AICP Prep Course - Transportation Planning


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This is the transportation planning module I developed for the Suncoast Section of the Florida APA's AICP prep course. I deliver it each March to help new professionals prepare for the exam.

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  • The Art & Science of Transportation Planning: Modeling, Jargon, and Other Technicalities
  • How Did We Get Here? A Historical Roadmap of U.S. Transportation Policy Top: photograph taken sometime between 1955 and 1961 showing Florida Governor LeRoy Collins and President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Photographer unkwown. Photograph courtesy of Florida Photographic Collection. Bottom: 1959 photograph entitled “Aerial view [of] an interstate highway: Polk County, Florida.” Photographer unknown. Photograph courtesy of Florida Photographic Collection.
  • How Did We Get Here? A Historical Roadmap of U.S. Transportation Policy Top: Detail of 1956 photograph captioned, “Sign along Highway 40, now Interstate 70, St. Charles County, Missouri.” Photograph courtesy of the Missouri Department of Transportation and National Museum of American History. Bottom: AAA map of the interstate and turnpike system nationwide, 1959. Image courtesy of AAA and the National Museum of American History.
  • How Did We Get Here? A Historical Roadmap of U.S. Transportation Policy Top: 1960 photograph entitled “Aerial view of Florida Highway 25, under construction: Miami, Florida.” Photographer unknown. Photograph courtesy of Florida Photographic Collection.
  • How Did We Get Here? A Historical Roadmap of U.S. Transportation Policy
  • How Did We Get Here? A Historical Roadmap of U.S. Transportation Policy
  • How Did We Get Here? A Historical Roadmap of U.S. Transportation Policy
  • How Did We Get Here? A Historical Roadmap of U.S. Transportation Policy
  • How Did We Get Here? A Historical Roadmap of U.S. Transportation Policy Left: Washington, D.C., protest poster, drawn by Sammie Abbott, late 1960s. Image courtesy of D.C. Community Archives, ECTC Collection, Washingtoniana Division, D.C. Public Library, and the National Museum of American History.
  • AICP Prep Course - Transportation Planning

    1. 1. Transportation Planning Alex Bond, AICP March 27, 2010
    2. 2. Transportation Planning: Art or Science? <ul><li> ART </li></ul><ul><li>Decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Community vision </li></ul><ul><li>Public Involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Politics </li></ul><ul><li> SCIENCE </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Forecasting </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic counts </li></ul><ul><li>Level of service </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul>
    3. 3. Federal/State/Local Partnership <ul><li>FEDERAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Transit Administration (FTA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Railway Administration (FRA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>STATE Departments of Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>LOCAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) in urban areas for Federal $$ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities and counties for local funds </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Federal-Aid Highway Act – 1956 aka Interstate Highway Act <ul><ul><li>Created National System of Interstate and Defense Highways – master plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy to link all cities greater than 50,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>41,000 mile system approved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created the Federal Highway Trust Fund </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gas taxes went into fund </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excise taxes from 1932 went into general fund </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. The Interstate Highways Program <ul><li>Choice of routes was left to the states </li></ul><ul><li>State highway depts flush with cash </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinated planning required for first time </li></ul><ul><li>States pay 10% </li></ul>
    7. 7. Problems with Top-down Planning <ul><li>Conflicts arise between states and local government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities were bypassed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities bulldozed or divided </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underrepresented people bear burdens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cities (and counties) sought a voice in route choice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Morphed existing regional bodies into early MPOs </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>The Creation of MPOs: The 1973 Highway Act </li></ul><ul><li>Mandated MPOs for urban areas of over 50,000 in population </li></ul><ul><li>Required MPOs to approach transportation planning in a multi-modal manner </li></ul><ul><li>Surface Transportation Act – 1982 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some of the federal gas tax money goes to transit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80/20 split roads to transit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation of politics from transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moves non-Interstates to 80-20 split </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. ISTEA: Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 <ul><li>Changed the lines of authority and responsibility for transportation planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed for flexibility of Federal dollars by mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established more stringent guidelines for the planning process: 3-C process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funded MPO operation with 1% off-the-top takedown (PL Funds) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creates a mass transit account of the HTF. Transit moved from HUD to DOT </li></ul><ul><li>“ TEA” bills must be reauthorized every 7 years </li></ul>
