WT4008 08


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  • WT4008 08

    1. 1. WT4008 08
    2. 2. Hazardous Materials Safety
    3. 3. Hazardous Substances • Hazardous Substances are those which have the potential to cause harm and may include: • Substances brought directly into the work area and used/stored there. (Paints, Solvents, etc.) • Substances generated by a work activity or process. (Sawdust, fumes, etc.) • Substances generated as waste. (Smoke, Chemical By-products, etc.) • Hazardous substances can cause serious harm to people as well as the environment if their use is not carefully monitored and controlled. • Every effort possible should be made to eliminate/avoid the use of hazardous substances in the classroom wherever possible. • Hazardous substance inventories should be regularly reviewed to ensure that all stored hazardous substances are still necessary. • Or to determine if a non-hazardous substance has become available which can replace the hazardous one.
    4. 4. Where Are Hazardous Substances Found? • EVERYWHERE!! • Shops. • Farms. • Schools. • Factories. • Hospitals. • The Home. • BE VIGILANT!!!
    5. 5. Relevant Legislation • Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act 2005 as well as 2007 regulations. • General duty to manage Health & Safety in the workplace. • Also contains important guidance for the safe use of chemicals in the workplace. • Calls for an identification of all chemical hazards and an assessment of the risks that they pose. • Also calls for a preventative strategy for safely working with chemicals to be implemented. • PPE • Safe equipment • Provide safe systems of work
    6. 6. Relevant Legislation • Safety, Health and Welfare at work (Carcinogens) Regulations, 2001. • Relates to the prevention of exposure to carcinogens or mutagens while at work. • Persons responsibility for workplaces must ensure the following: • Eliminate where possible • Identify • Training • PPE • Health surveillance • Record keeping
    7. 7. Relevant Legislation • Safety, Health and Welfare at work (Chemical Agents) Regulations, 2001. • Require employers to assess the risk of any chemical agent used in the workplace and to put measures in place to remove any associated risks. • Require specific safety steps to be taken for all of the “life-cycle” steps of a chemical • Buying • Storage • Handling • Disposal
    8. 8. Safety, Health and Welfare at work (Chemical Agents) Regulations, 2001 REQUIREMENTS OF THE REGULATIONS (Employers) • Determine what hazards substances there are present in the workplace. • Assess the risk to employees posed by the presence of these substances. • Put systems in place to prevent employees becoming exposed to these hazardous substances. • Prevent exposure if possible. If not, • Provide and enforce use of PPE. • Draw up action plans for dealing with emergency situations involving the hazardous substances – Plan for worst case scenarios. • Provide training and information to all persons expected to work with or around hazardous substances.
    9. 9. Safety, Health and Welfare at work (Chemical Agents) Regulations, 2001 Employers must convey the following information to their employees: • What hazardous substances will be present in the workplace. • How employees may exposed to these hazards. • The necessary precautions employees must take to prevent exposure. • Any control measures which are in place and how to use them effectively. • What to do in the event of an accident. • The importance of reporting accidents or defects involving hazardous substances.
    10. 10. Responsibilities of Principals • Principals will: • Identify and compile an inventory of all hazardous substances used in their classrooms. • Determine if each individual hazardous substance is still required and if it can be disposed of. • Dispose of substances which are no longer required in a safe manner. • Ensure that only persons having received any special training necessary are allowed to use hazardous substances. • Ensure that all necessary PPE is available and correctly maintained. • Make sure that all necessary emergency procedures are in place for dealing with accidental exposure to hazardous substances. • Provide information and training to employees working with or in the vicinity of hazardous substances. • Make arrangements for surveillance and proper use of chemicals. • Keep records of chemicals used
    11. 11. Responsibilities of Teachers / Students • Cooperate with employer/Head Teacher/Principal • Read the label and MSDS for any hazardous substances worked with. • Read and understand any relevant risk assessment relating to particular hazardous substances. • Make full and proper use of PPE and risk control measures as outlined/ trained to do so. • Report promptly any spillages of hazardous substances or malfunctions in the hazardous substances or defects in any control measures used.
