Toward the end of my student teaching, I
was invited to compose a Language Arts
lesson and was given the freedomto select
a topic of my choice. Throughout my
experience at Winchester, I was exposed
many times to the school’s motto:
“Thinkalsoof thecomforts andrights of
Inspired by this phrase, I created a lesson
that introduced the procedures of the five
paragraph persuasive essay and
implemented a mockscholarship contest.
Going beyond the objectives listed in the
lesson plan, a main goal was to bring the
student’s attention to the actions of their
peers and also bring awareness to their own
actions as they were consciously being
observed by others.
The Persuasive Essay
PERSUASIVE ESSAY WRITING
The “Caught Being Good” Scholarship Contest
Taught by Kate Lord
The purpose of this unit is to introduce the all attributes
of 5 paragraph persuasive essay including, terms, writing
process, and purpose.
Knowledge- Recall terms associated with the persuasive
Comprehension- Classify a statement to be fact oropinion
and determines underwhich supporting topic the
statement should go.
Application- Constructs a 5 paragraph essay using all
writing tools, as explained in class.
Create- Expresses fact successfully within the 5 paragraph
essay using detailed examples and transitional phrases.
The “Persuasive Essay” handout, “Bridging the Gap”
handout, “Tree Diagram” worksheet, “Graphic Organizer”
worksheet, “Caught Being Good” assignment slip, Essay
Rubric, Scholarship and “You’ve been Spotted”
Motivational Activity: To begin, introduce the new unit to
the class by defining the word persuasive. Explain that we
will be talking about how to write a 5 paragraph persuasive
Sequence of instruction (will span 3 days): Begin day one,
by reading aloud the persuasive writing handout (see
attached). Students should highlight important terms and
points forlaterreference. Briefly go overthe “Bridging
the Gap” hand out (see attached) and transitional phrases
Once the students are familiar with the concept, introduce
the assignment (see attached). Inspired by the school’s
motto, students will choose a classmate whom the feel
“thinks also of the comforts and right of others”.
Students will compose a persuasive essay about this
outstanding peer. A “scholarship” of chance coupons will
be awarded at the close of the unit.
As a class, discuss the procedure of the tree-diagram(see
attached). Students will use this to organize theirthoughts
in the early stages of writing. Once students understand,
allow themto workindividually with the tree diagram,
brainstorming ideas about their candidate. Instructor
should observe and field any questions at this time.
On day 2, introduce how to use the graphic organizer (see
attached) with the class. The purpose of this diagramis
to prepare the students to write in paragraphs as they
expand their thoughts into sentences. Once students
understand, allow themto workindividually with the
graphic organizer, building upon theirinitial ideas from
the tree diagram. Instructorshould observe and field any
questions at this time. Packets should be collected at the
end of the period and checked forunderstanding.
On day 3, Students who are clear about the process thus
far, may handwrite a rough draft in theirwriting journal
and then type a final draft. No proof reading is necessary.
Those who need clarification can be conferenced with
before they proceed with drafting their essay.
As essays aregraded, keepatallyforthosewho werewritten
about. (Scholarships areawardedforthestudent(s) withthe
highest gradeandforthestudent(s) most writtenabout).
Take advantage of opportunities to review terms and ask
questions. “What should we include in a closing
paragraph?”, “Who can give an example of a fact?”, etc.
Observe independent workand intervene as necessary-
encourage other students to answerthe questions of their
Before students begin to draft their essay, collect packets
to read over each student’s progress and comment or
conference as necessary.
Essays will be graded using the attached rubric. Scoring is
based upon the brainstorming process and inclusion of
specific attributes of a 5 paragraph essay as discussed in
Once the essays are graded, take time to award students in
front of their classmates using the attached certificates.
To encourage discussion and boost self-esteem, the
“you’ve bee spotted” certificate can also be used forthose
who were written about at least once.
Extra Help: Encourage students to askquestions.
Students can be assisted individually as necessary.
Advancement: Students in need of more of a challenge
can edit their composition with a goal to utilize more
advanced or creative vocabulary.
Physical challenge: In the future, if motor skills are
affected, this particularstudent’s brainstorming can be
dictated to the instructor or anotherstudent to be written
down in the graphic organizer. This student may also
compose theirfinal draft using a method that is more
favorable to the student.