    10. 10. TEA-21 (1998) and SAFETEA-LU (2005) <ul><li>Transportation Equity Act for the 21 st Century </li></ul><ul><li>Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act- a Legacy for Users </li></ul><ul><li>Generally preserved the planning and funding system established under ISTEA </li></ul><ul><li>Modest changes to law, big increases in spending </li></ul><ul><li>SAFETEA: $256 Billion </li></ul>
    11. 11. Public Transit Legislative History <ul><li>Prior to 1960: Most transit is privately owned </li></ul><ul><li>First federal planning and capital support for transit comes in the 1961 Housing Act </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1964 creates Urban Mass Transit Administration within HUD </li></ul><ul><li>Transit moved to USDOT in 1982 </li></ul><ul><li>Transit included in MPO plans by ISTEA, Made FTA by TEA-21 </li></ul>
    12. 12. Civil Rights and Environmental Protection Reforms <ul><li>Civil Rights Act of 1964 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandated nondiscriminatory conduct in all federally-supported programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Justice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandated consideration of environmental impacts </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act (SAFETEA-LU) <ul><li>CORE PROGRAMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Highway System (NHS) Interstate Maintenance Program (IM) Bridge Program Surface Transportation Program (STP) Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transit Capital Grants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transit Operating Assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>104 other minor programs! </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Funding Sources <ul><li>Federal FY 2009: $70.3 Billion </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FHWA Funding - $42.2 Billion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transit (FTA) Funding - $9.4 Billion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>18.4 cents/gallon fuel tax </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General fund revenues now required </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Private funds leveraging </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Florida DOT Annual Budget- $6.2 Billion </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>22 cents/gallon fuel tax </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Local sources of funding: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local Option Gas Taxes (6-14 cents) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impact Fees </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Federal Planning Factors
    16. 16. Air Quality <ul><li>Attainment </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Attainment </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Pollutants tracked: Ozone, CO, PB, Particulate </li></ul><ul><li>Non-attaiment/Maintenance = CMAQ money </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone standards are tightening and 70% of the US will fall into non-attainment </li></ul>
    17. 17. Roadway Classifications <ul><li>Arterial </li></ul><ul><li>Local Road </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Access Highway </li></ul><ul><li>Collector </li></ul>
    18. 18. Level-of-Service <ul><li>Free-flow </li></ul><ul><li>Reasonably Free-flow </li></ul><ul><li>Stable Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Borderline Unstable </li></ul><ul><li>Breakdown </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely Unstable </li></ul><ul><li>Prepared for the US DOT Bureau of Transportation Statistics by the MIT Department of Urban Studies and Planning </li></ul>
    19. 19. Peak Hour Demand
    20. 20. Travel Demand Modeling <ul><ul><li>“ 4-Step Modeling Process” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mode </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assignment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ)- geographic areas for analysis purposes </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Metropolitan Planning Organizations <ul><li>A regional transportation planning agency </li></ul><ul><li>Plans and prioritizes transportation improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Performs 3-C Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must exist to receive Federal money in areas with more than 50,000 people </li></ul>
    22. 22. Documents Adopted by MPOs <ul><li>Prepare a Long Range Transportation Plan (LRTP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At least 20 years in length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost Feasible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prepare a Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four to five years in length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List of projects to be built </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draws from LRTP pool </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unified Planning Work Program (UPWP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget and workflow document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultant vs. In-house work balance </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Narrowing the Project Pool All projects 20 years 5 years
    24. 24. State vs. MPO
    25. 25. Frequently Encountered Terms <ul><li>State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP)- The four-to-five year work program for the state DOT. Urban areas programmed by MPO, rural by DOT, toll roads by toll authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Capital Improvement Program (CIP) – Local government transportation plan. No federal, minimal state money involved </li></ul><ul><li>State Implementation Plan (SIP) – Air quality document for entire state </li></ul>
