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Hse First Aid, Cpr


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Hse First Aid, Cpr

  1. 1. FIRST AID / CPR
  2. 2. First Aid Awareness <ul><li>What is First Aid: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Aid is the assistance or treatment given to a casualty for any injury or sudden illness before the arrival of an ambulance or qualified medical expert . It may involve improvising with facilities and materials available at the time. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aim of First Aid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Aid treatment is given to a casualty in order: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To preserve life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To prevent the condition from worsening </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To promote recovery </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. P rotect - E xamine - A lert <ul><li>You must assess the situation and </li></ul><ul><ul><li> 1-Protect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2-Examine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3-Alert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only after having performed these 3 steps will you actually provide First Aid. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. 1 - Protect <ul><li>Protect yourself and the injured person </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid another accident by eliminating the cause: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn-off the electricity to equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have someone control traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep bystanders away from the scene of the accident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinguish fire if possible without putting yourself in danger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect yourself against blood borne pathogens (AIDS, Hepatitis) </li></ul></ul>Break the circuit
  5. 5. 2 - Examine the victim <ul><li>A- Look for severe external bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>B- Check for responsiveness and unconsciousness </li></ul><ul><li>C- Check for breathing </li></ul><ul><li>D- Check for circulation/pulse </li></ul>BRBC
  6. 6. 2 - Examine <ul><li>A - Look for severe external bleeding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of blood may be fatal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arterial bleeding from the femoral artery can cause death in two minutes! </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 2- Examine <ul><li>B - Check For Responsiveness/ Unconsciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Ask simple questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Can you hear me?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Give simple orders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Press my hand.” </li></ul></ul>If there is no reply and no response, the victim is unconscious.
  8. 8. 2 - Examine <ul><li>C - Check For Breathing: </li></ul><ul><li>Look - Listen - Feel </li></ul>
  9. 9. 2 - Examine <ul><li>D - Check Circulation/Pulse </li></ul><ul><li>Check the pulse at the neck = carotid pulse </li></ul><ul><li>Finding the carotid pulse: </li></ul>a b Pulse c
  10. 10. 3 - Alert <ul><li>Call for assistance or have someone alert the emergency medical service rapidly. Always provide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your Name, Exact location of the accident / incident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of Accident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name / Number of injured personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of injuries (fractures, burns, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condition of the injured personnel injuries (breathing or not, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First Aider Present? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What first aid has been given </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone number where you can be called </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not hang up until you are sure that the person at the other end has all the info and have them repeat the address to send assistance. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Treat the victim <ul><li>1- Control Blood Loss </li></ul><ul><li>2- Open the Airway </li></ul><ul><li>3- Give Artificial Ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>4- Give External Chest Compressions (ECC) </li></ul><ul><li>5- Place in the Recovery Position </li></ul><ul><li>6- Keep under Observation </li></ul>
  12. 12. 1-Treating: Control Blood Loss <ul><li>A- For important but non-complicated external bleeding: </li></ul><ul><li>Apply direct pressure on the wound. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid direct contact with blood (gloves, gauze, handkerchief, etc.) </li></ul>
  13. 13. 1 - Treating: Control Blood Loss <ul><li>B- For important and complicated external bleeding (associated with a fracture or foreign body): </li></ul><ul><li>use indirect pressure . </li></ul><ul><li>This requires applying pressure </li></ul><ul><li>to the appropriate pressure point . </li></ul><ul><li>Brachial pressure point = Inner part of the upper arm </li></ul><ul><li>(Used to stop bleeding in hand, forearm and arm) </li></ul><ul><li> Femoral pressure point = Groin </li></ul><ul><li>(Used to stop bleeding in thigh, leg, foot) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Brachial Femoral
  14. 14. <ul><li>Circulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arterial system </li></ul></ul>Carotid cut death in less than 1mn. femoral cut death in less than 2mn.
  15. 15. 1 - Treating: Control Blood Loss <ul><li>C- TOURNIQUET </li></ul><ul><li>Place a Tourniquet ONLY if: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bleeding is profuse and the pressure point is ineffective or impossible to achieve. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You are alone and cannot apply a pressure point and perform CPR at the same time. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is no other choice as in the case of an amputated limb. </li></ul></ul></ul>Lay the injured person down. Note the time at which the tourniquet was placed, and write it on his forehead. NEVER REMOVE A TOURNIQUET ONCE IT HAS BEEN PLACED .