NL-ENG.K-12.12 APPLYING LANGUAGE SKILLS
Students use spoken, written, and visual language to
accomplish theirown purposes (e.g., for learning,
enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).
NL-ENG.K-12.4 COMMUNICATION SKILLS
Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual
language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to
communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and
PA STATE STANDARDS
1.6.5. GRADE 5 D.
Due to the student’s unfamiliarity in
persuasive writing, preparation was
extensive. I knew that in orderfortheir
final essays to be a success, we would need
to spend ample time covering the material
as a class.
The information you are about to see, was
organized into packets foreach student . I
was careful not to reveal too much at the
beginning as I did not want the size of the
project to overwhelmthem.
As we read overthe research , I instructed
the students to highlight noteworthy
information. In addition, the pace of the
unit was based on the students
comprehension of the material during
which, I answered questions throughout
and made myself available forindividual
THE PERSUASIVE ESSAY
Persuasive writing attempts to convince the readerthat the
point of view orcourse of action recommended by the
writer is valid. To accomplish this, the writermust
determine their position and support their stance with
strong facts and examples. The persuasive essay is five
paragraphs in length and is organized in a particular way;
as I will explain.
First, thinkthrough yourposition. Clearly define it.
Compose a strong “topic sentence” that will begin your
essay and declare yourposition. This sentence should be
fact based and should not be based on opinions or
On a separate sheet of paper, brainstormideas that support
yourfeelings about the topic. Highlight the three that you
feel are the strongest. These will become your“supporting
topics”. Each of these will be the focus of a paragraph in
Just as you did before, make a new brainstorming list for
each of yoursupporting topics. Again, highlight the three
that are the strongest. These are your“supportingideas”
and will be used to defend yourstance.
Thinkabout how you are going to end the essay. What
effective way can you clarify yourstated position? How can
you clearly summarize the supporting ideas? Write down
these ideas to formyour “closingparagraph”. Do not
introduce any new points at this time.
TIPS TO SUCCESS:
•Take time to formulate the sentences and organize ideas.
If the reader loses the logic of you position, you have lost
the advantage in a persuasive essay.
•Be sure to vary sentence structures so that the essay is
not one long list of reasons.
•Be sure that the supporting paragraphs explain your
ideas. Giving examples is a good technique of support.
•Do not resort to name-calling. This is never effective.
•To promote understanding, be sure that there are
transitions between paragraphs. Lookto your“Bridging
the Gap” handout for ways to use transitional phrases.
•Go backand reread the essay when you are finished. Try
to thinkof it through the eyes of someone who takes the
opposite position. Make any changes necessary.
•Be sure that there are no spelling, punctuation,
capitalization, tense, or other errors that could distract
the reader away fromthe strength of yourposition.
BRIDGING THE GAP
How transitional phrases can help make the connection
Using transitional words and phrases can help papers read
more smoothly. They provide logical organization,
understandability, and improve the connections between
Transition words indicate relationships, whether within a
sentence, paragraph, orpaper. This list illustrates
"relationships"between ideas, followed by words and
phrases that can connect them.
Inyourwriting, considerusingsomeof thewords orphrases
listedbelow, to helpblendyourthoughts into sentences and
yoursentences into well writtenparagraphs.
To put two thoughts into one sentence: also, again, as well
as, besides, coupled with, furthermore, in addition,
likewise, moreover, similarly
For demonstrating the results of action: accordingly, as a
result, consequently, forthis reason, for this purpose,
hence, otherwise, so then, subsequently, therefore, thus,
For making broad statements: as a rule, as usual, forthe
most part, generally, generally speaking, ordinarily, usually
Used when giving an example to support a thought:
chiefly, especially, forinstance, in particular, markedly,
namely, particularly, including, specifically, such as, for
example, for instance, forone thing, as an illustration,
illustrated with, as an example, in this case
To demonstrate an important point: above all, chiefly,
with attention to, especially, particularly, singularly
For making well, exceptions: aside from, barring, besides,
except, excepting, excluding, exclusive of, other than,
outside of, save
Used when rephrasing a sentence orsummarizing a
paragraph: in essence, in otherwords, namely, that is,
that is to say, in short, in brief, to put it differently
For comparing and contrasting thoughts or scenarios:
contrast, by the same token, conversely, instead, likewise,
on one hand, on the other hand, on the contrary, rather,
similarly, yet, but, however, still, nevertheless, in contrast
To wrap up a paragraph orpaper: afterall, all in all, all
things considered, briefly, by and large, in any case, in any
event, in brief, in conclusion, on the whole, in short, in
summary, in the final analysis, in the long run, on balance,
to sum up, to summarize, finally
The “Caught being good” Chance Coupon Scholarship*
Winchester’s school motto is:
Thinkalso of thecomforts andrights of others.
grade classmates, who best represents the
lowerschool in this way and why?
