Chapter 6fg


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Chapter 6fg

  1. 1. Consumer Behavior: A Framework John C. Mowen Michael S. Minor Chapter 6: Personality & Psychographics
  2. 2. Key Concepts <ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Psychographics </li></ul><ul><li>Psychoanalytic approach </li></ul><ul><li>Trait theory </li></ul><ul><li>Self-concept </li></ul><ul><li>Product images and self-images </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic interactionism </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>VALSII </li></ul><ul><li>LOV scale </li></ul>
  3. 3. Personality. . . <ul><li>. . . is defined as “the distinctive patterns of behavior, including thoughts, and emotions, that characterize each individual’s adaptation to the situations of his or her life.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal is to identify personality variables that distinguish large groups of people from each other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual difference variables describe how one person varies from another in his or her distinctive patterns of behavior: include personality, self-concept, psychographic, and even demographic variables. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Self-concept . . . <ul><li>. . . is defined as the “totality of the individual’s thoughts and feelings having reference to himself as an object. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People have a strong need to act consistently with who and what they think they are. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People purchase products and services to build their self-image and to express themselves to others. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Psychographic analysis is . . . <ul><li>. . . the attempt to measure the life-styles of consumers. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Personality has four essential characteristics: <ul><li>Behavior must show consistency over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior should distinguish the person from others. </li></ul><ul><li>Personality characteristics are not rigidly connected to specific types of behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Personality variables often moderate the effects of other variables on behavior. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory <ul><li>Personality results from the clash of 3 forces - the id, the ego, and the superego </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The id represents physiological drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ego acts to curb the appetites of the id </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The superego is the conscience or “voice within” </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Key Issues in Psychoanalytic Approach <ul><ul><li>Basis for motivational researchers of 1950s. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Places high emphasis on symbols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phallic, ovarian, and death symbols </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Libido--sexual energy that can be released by phallic and ovarian symbols. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleasure principle: basis for functioning of id. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reality principle: basis for functioning of ego. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death wish--elicited by death symbols. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large impact on research methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>depth interviews </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>focus groups </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Trait Theory <ul><li>A trait is any characteristic in which one person differs from another in a relatively permanent and consistent way. </li></ul><ul><li>A person’s personality is described in terms of a particular combination of traits. </li></ul><ul><li>To be useful trait measures must be shown to be valid (I.e., they measure what they are said to measure) and reliable (I.e., the measures show consistency over time) </li></ul>
  10. 10. The 3M Model of Motivation and Personality <ul><li>Developed by John Mowen as a means of providing an organizational structure for understanding personality. </li></ul><ul><li>Traits organized into four levels based upon their abstraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elemental traits: most basic arising from genetics and early learning history. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compound traits: cross-situational predispositions arising from combinations of elemental traits and the cultural environment: e.g., need for activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situational traits: predispositions to act within general situational contexts: e.g., health motivation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface traits: enduring dispositions to act within specific contexts: e.g., health diet lifestyle. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Eight Proposed Elemental Traits <ul><li>Openness to experience </li></ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness </li></ul><ul><li>Extroversion </li></ul><ul><li>Agreeableness </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional stability </li></ul><ul><li>Need for material resources </li></ul><ul><li>Need for arousal </li></ul><ul><li>Need for body resources </li></ul>Note: the 3M Model proposes that humans have 4 Basic resource needs: social resources (agreeableness), Information resources (openness to experience), material Resources, and body resources.
  12. 12. Example of 3M Model: Predicting Bargaining Proneness <ul><li>Research Question: what are the elemental, compound and situational traits predictive of the surface trait of bargaining proneness? </li></ul><ul><li>The motivational network diagram on next slide shows the results for a study of over 200 adults which is reported in the book, The 3M Model of Motivation and Personality (Kluwer Academic Press, 2000). </li></ul><ul><li>As shown in the diagram, the motivational network consists of all elemental traits (except extroversion), the compound traits of competitiveness and need for information, and the situational trait of value consciousness. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Motivational Network of Bargaining Proneness Value Conscious, .30 Bargaining, .34 Arousal Body Conscient Openness Info needs, .44 Compete, .40 - - - Extrav Agree Instability Material Needs Note: numbers indicate the amount of variance accounted for in need for information, competitiveness, value consciousness, and bargaining proneness .