    12. 12. Further Reading For full information see the following; • “A Short Guide to The Safety, Health and Welfare at work (Chemical Agents) Regulations, 2001” HSA • Free download www.hsa.ie • Guidelines to The Safety, Health and Welfare at work (Chemical Agents) Regulations, 2001 (HSA) • Free download www.hsa.ie • See: “A Guide to the Safety, Health and Welfare at work (Pregnant Employees etc.) Regulations, 2000 (S.I. no. 218 of 2000)” • Free download at www.hsa.ie
    13. 13. Other Relevant Legislation • European Communities (Classification, Packaging, Labeling and Notification of Dangerous Substances) Regulations 2003 (S.I. no. 116 of 2003) • Regulations relating to the Manufacturing and Use of Dangerous Substances and Preparations (S.I. no. 220 of 2003) & (S.I. no 503 of 2003) • European Communities (Control of Major Accident Hazards Involving Dangerous Substances) Regulations (S.I. no. of 476 2000) & (S.I. no. 402 of 2003) • Safety, Health and Welfare at work (Pregnant Employees etc.) Regulations, 2000. (S.I. no. 218 of 2000)
    14. 14. Who Could be Exposed to the Hazardous Substance? • Consider who could potentially be exposed to the substance: • Employees • Cleaners • Visitors • Students • Pregnant Workers • Inexperienced Workers • Maintenance Persons • Security • All must be considered!!!!!
    15. 15. Consequences of Exposure to Hazardous Substances • Possible death • Asthma • Skin irritation • Cancer • Loss of Consciousness • Infection • Eye Irritation • Poisoning • Harm to internal organs • Harm to nervous system • Allergic reactions
    16. 16. Duration and Level of Exposure to Hazardous Substances. Harm may result from exposure to Hazardous Substances in two ways: 1. A once off exposure to a high concentration to a toxic substance. 2. Continuous or multiple exposures to a low concentration of a toxic substance over a long period of time.
    17. 17. Toxicity vs. Dose • The toxicity of a chemical refers to the potential of the chemical to harm you. • Certain chemicals are more harmful to you than others and are therefore deemed to be more toxic. • Dose refers to the amount of the chemical that enters your body. • A large amount of a chemical with a low toxicity rating can have the same ill effects of a small dose of a highly toxic chemical entering the body.
    18. 18. Acute vs. Chronic Effects • The harmful effect that a chemical has on a person can be either acute or chronic. • ACUTE effects happen in a relatively short period of time, sometimes after a single exposure to an offending substance. • Skin becoming badly burned and scared after coming into direct contact with corrosive substances. • Sudden & Severe • CHRONIC effects on the other hand take a relatively long time to occur, usually after repeated exposure to low concentrations of toxic substances. • Lung cancer caused by exposure to asbestos fibres usually occurs between 20 and 40 years later. • Develop over long periods of time.
    19. 19. Routes of Exposure Hazardous substances may enter the body via a number of routes: • Inhalation • Breathing in dust, fumes and vapours. • Absorption • Substance absorbed through the skin. • Ingestion • Hazardous substance is eaten – Even small amounts transferred from hand to mouth. • (They can also enter the body through the eye.)
    20. 20. Inhalation • Hazardous substances may enter the body by breathing in a gas, mist or fume of a hazardous substance. • Once inhaled, the contaminants can be deposited in the lungs or absorbed into the bloodstream
    21. 21. Absorption; Skin Contact • Many chemicals can be absorbed into the body through the skin. • Chemicals that are corrosive in their nature can cause burns and tissue damage. • While working with such chemicals: • Wear eye protection • Wear gloves • Wear Apron/ Lab coat
    22. 22. Ingestion • It can be easy to eat or swallow small quantities of Chemicals. • To avoid this from happening, • Never eat in areas where chemicals are stored, prepared or used. • Never smoke around chemicals. • Wash hands and face thoroughly with soap and hot water after working with chemicals, and especially before eating, drinking or smoking.