*Thechancecouponscholarshipwill beawardedto the
highest gradedessaybasedontherubric provided.
Rough Draft Due: Friday, November7th
Final Draft Due: Monday November 10th
stages. Its purposewas to organizethestudents thoughts and
visuallydemonstratehow eachpoint was connected.
Organize YourThoughts and Plot Key Essay Points
Topic Sentence/Opening Paragraph: Yourtopic sentence
will reveal yourposition in a fact based statement. The
remainder of this paragraph will include yourthree
supporting topics, thus, supporting yourstance.
Supporting Topics: Together, three supporting topics
create the body of youropening paragraph. Individually,
each one becomes the topic sentence for its own
Supporting Ideas: Each supporting topic paragraph should
be defended by three supporting ideas. Supporting ideas
are your“soldiers” within yourargument therefore, before
you begin writing, make a list of all ideas and choose your
strongest points. They are spread throughout youressay to
defend your stance.
Closing paragraph: Your closing paragraph is a time to
summarize and restate yourthoughts, putting an emphasis
on important points. Yourclosing paragraph is not a place
to introduce new ideas.
AftercompletingtheTreeDiagram, students wereencouraged
to transfertheirideas onto this graphic organizer. The
purposewas to preparethemforwritingparagraphs andhelp
Graphic Organizer: page 1
I felt that it was important to recognize students who were
written about. As I was grading their finished work, I
recorded each student who became the subject of their
It was interesting that during the process, the students
became very private about who they had chosen to write
about. To save anyone the embarrassment of sharing what
they felt was private, I decided to sparkconversation
amongst them. I made sure that each student ,who was
written about at least once, received the following
Naturally, each was curious about who had written about
themand I encouraged themto askaround and find out. It
was my hope that they would share with each otherwhat
they wanted to and on theirown terms.
During a short 20 minute period on the last day of my
placement, I revealed the winners of the scholarship. Four
students received certificates fortheirhigh scores and
two students were recognized for “thinking also of the
comforts and rights of others”.
The certificates were signed by my self and my two
cooperating teachers, Kay Simon and Brian Swauger. I
called the students up one by one to receive a certificate
and 25 chance coupons as their classmates and teachers
In creating the assignment portion, I was
curious to see if the students would take
the question I was asking to heart orif they
would simply write about theirfriends.
At this time, I was keen as to who was
friends with whom and was pleased with the
outcome. Many gave my provocation some
serious thought and wrote about someone
I enjoyed reading what the students had to
say about theirpeers and believe that the
writing prompt made a significant impact
on the students as a community.
The author of the following essay received a certificate for
highest score. Afterseeing this student struggle in many
subjects, I was proud to recognize herachievement.
I hope that though this experience, she attained the
encouragement to keep trying her best.
When I first approached Kay , my
cooperating teacher, about my intentions to
teach a persuasive essay unit, she guided
me in the brainstorming process with
As the unit closed, It was clearthat the
lesson that I had created surpassed her
expectations and did more than instruct the
students “how to…”
To accompany this lesson, Mrs. Simon
chose to write an observation.
At the start of my placement, the 5th
began reading The Puppeteer’s Apprentice
by D. Anne Love. Aftera few chapters, the
abilities of the students revealed the need
to divide the class into two groups.
Confident in my teaching ability, Kay
approached me about leading an advanced
reading group forthose who were able to
coverthe material at a quickerpace.
Forthe remainderof the book, I led a group
of 7 students forwhomI prepared
supplementary lessons to enhance the
existing material. Such a responsibility
went with little supervision as I
demonstrated the qualities and
characteristics necessary forthe task.