    26. 26. Frequently Encountered Acronyms <ul><li>MPO- Metropolitan Planning Organization </li></ul><ul><li>NAAQS- National Ambient Air Quality Standards </li></ul><ul><li>VMT- Vehicle Miles Travelled </li></ul><ul><li>ITS- Intelligent Transportation Systems </li></ul><ul><li>TDM- Transportation Demand Management </li></ul><ul><li>LOS- Level of Service </li></ul><ul><li>PD&E- Project Development & Environmental </li></ul>
    27. 27. Current Trends <ul><li>Public Private Partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Congestion Pricing/Tolling </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent Transportation Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation Demand Management </li></ul><ul><li>Freight and goods movement </li></ul><ul><li>VMT-based Taxation </li></ul>
    28. 28. Important Historic Moments <ul><li>Grand Central Station: Built 1903-1913 </li></ul><ul><li>Boston builds first subway: 1897 </li></ul><ul><li>Off-street parking regulation: Columbus, OH 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Access Freeway: Bronx River Parkway, Westchester, NY built by Robert Moses in 1926 </li></ul><ul><li>Los Angeles County Freeway Plan (1943) </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago Area Transportation Study (CATS) 1955 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divides city into TAZs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First to use 4-step model </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Question 1 <ul><li>Which of the following refers to the estimation of the number of vehicles that will travel from one particular place to another place? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trip Distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trip Generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trip Assignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modal-split </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Answer 1 Answer: B. Estimating the number of trips that will originate in a particular residential area is called trip generation. A modal-split estimates the number of automobile, bus, train, and bicycle trips in a particular area. Trip assignment predicts how trips will be distributed among alternate routes.
    32. 32. Question 2 <ul><li>LOS C at a signalized intersection means: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly stable flow, but speeds and maneuverability are somewhat constricted by the volume. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free flow, with low volumes and high speeds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unstable flow, near roadway capacity, limited speed, very long delays. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very low speeds, volumes greater than capacity, frequent stoppages. </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Answer 2 Answer: A. Answer B describes LOS A. Answer C describes LOS E. Answer D describes LOS F. LOS B is described as having stable flow, speed somewhat restricted, short delays, and LOS D is described as unstable flow, tolerable but fluctuating operating speed, long delays.
    34. 34. Question 3 <ul><li>Each of the following arguments is used in favor of increased funding for public transit EXCEPT: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air quality will improve. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic congestion will decrease. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public transit systems will become self-sustaining. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It will lead to more compact land-use patterns. </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Answer 3 Answer: C. Public transit systems, like most transportation systems including road networks, are rarely self-sustaining and are generally heavily subsidized by government.
    36. 36. Question 4 <ul><li>This identifies the proportion of trips in an area that will occur by automobile, transit or bicycle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trip Distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISTEA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3-C Planning Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modal Split </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Answer 4 Answer: D. In transportation planning, the mode refers to the type of vehicle used for conveyance.
    38. 38. Question 5 <ul><li>Which of the following is a geographic unit used in travel demand modeling? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urbanized area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>County </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MPO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic Analysis Zones </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Answer 5 Answer: D Traffic analysis zones are geographic units that divide a planning region into similar areas of land use. The other options are all geographic subunits, but are not used in travel demand modeling.
    40. 40. Question 6 <ul><li>The Federal Highway Act of 1956 : </li></ul><ul><li>Included funding for scenic byways and historic preservation </li></ul><ul><li>Was the largest U.S. public works program ever undertaken at the time </li></ul><ul><li>Established a 41,000 mile limited-access road network </li></ul><ul><li>Required that infrastructure should not cause unnecessary destruction to the environment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I and IV </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>II only </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>II and III </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I, II, III, and IV </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Answer 6 Answer: C. The Federal Highway Act of 1956, also known as the National Defense Highway Act, resulted in the interstate highway system. Historic and scenic roadways were not considered until the 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act. ISTEA included funding for scenic byways and historic preservation. Environmental laws began with the 1969 National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA). Stronger environmental reviews stem from NEPA and ISTEA.
    42. 42. Alex Bond, AICP Center for Urban Transportation Research University of South Florida CUTR Room 130 (813) 974-9779