    23. 23. Control Measures • Where it is not reasonably practicable to eliminate a certain hazardous substance from use totally, certain control measures must be listed in the risk assessment/safety statement to make certain that the risk is adequately controlled. • Fume cupboard • Gloves • Goggles • Lab coats • Dust extraction • Spray booths
    24. 24. Control Measures • Limit quantities of stored hazardous materials • Ensure safe handling and disposal through training • Secure cupboard for storing hazardous materials • Purpose build store for flammable substances – lockable • Proper means for transporting substances • Limit number of people exposed to hazardous substances • No smoking, eating or drinking in area of hazardous substances • Clean areas that are prone to gathering of dust • Provide washing facilities • Appropriate hazard warning signs on cupboards and storage areas • Select and use adequate PPE • Draw up emergency procedures • Provide training and instruction • Obtain and provide MSDS for hazardous materials • Display hazard warning signs
    25. 25. Control Measures • ELIMINATION • SUBSTITUTION – use a safer process. • ISOLATION – prevent student access to dangerous substance. • ENCLOSURE OF PROCESS • LOCAL EXHAUST VENTILATION – Remove toxic elements at source • GENERAL VENTILATION – Fresh air • GOOD HOUSEKEEPING – Reduce accidental contact • REDUCE EXPOSURE TIME • TRAINING – In how to work safely with hazards. • PPE – last resort
    26. 26. Disposal of Hazardous Substances • It is an offence to dispose of hazardous Substances incorrectly. • Under no circumstances should hazardous substances such as chemicals or unused varnishes or oils etc. be disposed of down sinks, toilets or drains. • Waste disposal facilities in Ireland • 9 in Dublin • Athy • Cork • Fermoy • Kildare • Mulingar • Portlaoise • Shannon • tullamore
    27. 27. Chemicals • Chemicals are essential for the smooth running of everyday life both at work and in the home. • However, most chemicals are dangerous; If not respected, they can: • Catch Fire • Cause Burn • Damage one’s health • Damage Property • Damage the Environment • Chemicals are used everywhere. • Detergents • Bleaches • Drain Cleaner • Weed Killer • Paints • Solvents • Disinfectants • Adhesives • Finishes
    28. 28. Chemical Do’s & Don'ts DO DON’T • Study the label well. • Transfer chemicals into • Read and head all warnings unmarked containers. and instructions on label. • Burn aerosol containers. • Use any PPE recommended. • Use flammable chemicals • Keep chemicals out of reach close to a source of ignition. of children. • Mix different chemicals unless CERTAIN they will not react with each other.
    29. 29. The First Step • The first step to take when considering the use of hazardous materials in your classroom is to recognise the health hazards associated in using them. • If a dangerous substance must be used, it is vital to first know the following information about it: • How it effects the body if inhaled, ingested swallowed or absorbed through the skin. • Symptoms of over-exposure • The consequences of over-exposure. • Emergency actions to take.
    30. 30. Recognising Hazardous Substances • All hazardous substances should be packaged and labeled to highlight the fact that they are dangerous. • NOTE: • Not all hazardous substances will be in neatly labeled containers. For example, airborne dust generated from the machine processing of Medium Density Fibreboard • There are a number of ways for an employer to determine the nature of a hazardous substance: • Labels on the substance or its container. • The Material Safety Data Sheet of the substance provided by the manufacturer or supplier. • Guidance from the HSA and other competent Health and Safety bodies. • Technical reference sources such as technical documents and books. • The Internet.
    31. 31. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) • In order to achieve a safe and healthy working environment it is vital that teachers and students be aware of the dangers which are inherent in the materials and products which they will be using on a daily basis. • A Safety Data Sheet is a detailed document outlining all relevant health and safety information about a specific substance, as specified under the Classification, Packaging and Labeling (CPL) Regulations, S.I. No. 116 of 2003 (for substances) and S.I. No.62 of 2004 (for preparations).  • The hazards associated with certain substances can be determined by consulting the appropriate Material Safety Data Sheet.
    32. 32. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) • A Material Safety Data Sheet is a document prepared by the manufacturer, supplier or importer of a material or a substance outling, among other things, its potential hazards, safe conditions of use and any special storage considerations. • Manufacturers and suppliers are required by law to prepare or have prepared MSDSs for each hazardous substance that they produce or supply. • The distributor of a hazardous substance is solely responsible for getting a MSDS to the employer. • A copy of the MSDS should always be kept with the chemical.
    33. 33. MSDS Contents • The following information is required by law to be provided in all Material Safety Data Sheets • Name & make-up of material/substance. • Name & Location of manufacturer/Distributor. • Emergency telephone numbers. • Any pertinent safety symbols (Danger, Harmful, Flammable, etc) • Directions for safe handling & Storage. • Transport Considerations. • Routes of exposure • Exposure limits • Stability & Reactivity information • List of hazardous ingredients. • Health hazard information. • Emergency procedures/ directions. • First Aid & Fire Fighting Measures • Spill/Leak procedures. • Special exposure control requirements (PPE required) • Directions for safe disposal. • Any other relevant information.
    34. 34. MSDS in the Technologies Classrooms • The person who is responsible for the workplace is required to have an MSDS for every hazardous substance which is purchased for use by employees (teachers) or students. • If a supplier is unable to provide an adequate and up to date MSDS, USE A DIFFERENT SUPPLIER! • Should have a MSDS in the classroom for every hazardous material there. • Should be readily available. • In the event of an emergency or a query, the material’s properties or emergency procedures can be easily checked.