The Puppeteer’s Apprentice
The Puppeteer’s Apprentice by D. Anne Love
Adapted for Advanced Reading Group
Taught by Kate Lord
The purpose of this unit is to practice reading skills,
comprehension, and expand vocabulary as well as explore
such advanced creative writing processes such as
characterdesign and post-editing.
Knowledge- Recall vocabulary definitions and events as
they occurred in the reading
Comprehension- Explain particular events as they
occurred in the chapter
Application- Participate in class read-aloud, vocabulary,
and chapterquestion activities
Create- Compose sentences using newly acquired
vocabulary terms. Design a charactersketch base on the
bookdescription. Re-write a portion of the story in the
form of a “lost chapter”
The Puppeteer’s Apprentice by D. Anne Love, Puppeteer’s
Apprentice workbook, pen/pencil, highlighter, homework
PROCEDURE (Begins a new chapter)
Motivational Activity: Discuss necessary vocabulary words
forthe upcoming chapterby reading the word and
definitions (see example handout) in class. Defining the
word with examples should be done at this time. Continue
to reinforce vocabulary by playing “Around the Word” (see
Sequence of Instruction: Once these activities are
complete, read the chapteraloud in class. Students should
take turns reading. Allow them to read as little or as much
as they like-with some guidelines- seems to take the
pressure off of those that are uncomfortable.
During the read aloud, askquestions to challenge thinking
orsparkreflection and clarify unusual phrasing such as old
English terms ormetaphors.
When the chapter is completed, the students should
independently answerthe chapter questions that were read
at the beginning of the chapter. Forthis advanced group,
have the students write down a page numberthat
corresponds with theiranswer. These questions will be
collected and checked forcomprehensive understanding of
CharacterDesign: The purpose of this activity is to
encourage students to use the literature as a resource to
defend their thinking and can occurat any time during the
reading. Students will choose a characterfromthe book
to design and quote passages to support their decisions.
The Lost Chapter: The purpose of this activity is to
encourage critical thinking and support and advanced
level of comprehension and should occurupon completion
of the book. Students will select a chapterof the book
that they wish to change. In addition, students will
express how theirchanges would impact the rest of the
Extra Help: Allow the students to have theirvocabulary
definitions out while playing the game. Students should
go backto re-answer chapterquestions that they
Advancement: Have the students experiment with
including emotion and different voices as they read.
Chapter questions and vocabulary can be adapted to be
Physical challenge: If motorskills are affected,
vocabulary and question exercises can be adapted to be
more discussion based. The vocabulary game will also
support this student in this way. If eyesight is affected,
photocopy the chapters and workbookto enlarge the font.
NL-ENG.K-12.1: READING FORPERSPECTIVE
Students read a wide range of print and non-print texts to
build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the
cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new
information; to respond to the needs and demands of
society and the workplace; and forpersonal fulfillment.
Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and
NL-ENG.K-12.12: APPLYING LANGUAGE SKILLS
Students use spoken, written, and visual language to
accomplish theirown purposes (e.g., for learning,
enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).
PA STATE STANDARDS
1.1.5. GRADE 5 C.
1.1.5. GRADE 5 F.
1.1.5. GRADE 5 G.
1.1.5. GRADE 5 H.
1.6.5. GRADE 5 D
How to Play
Sit in a circle. Student may keep theirvocabulary
definitions in front of them- or, formore of a challenge,
tell the students to put everything away.
Begin with any student. Give this first student a
vocabulary word and askhe/she to use it in a detailed
sentence. When finished, askthe person to their left if
they “agree” or“disagree” with the sentence. Encourage
themto elaborate if the definition or usage is incorrect.
If thestudent believes that thesentenceis correct, thenthesecond
student is givenanew word. Confirmthat theresponseis correct
If thestudent feels that thesentenceis incorrect, askthestudent
to re-usethewordinasentence. Whenfinished, askthestudent
to theirleft if theyagreeordisagree, etc.
Continue in this manner until all words are used.
Point system: Fora competitive edge, students may keep
score. If the word is used correctly, add one point. If a
word is used incorrectly, deduct one point.
Extra practice: As the game is played, askthe students to
highlight the vocabulary word if they use it incorrectly.
They must use the word in a sentence forhomework.
Assessment: Homeworksentences will be collected and
The following selections represent student
workcompleted forthe supplementary
lessons that I composed forthis advanced
In creating these lessons, my objective was
to challenge the students in unique and
interesting ways. I was concerned that the
students would begin to feel that their
abilities were a burden to thembecause it
caused themto do additional work.