  16. 16. 2 - Treating: Opening the airway <ul><li>If casualty is unconscious </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free the airway by using the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver. This places the tongue so as to open the airway. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BEFORE (airway closed) AFTER (airway open) </li></ul></ul>Airway Tongue
  17. 17. 3 - Treating: Artificial ventilation <ul><li>Mouth to mouth or mouth to nose 12 to 15 inflation's per minutes (adult) </li></ul><ul><li>Check to make sure that the chest is rising </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>No pulse = No heart beat </li></ul><ul><li>External Chest Compressions must be delivered to keep the blood circulating </li></ul><ul><li>Without a proper blood supply to the brain, DEATH results in 3 minutes! </li></ul>4 - Treating: External Chest Compressions
  19. 19. 4 - Treating: External Chest Compressions <ul><li>Locating the External Chest Compression site: </li></ul><ul><li>Center of the breastbone </li></ul>External Chest Compression is very dangerous on a person who has a normal heart beat. Only practice external chest compression on a mannequin .
  20. 20. 4 - Treating: External Chest Compressions <ul><li>Use the heel of </li></ul><ul><li>the hand for ECC </li></ul>Deliver compressions straight down Lungs Heart
  21. 21. 4 - Treating: External Chest Compressions <ul><li>ECC = 60/80 compressions per minute (adult) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Treating: CPR <ul><li>Artificial Ventilation + External Chest Compression = Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation or CPR </li></ul><ul><li>CPR is required when there is: No breathing + No carotid pulse </li></ul><ul><li>Once started, CPR must be continued until emergency medical services arrive or until the victim’s heart starts up again. </li></ul><ul><li>If spontaneous breathing has also restarted = keep under observation </li></ul><ul><li>If spontaneous breathing has NOT restarted = continue Artificial Ventilation and check pulse regularly </li></ul>
  23. 23. Treating: CPR <ul><li>CPR (External Chest Compressions + Artificial Ventilation) can be done by one or two first aiders: </li></ul><ul><li>If two first aiders : 5 ECC for 1 Artificial ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>If one first aider : 15 ECC for 2 Artificial ventilation </li></ul>
  24. 24. 5 - Treating: The Recovery Position <ul><li>For the unconscious casualty who is breathing and who has a pulse. Prevents obstruction of the airway by saliva or the tongue. </li></ul>1 3 2
  25. 25. 6 - Treating: Keep under observation Check breathing and pulse every few minutes Cover the victim with a blanket to keep him warm and avoid shock Stay with the victim until emergency services arrive
  26. 26. Other Basic Things To Know <ul><li>Other Injuries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fractures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moving the Casualty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Choking = Airway obstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Requires the Heimlich Maneuver </li></ul>Other Injuries = Choking
  28. 28. <ul><li>Thermal & Chemical Burns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carefully remove clothing, especially when chemicals are involved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cool the burnt area with cold water or other non-inflammable liquid (milk, etc.) for at least 10 minutes. </li></ul></ul>Other Injuries = Burns
  29. 29. Other Injuries = Fractures <ul><ul><li>Immobilize the fractured limb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immobilize the head if a fracture of the neck is suspected </li></ul></ul>Whenever possible, never move an injured person before immobilization of fractured bone.
  30. 30. Other Injuries = Bites <ul><ul><li>Snake bites and Scorpion stings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immobilize entire limb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calm the victim </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advise the victim not to move </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transport to medical facility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not cut or suck wound </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-snake venom should only be given by a doctor. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Moving a casualty urgently - When ? <ul><li>When? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only when the life of the injured person (and sometimes of the rescuer) is in greater danger. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Moving a casualty - How ? <ul><li>1- If you are alone and there is a flat surface ; </li></ul><ul><li>The foot drag </li></ul>
  33. 33. Moving a casualty - How ? <ul><li>2- If you are alone and there are obstacles on the ground = </li></ul><ul><li>The wrist drag </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>3- If you are alone and need to </li></ul><ul><li>get the victim out of a vehicle. </li></ul>Switch off ignition. Look at the car damage. It will indicate how severely the person is injured. Moving a casualty - How ?
  35. 35. Moving a casualty - How ? <ul><li>4- If more than one first aider = Move as a block </li></ul>Always ask yourself if it is really necessary to move the injured person ?
  36. 36. <ul><li>FIRST AID / CPR Quiz </li></ul>