    35. 35. Safety Labels • Label should contain • Hazards • Risk control measures • Name of product • Contents • Name and address of • For this reason it is vital do store substances in their proper containers
    36. 36. Safety Label Legislation • Controlled throughout Europe by the • EC (Classification, Packaging, Labeling and Notification of Dangerous Substances) Regulations 1994 • EC (Classification, Packaging, Labeling and Notification of Dangerous Substances) Regulations 1995 • European Communities (Classification, Packaging, Labeling and Notification of Dangerous Substances) Regulations 2003 (S.I. no. 116 of 2003) • European Communities (Classification, Packaging, Labeling and Notification of Dangerous Substances) Regulations 2003 (S.I. no. 116 of 2003) • under these laws, labels must provide information about the hazard of the product and necessary precautions which should be taken
    37. 37. IMAGE SOURCE: “Short Guide to The Safety, Health and Welfare at work (Chemical Agents) Regulations, 2001” (HSA)
    38. 38. Hazard communication
    39. 39. Harmful (Xn) • A black cross on an orange background along with the word “Harmful” should appear on the label of a substance which may cause limited health risks if it; • Is swallowed. • Is inhaled. • Penetrates the skin.
    40. 40. Irritant (Xi) • The same symbol that is used for “Harmful” substances but with the word “Irritant” used instead denotes a substance which may cause inflammation and reddening of the skin through immediate, prolonged or repeated contact with the skin or eyes.
    41. 41. Very toxic (T+) Toxic (T) • The skull and crossbones indicates a substance with a much higher degree of danger than those described as being “harmful”. • Such substances are toxic by inhalation, ingestion and contact with the skin. • Often are Carcinogenic.
    42. 42. Corrosive (C) • This symbol along with the word “Corrosive” warns of substances that may destroy tissue immediately upon contact; • Human skin • Animals • Wood • These chemicals may burn the skin and eyes. • Inhalation of corrosive substances will burn the lining of the nose, throat and lungs.
    43. 43. Extremely flammable (F+) Highly flammable (F) • A flame on an orange background denotes substances that are flammable. • Vapors from such substances will catch fire in the presence of a flame or spark
    44. 44. Oxidising (O) • The “flaming O” symbol on an orange background denotes oxidising substances. • These substances react exothermically with other chemicals releasing a lot of heat in the process. • Oxidizers can promote or initiate combustion in other materials either by causing a fire themselves or releasing oxygen, making fire more likely.
    45. 45. Explosive (E) • Some chemicals are hazardous because of their ability to rapidly release large amounts of energy. • This symbol along with the word "explosive" denotes a substance which may explode when exposed to a flame or if subjected to shocks or friction.
    46. 46. Dangerous for the Environment (N) • This hazard symbol must be used in the labeling of nature polluting substances.
    47. 47. Hazard Substance Emergencies • Make sure info is available – MSDS • Practice of emergency drills • Emergency services information • Info on procedures for safe cleaning up and removal of hazardous substances • If there is an accident involving a hazardous substance, bring the MSDS and the label/container. • A sample of the substance will be a great help to the emergency room
    48. 48. Storage of Hazardous Materials • Store hazardous substances in accordance with manufacturers instructions. • Storage should prevent unauthorised access to hazardous substances. • Should be stored separately so as to avoid incompatible materials coming into contact with each other • Adequate Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV) should be provided. • Emergency procedures should be in place in case of a spill or accident. • Eye wash station – eye irrigation • Pre prepared spill kits should be available • Reduce risk of physical damage of containers • Prevent chemicals from being mixed or spilled • Use information from the supplier and the package label to decide storage arrangements.
    49. 49. Storing Flammable Liquids • Store in a secure area away from heaters, lights and any combustible materials such as sawdust, wood, paper. • Ensure that smoking is prohibited. • Keep away from naked flames, heat and other sources of ignition. • Do not store close to where welding or other hot work will take place. • Volume of stored flammables should be kept to an absolute minimum. • Containers and storage should be appropriately labeled • “highly flammable” • Keep storage canisters locked away • Transfer flammable liquids between different canisters outdoors. • Ensure Adequate ventilation exists.
    50. 50. Wood Dust • In bulk, wood is not likely to be classified as a health hazard. • When machined and worked, some of the wood is broken down into tiny dust particles: A SEVERE HEALTH HAZARD. • For years, wood dust was considered to be a nuisance and irritation to the throat eyes and nose rather than a hazard. • Recently has been identified as having much more devastating effects. • A study observed that a large number of sawmill workers developed a rare form of nasal cancer (adenoccarcinoma) (Demers et al, 1995) • Highest seems to be those who work with those exposed to hardwoods; beech, oak, etc. • Cancer may take more than 20 years to develop.