  14. 14. <ul><li>Additional consumer traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>coupon proneness—surface trait. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>value consciousness—situational trait. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attention to social comparison information--extent that people conform to social pressures—compound trait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tolerance for ambiguity. How comfortable someone is with new situations and products—compound trait. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for cognition. Desire for information—possibly an elemental trait. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separateness-connectedness. extent that people see their self-concept as separated from others or as connected to others—compound trait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>need for arousal—elemental trait. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>materialism—elemental trait—the importance a person places on material possessions. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Compulsive Buying as a Trait <ul><li>Defined as a chronic, repetitive purchasing that becomes a primary response to negative feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>In 3M Model is a surface trait, predicted by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impulsiveness emotional instability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Material needs low conscientiousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And introversion </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Self-Concept in Consumer Research <ul><li>The Self-concept represents the “totality of the individual's thoughts and feelings having reference to himself as an object.” </li></ul>
  17. 17. People have more than one self-concept: <ul><li>The actual self </li></ul><ul><li>The ideal self </li></ul><ul><li>The social self </li></ul><ul><li>The ideal social self </li></ul><ul><li>The expected self </li></ul><ul><li>The situational self </li></ul><ul><li>The extended self </li></ul><ul><li>The possible selves </li></ul><ul><li>The connected vs. separated selves </li></ul>
  18. 18. Symbolic Interactionism and the Self <ul><li>Symbolic interactionism views consumers as living in a symbolic environment, and how people interpret these symbols determines the meanings derived. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Self-Concept and Product Symbolism <ul><li>Products most likely to be used as symbols have three characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They must have visibility in use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The product must show variability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The product must have personalizability </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Materialism: You Are What You Own <ul><li>Materialism is the importance a consumer attaches to worldly possessions </li></ul>
  21. 21. Four (4) types of possessions help to make up our personal sense of self: <ul><li>Body and body parts </li></ul><ul><li>Objects </li></ul><ul><li>Places and time periods </li></ul><ul><li>Persons and pets </li></ul>
  22. 22. Life-Style and Psychographic Analysis <ul><li>Life-style refers to how people live, how they spend their money, and how they allocate their time </li></ul><ul><li>Life-style and personality are different, yet are closely related </li></ul>
  23. 23. The distinction between personality and life-style: <ul><ul><li>Personality refers to the internally based dispositions of the person. In contrast, life-style refers to the external manifestations of how a person lives. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychographics is the quantitative investigation of consumers’ life-styles, personality, and demographic characteristics. </li></ul>
  24. 24. AIO statements identify consumer activities, interests, and opinions <ul><ul><li>Activity questions ask consumers to indicate what they do, what they buy, and how they spend their time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest questions focus on what the consumers’ preferences and priorities are. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opinion questions ask for consumers’ views and feelings on such things as world, local, moral, economic, and social affairs. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. SRI developed two psychographic inventories: VALS and VALS 2 <ul><li>VALS is based upon motivational and developmental psychological theories particularly Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. </li></ul><ul><li>VALS 2 was developed specifically to measure consumer buying patterns. </li></ul>
  26. 26. The VALS 2 Inventory <ul><li>Goal of VALS 2 is to identify specific relationships between consumer attitudes and purchase behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Three self-identify orientations: principle oriented people, status oriented people, and action oriented people. </li></ul><ul><li>Three resource orientations: financial, psychological, and material. Based upon total number of resources, people could be categorized based upon their level of resources. </li></ul><ul><li>VALS 2 used by corporations to understand the basis for consumer lifestyles, which is useful for developing promotional strategy and even where to place retail stores such as The Sharper Image . </li></ul>
  27. 27. The List of Values (LOV) Scale <ul><li>The list of values (LOV) scale was developed to correct some of the problems of VALS. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is to assess the dominant values of a person (i.e., it does not use AIO statements). </li></ul>
  28. 28. Nine values are assessed by the LOV scale: <ul><li>Sense of belonging </li></ul><ul><li>Being well-respected </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Fun and enjoyment </li></ul><ul><li>Warm relationships with others </li></ul><ul><li>Self-fulfillment </li></ul><ul><li>Excitement </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>Self-respect </li></ul>
  29. 29. A Warning <ul><li>Psychographic inventories often result in clever descriptions of a target market that can result in stereotypes. </li></ul><ul><li>It can result in managers disparaging the target group. </li></ul><ul><li>It can cause managers to view the target market as more homogeneous than it really is. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Managerial Implications <ul><li>Position and differentiate product based upon the dominant personality or psychographic characteristic of the target market. </li></ul><ul><li>Scan the environment to identify the dominant cultural values of the target market. </li></ul><ul><li>Use market research to identify the personality, self-concept, and psychographic characteristics that distinguish the target market. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop promotions to be consistent with the dominant personality characteristics of target market. Create products that fulfill the motivational needs of target—e.g., low risk products for the low need for arousal group. </li></ul><ul><li>Use personality and psycholographics to identify segments of consumers to target, such as one-price auto dealers for low bargain prone. </li></ul>