The experience was a success because I
created an environment that they looked
forward to. I allowed theirmature behavior
to influence ourmeetings by giving them
more of a say as to what they wanted to get
out of ourtime together. The students
were excited to read and completed my
The book“The Puppeteer’s Apprentice” by D. Anne Love
has become very popularwith children your age. Due to
this success, it has been adapted for the big screen! We
would like to begin casting the parts of Mouse, Simon, and
the Puppeteer as soon as possible and want yourinput.
As you read the book, how did you imagine Mouse’s
appearance? What did the PuppeteerorSimon looklike?
Are there other characters fromthe bookthat we should
considerincluding in the film?
Please submit yourdrawings for consideration so we can
continue to produce this next blockbuster! And remember,
details, details, details!
Afterasking this student for “more effort” on many
assignments, I was proud to see the many passages that
the had copied and highlighted to accompany his sketch.
The Lost Chapter
Now that we have finished the book, you are aware of all of
the twists and turns within the story. In youropinion, is
there anything that you would have done differently if you
were the author? Forthis final project, you will choose a
point in the story that you would like to change and
compose a lost chapter.
Remember that any changes that you make will affect the
rest of the book. How much will yourchapterchange the
book? Will the ending be the same ordifferent?
Step One: Chose the chapterthat you would like to re-
interpret. In the space below, briefly explain what happens
in the chapterand what you would have done differently.
Step Two: Briefly explain what events occurin the
chapterbefore? How will your changes affect the
Step Three: Briefly explain what events occur in the
chapterimmediately after. How will yourchanges affect
the following chapter?
Step Four: Briefly explain how yourchanges will affect
the rest of the book.
Step Five: Now you are ready to compose your lost
chapter. Remember to include the chapter that you are
changing and how it will affect the rest of the book. You
composition should be typed and at least one page in
During the course of my Advanced Reading
Group experience, I was observed by
Sharon Schurman, my University
On this particularday, we had planned to
play “Around the Word”, which was the
vocabulary game that I had created.
Sharon had an opportunity to see the
rapport that I had formed with this group
of students and the level of responsibility
that I had taken on.
Once the lesson had concluded, we were
able to meet fora few moments. As she
handed me herobservation, Sharon
admitted with a smile, “I was struggling to
find something to pickon.”
She complimented me several times before
and afterthat day on the many qualities
that she saw in me as a professional.
Throughout my 5th
grade placement, many
of the relationships that I had with the
students were strengthened through the
In general, Math was a challenging subject
forthe class as a whole and I tookthis as
an opportunity to gain theirtrust, respect,
and show the students that Math concepts
can be represented in many different ways.
I have chosen to showcase this lesson as it
represents how I am able to begin a lesson
through the use of interesting and fun
motivational activities. This lesson in
particular, required a strong rapport with
the students, which I had attained early in
my placement with 5th
Pairs with Unit 4 Lesson 4 of Houghton Mifflin
Taught by Kate Lord
The purpose of today’s lesson is to define divisibilityand
practice the “rules of divisibility”, emphasizing their
Remember- Identify the rules of divisibility
Understand- Express the importance of divisibility and
how it applies to real life
Apply- Demonstrate priorknowledge of number
operations such as addition and multiplication.
Analyze- Determine if any rules of divisibility apply to a
Evaluate- Assess a number’s divisibility by a given factor
using the rules given.
Create- Create ways to rememberthe rules without using
a “hint card.”
Instructional: 20 chance coupons and 30 “Divisibility
Rules Hint Cards” (see attachment) to accommodate 15
Students: Textbooks, workbooks, pencil and paper.
Motivational Activity: To begin, announce to the class that
they are going to play a game. Split the class up into two
groups. (The goal is to demonstrate the importance of
divisibility) Continue to formteams until one student
remains. Explain to the students that it would be unfairto
play a game with uneven teams. Since the “remainder”
can’t be divided in two, we will play later.
As the students return to theirseats, tell the students that
you have 20 chance coupons (this was their reward
system). For“being good sports”, give each student 1
coupon and cut the remaining 5 coupons into 3 pieces.
Give them out…if they want them.