    51. 51. Dust Hazards SKIN • Irritation • Dermatitus caused by chemicals in the wood. The skin becomes red, itchy and dry – blisters may develop • Allergic dermatitus is most frequently caused by tropical hardwoods such as rosewood and mahogany. NOSE • Nose obstruction and irritation and rhinitis • Asthma • Runny Nose. • Impared sense of smell. • Nosebleeds. • Hardwood and MDF dust has been classified by the International Agency for Cancer Research (IARC) as being carcinogenic – promotes cancer – especially Nasal cancer See “Occupational Asthma, An Employees’ Guide” (HSA) Free download at
    52. 52. Dust hazards LUNGS • Impairment of lung function • Decreased lung capacity • Occupational asthma • First signs are seen late night • Similar to the effects of an oncoming cold • Runny nose and eyes • Dry cough • Irritated eyes • Narrowing of the airways. - breathlessness • Allergic reactions within the lungs EYES • Soreness • Watering • Conjunctivitis • Mucous membrane of the eye becomes inflamed. OTHERS • Headaches • Giddiness • Breathlessness • Cramps
    53. 53. HAZARD: Explosion • Fine wood dust is considered to be explosive. • Small concentrations of dust particles in the air can form a mixture that will explode if ignited. • Usually occurs in dust extraction equipment. • Wood dust will also burn freely if ignited. • Even a small explosion may lead to a fire starting • Source of ignition • Badly maintained equipment may spark • Hot work such as Welding sparks • Electrical sparks. • Solution; • Locate dust collection points outside where possible • Regular housekeeping to avoid the accumulation of dust. • Avoid using compressed air to clean up.
    54. 54. Occupational Exposure Limits (OEL) • Occupational Exposure Limit Values are available for many hazardous substances. • An OELV is the time-weighted average of the concentration of a hazardous substance in the workplace over an 8-hour period. • Code of practice (2002) associated to the Safety, Health and Welfare at work (Chemical Agents) Regulations, 2001, lays down exposure limit values for over 700 chemicals (and also how to measure them) • An Occupational Exposure Limits (OEL) is the concentration of a hazardous substance in the workplace air which most people can be exposed to without any negative effects. • These limits are not so much sharp dividing lines as guidelines. – Different people will react in different ways to exposure levels. • Employers must ensure the exposure levels are not exceeded (and are below recommended levels as much as possible) • Wood dust hard and soft, have been assigned occupational exposure limits (OELVs) • Respirable dust = diameter <10um – lets the dust penetrate deeply into the lungs and penetrate the small cavities therein.
    55. 55. Medium Density Fibreboard • MDF is a highly useful and versatile material and is commonplace in most technology classrooms around the country. • However, MDF usually produces a very fine dust when worked, especially when machined using high speed machinery. • The use of MDF and hardwoods should be eliminated in the technologies classrooms where possible.
    56. 56. Control of Exposure • Exposure is related to the density of the wood and the type of work being performed – sanding and machining – very fine dust - Greater exposure risk • Freshness of wood also effects exposure - dryer woods tend to produce more dust. • Keeping exposure below OEL values can be achieved in a number of ways: • Alter process so dust is no longer generated or the quantity thereof is greatly reduced. • Ensure proper maintenance of dust extraction systems • Totally enclose the process to prevent dust entering the classroom environment. • Remove dust at source as soon as it is generated and before it can enter the classroom atmosphere • Use correctly designed ventillation systems • As a last resort, use PPE in the form of respiratory protection.
    57. 57. Circular M45/01 – Wood dust extraction at second level • Circular letter M45/01 • The Department of Education and Science (DES) has investigated ways of controlling airborne dust in technologies classrooms. • D.E.S. introduced a scheme allowing second level schools to apply for funding for dust extraction for various woodworking machines. • Chance for schools to avail of grants for fitting dust extraction systems to their machinery.
    58. 58. Dust Extraction • Circular letter M45/01 outlines 4 specific machines that are considered to be a significant dust hazard. • Band Saw • Sander • Circular Saw • Planer/Thicknesser • All of the above should be fitted with dust extraction. • NOTE; A sander in the teaching area MUST NOT be fitted to a centralised extraction system • Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV) must be used in the form of individual extraction units. • Dust is collected at source as it is generated. • Sweep up points should not be used *As stated in Circular Letter
    59. 59. Portable dust extraction • Portable dust extraction units are often used on machines such as sanders. • Also useful for portable tools such as routers and when a centralised extraction system is not possible. • Local system • Collection of waste occurs adjacent to the machine – as it is generated