers flexibility in instructional approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(de Salas & Ellis, 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appeals to different learning styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meets media preferences of Generation NEXT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Promotes autonomous learning </li></ul><ul><li>Can encourage collaboration among colleagues and departments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Torres, Marriot & Ramos, 2009; Wiley, 2000). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Saves time once an LO bank is in place </li></ul>
  7. 7. Strengths for TESOL <ul><li>Exposure to authentic English </li></ul><ul><li>Language in context </li></ul>
  8. 8. Weaknesses and Challenges <ul><li>In General </li></ul><ul><li>Time-consuming to create </li></ul><ul><li>In TESOL </li></ul><ul><li>Small numbers of LOs. </li></ul><ul><li>Too much focus on games </li></ul><ul><li>Overly focused on discrete skills, rather than holistic skills </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to control vocabulary and grammatical structure </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to use authentic texts effectively </li></ul>
  9. 9. How did we respond to the perceived weaknesses? <ul><li>Time consuming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used existing online materials and turned them into LOs by adding explanation, evaluation, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Small numbers of LOs. </li></ul><ul><li>- Created our own LO bank. </li></ul><ul><li>Too much focus on games </li></ul><ul><li>- Included more diverse, productive tasks including </li></ul><ul><li>sentence and paragraph writing </li></ul><ul><li>- Included range of images, video, and music </li></ul>
  10. 10. How did we respond to the perceived weaknesses? <ul><li>Overly focused on discrete skills, rather than holistic skills </li></ul><ul><li>- More focus on writing including planning, composing, and editing </li></ul><ul><li>- Discrete skill work leads into more holistic productive practice </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to control vocabulary and grammatical structure </li></ul><ul><li>- Used small chunk from 5-15 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>- Used non-verbal input (pictures, video, music) </li></ul><ul><li>- Included links to online dictionaries </li></ul>
  11. 11. Our Repository of LOs <ul><li>This collection of Learning Objects was developed for </li></ul><ul><li>university students in an EFL setting to support writing </li></ul><ul><li>and grammar instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>http://sites.google.com/site/esllearningobjects/ </li></ul>
  12. 12. How did we use LOs in our classes?
  13. 13. Background Information <ul><li>Level: </li></ul><ul><li>Beginners- high intermediates </li></ul><ul><li>Age: </li></ul><ul><li>College students, university professors </li></ul><ul><li>Course content: </li></ul><ul><li>TOEFL preparation, grammar, communicative </li></ul>
  14. 14. As individual chunks <ul><li>1. Graded homework </li></ul><ul><li>- To reinforce target grammar items </li></ul><ul><li>- To review important grammar items </li></ul><ul><li>Remediation activity </li></ul><ul><li>Extra practice </li></ul><ul><li>Part of classroom activity </li></ul>
  15. 15. Multiple LOs combined with projects Example 1: Individual Project <ul><li>Pattern 1 </li></ul>Learning Objects (20%) e.g. Punctuation (periods) Sentence vs. Paragraph Common vs. proper nouns Vocabulary (daily activities) Writing assignment (40%) Oral presentation (40%) Learning Objects e.g. Editing Subject-verb agreement Writing assignment (1st draft) Writing assignment (final draft) Pattern 2
  16. 16. Multiple LOs combined as a whole class (55 minutes-85 minutes) Learning Object Learning Object Learning Object Learning Object
  17. 17. Student Responses Questions <ul><li>Graph 1 Did you like the LOs we used in class? </li></ul><ul><li>Graph 2 Why did you like or did you dislike the LOs? </li></ul><ul><li>I liked the LOs because… </li></ul><ul><li>the activities were different from regular class activities. </li></ul><ul><li>I liked to use a computer to learn English. </li></ul><ul><li>the activities were based on real-life English. </li></ul><ul><li>they had different types of learning activities such as listening to music, seeing pictures, watching video clips, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>I liked to use visual images to learn English. </li></ul><ul><li>I could express myself in a more creative way and/or I could learn more creatively. </li></ul><ul><li>I didn’t like them because… </li></ul><ul><li>7. I didn’t like to use a computer to learn English. </li></ul><ul><li>8. the activities were confusing. </li></ul><ul><li>9. the activities were difficult. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Student Responses (Group 1) Level: Beginners Numbers of students: 6 Graph 1 Graph 2 Did you like the LOs? Why did you like or did you dislike the LOs?
  19. 19. Student Responses ( Group 2) Level: High-beginners Numbers of students: 20 Did you like the LOs? Why did you like or did you dislike the LOs? Graph 1 Graph 2
  20. 20. Student Responses (Group 3) Level: High-intermediate Numbers of students: 63 <ul><li>Did you like the LOs? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did you like or dislike the LOs? </li></ul>Graph 1 Graph 2
  21. 21. Summary of Students’ Responses <ul><li>Regardless of their English proficiency levels, a majority of the students responded positively. </li></ul><ul><li>They liked the following aspects of LOs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different types of activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of visuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-life English (esp. high-intermediates) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Future Questions <ul><li>How can we facilitate and/or encourage departmental or institutional collaboration to make the best use of the LO bank? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we manage time? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we incorporate authentic materials into LOs effectively? </li></ul><ul><li>Could we work with publishers? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Methods of Evaluation <ul><li>Identifying an LO </li></ul><ul><li>Using an LO in class </li></ul>
  24. 24. For More Information <ul><li>ASTD and Smartforce. (2002). A field guide to learning objects. Retrieved May 12, 2009, from http://cursos.itesm.mx/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp . </li></ul><ul><li>Cramer, S. (2007). Update your classroom with learning objects and twenty-first century skills. The Clearing House, 80 (3), 126-132. </li></ul><ul><li>de Salas, K. & Ellis, L. (2006). The development and implementation of learning objects in a higher education setting [Electronic version]. Interdisciplinary Journal of Knowledge and Learning Objects, 2, 1-22. </li></ul>
  25. 25. For More Information <ul><li>Torres, P., Marriot, R. & Ramos , A. (2009). English-language teaching with learning objects at PUPCR. In R. Marriot & P. Torres (Eds.) Handbook of Research on E-learning Methodologies for Language Acquisition (pp.120-131). Hershey, PA. Information Science Reference. </li></ul><ul><li>Wiley, D. (2000). Connecting learning objects to instructional design theory: A definition, a metaphor, and a taxonomy. In David Wiley (Ed.) The Instructional Use of Online Learning Objects [Electronic version]. Retrieved May 27, 2009, from http://www.reusability.org/read/ </li></ul>
  26. 26. Images Cited <ul><li>“ Lego Castle” Retrieved 15 Feb. 2010. http:// www.mrlego.com/pub/ images/ legos/lego_castle.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>“ Lego-Bricks” Retrieved 15 Feb. 2010 http://deathbytweet.files.wordpress.com </li></ul><ul><li>/2009/09/lego-bricks.jpg </li></ul>
  27. 27. Thanks!

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