Sequence of Instruction: After the coupons are
distributed, write the situation out mathematically: 15
divided by 2 and 20 divided by 15.
Instruct the students to open their books. Aska student to
read the definition fordivisibility and factor from the book.
Askanotherstudent to rephrase the definition in their own
words. Talkabout it; askquestions to checkfor
Distribute the “Divisibility Rules Hint Cards” to the
students. Call on students to read each rule aloud. Read
the word problem that is given in the book. Encourage the
students to solve the problem togetherusing the rules.
Prompt them with questions orclues as they go.
Next, write the numbers: 725, 240, 536, 360, 382, and 590
in the board. Using the rules, eliminate numbers until only
one is left. Askthe students to worktogetherin their
groups to solve this problemwhich is in theirbook. Come
backtogetherand solve the problemas a class.
•Askquestions and askstudents to re-phrase definitions
to checktheirlevel of understanding. Encourage students
to explain theirreasoning.
• During the final exercise, walkaround the roomto
observe theirthinking and see theirwork. Answer
questions at this time.
•The homeworkassignment will be collected and checked.
At the end if the lesson, assign corresponding page 25 in
At the end if the lesson, return to the scenario that began
the lesson. Askstudents to determine how many teams
we would have needed and how many chance coupons I
should have had, using the divisibility rules. In addition,
invite the class to create a way that they will remember
the divisibility rules.
Extra Help: Group workis utilized within this lesson to
support those who learn best fromtheirpeers.
Advancement: Some rules have a relationship to each other
such as, 3 and 9. Give themthe rule of 9 and askif the
numberis divisible by 3. How do they know?
Physical Challenge: At the beginning, the division of the
class can be omitted, orthe physically challenged students
can be the remainder…depending on the student’s
USE OF TECHNOLOGY-
Fun divisibility game:
Game matching divisibility rules with theirfactors:
NM-NUM.3-5.2: Understand the effects of multiplying and
dividing whole numbers; identify and use relationships
between operations, such as division as the inverse of
multiplication, to solve problems;
NM-PROB.PK-12.3: Apply and adapt a variety of
appropriate strategies to solve problems;
NM-PROB.CONN.PK-12.1: Recognize and use connections
among mathematical ideas;
PA STATE STANDARDS
2.4.5. GRADE 5 B.
2.5.5. GRADE 5 E.
2.5.5. GRADE 5 F.
During my experience with 5th
grade, I had
many opportunities to plan lessons using
the Houghton Mifflin Mathematics
curriculum. I often went beyond the
suggestions of the textbook, utilizing
various manipulatives and creating
additional worksheets as needed to support
My extra effort personalized the lesson,
making connections with current events,
school, and community.
As I collaborated with Mr. Swauger, the
importance of making each lesson
memorable was reinforced as he connected
algebraic orderof operations to a story
about his “dearAunt Sally”.
Lesson 4.4 taken fromHoughton Mifflin Mathematics textbookGrade 5
For this particularlesson, one objective was to create a
way forthe students to memorize the rules of divisibility. I
spent a bit of time researching creative limericks and
phrases, but came to the conclusion that if we really
wanted the students to own this information, they needed
to learn it in theirown way.
I created “hint cards” forthe students on heavy
cardstock. These cards could be kept on theirdesks orin
their books in the early stages.
At the end of the lesson, part of theirassignment was to
create a way that they could rememberthe rules. They
were invited to share their ideas with others as a way of
supporting their peers.
The dynamics of the 5th
expressed need fordifferentiation in
Mathematics. Brian Swaugerand I
collaborated throughout my experience,
creating ways to meet the needs of every
Teaching strategies needed to remain
flexible at all times to accommodate the
students abilities. Lesson planning was not
based on a time table, but ratherthe
demonstrated comprehension of the
Theirworksent a clearmessage of this
understanding and often times conveyed a
need forclarification. Mr. Swaugerand I
focused much of ourlesson planning on
responding to these needs.
Forthis lesson, I was observed by Sharon
Schurman, my University Supervisor. Once
the lesson concluded, there was time for
herto critique my teaching style.
I found it humorous that she was convinced
along with the students that the game was
unable to be played. I clarified (as I had at
the end of class) that there was neverreally
a game forthat day. The “flop” was part of
the introduction to the concept of
divisibility and how it can be applied to a