Jean Marc Presentation 13th October


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Jean Marc Presentation 13th October

  1. 1. Shade coffee in East Africa: What’s in it for farmers and biodiversity? Jean-Marc Boffa
  2. 2. Background: Global coffee sector • Decline of world prices (25% of 1960 prices in real terms) • Oversupply and stagnant consumption • Market deregulation (breakdown of quality control, input systems on credit, coffee quality) • Trading and roasting segments more concentrated and capture higher proportion of profits • Farmers get a declining share of coffee market value • Quality, a secure investment for restoring value • Growing specialty coffee segment, 17% of volume and 40% of value of US coffee market
  3. 3. Coffee in East Africa • Rapid development from 1930s to 1980s (new cultivars, state intervention, abundant land). 24% of African exports in mid 1980s • Global coffee crisis, liberalization of coffee sector, age and productivity decline of coffee plantations. 11% of African exports in late 1990s • Coffee >50% of current export earnings in Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Rwanda and Uganda. 30%, 3rd export crop in Kenya. • East and Central Africa is 4th largest growing area; estimated 1.2 million farmers and 4 million ha of land • Growing interest in and development potential of East African coffee renowned for its natural quality
  4. 4. Why an interest in shade coffee? • Small landholdings, declining soil fertility, labor scarcity, unaffordable inputs. Intensive production models unfit for smallholder systems. • Need for higher profitability, income stability, lower risk through diversification, environmental friendliness, and enhanced quality for the market. • Renewed interest on shade systems and their contributions to coffee quality and profitability, environmental sustainability, and diversification.
  5. 5. Outline of presentation 1. Impact of tree shade on coffee production 2. Relations between shade and coffee quality 3. Potential benefits of shade coffee for smallholders in East Africa 4. Shade coffee and biodiversity conservation Not covered are issues of carbon sequestration and water
  6. 6. Coffee’s native habitat • Naturally found as under/midstorey forest plant • Coffea arabica, understory shrub in • Coffea canephora, midstorey tree, Ethiopian tropical montane forests lowland Congo river basin, • 1600-2800m; mean 20ºC; 1600-2000mm • 0-1200 m altitude, mean 25ºC, rainfall up rainfall; to over 2000 mm over 9-10 months and • 3-4 month dry cool season high constant air humidity • Does not tolerate high temperatures and • Does not well in low temperatures humidity • Recommended conditions (DaMatta, 2004) Coffea arabica Coffea canephora • 18-21ºC • 22-30ºC • 1200-1800mm rainfall • 1200-1800 mm rainfall, > 2000 mm • >1000 m altitude, deep soils, >2000 mm rainfall, 4-mo. dry season, wind protection (Vaast and Harmand, 2002) • Divergence on lower range between authors/countries • Frequently grown outside these recommended intervals
  7. 7. Controversy on shade • The use of shade has been questioned and researched since the beginning of its cultivation. • Initially grown under or close to forest cover. Originally thought indispensable to coffee growing in mid altitudes in the tropics • Successful fun sun experiments with intensive management followed by massive promotion programs • Breeding of modern cultivars adapted to sun. 40% of Middle America, Caribbean and Columbia coffee is in full sun Optimal conditions • Removal of shade increases coffee yields (several authors) • 45% artificial shade reduces 3-year cumulative production of fertilized coffee by 18% (Vaast et al, 2006) • Often decline in coffee quality Suboptimal conditions (low altitudes, higher temperatures) • 3-year cumulated fertilized coffee yielded 16% and 49% less in full sun than under Terminalia ivoriensis (dense shade) and Eucalyptus deglupta (light shade) respectively in suboptimal conditions (Vaast et al, 2006)
  8. 8. sh ad e • Small or no response to fertilizers High response to fertilizers -> Reduces photosynthesis and -> Light is limiting factor metabolism Higher no. of flower buds per node • Reduced flower induction Higher no. of coffee nodes per branch • Longer internodes Reduced branch length • Lower number of fruiting nodes • Higher vegetative growth Heat stress of plant and faster leaf – lower no. of leaves per branch senescence and fall but – larger leaf area • Higher leaf to fruit ratio • Longer life span of leaves
  9. 9. sh ad e Increased flowering and fruiting Sink effect Lower fruit loads Resources going to seeds Fewer nodes but higher final berry •Increased fruit drop load per node bec. lower berry drop •Reduced maturation period Longer maturation period •Smaller bean size Larger bean size Reduced shoot elongation and branch weight Balanced of fruit and vegetative Reduced production potential the outputs following year. Weakened plant and Reduced variations in alternate dieback. Biennial /alternate bearing bearing
  10. 10. Productive soils Poor soils yield yield shaded unshaded shaded unshaded Low optimum high Low optimum high elevation elevation Source: Beer et al., 1998 Fertilized yields 1800-3000 kg/ha Fertilized yields 300-1800 kg/ha Shade reduces photosynthesis, transpiration, metabolism and growth and therefore, the demand on soil nutrients and so enables crop to be obtained on soils of lower fertility. (Purseglove 1968) Influence of tree density on yields through underground competition. Optimal densities varies according to site and species.
  11. 11. Impact on pests, diseases and weeds • Varies according to individual organisms and their response to increased humidity and reduced light under shade • Lowers diffusion of coffee berry disease by reducing splashing and free water • More pronounced attacks by coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix). Major reason for the early promotion of tree shade removal • Reduces defoliation by brown-eye-spot (Cercospora coffeicola) • Higher incidence of the dry season coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) • Stabilize coffee nematodes or increase coffee tolerance to nematode infestation if shade trees are not hosts • Pest regulation by a range of arthropods as natural enemies of insect coffee pests • Reduces weed biomass considerably. Aggressive grasses -> broadleaf types. Savings in costs of weeding>tree management costs.
  12. 12. Coffee quality under shade • Reduction in light exposure and temperature • Slower and longer berry maturation period • Better bean filling and higher sucrose accumulation • Larger bean size. Price determinant at farm gate
  13. 13. Effect of shade on coffee quality chemical and organoleptic characteristics Authors Avelino Vaast et al Vaast et al Muschler 01 Guyot et et al 03 06a 06b al 96 Conditions Optimal Suboptimal Suboptimal Optimal Years 1999 2000 2001 2002 Catimor Caturra Total acidity + Caffeine + + + + + Fat + + + + same Sucrose - - + Chlorogenic - - - - + acids Trigonelline - - - - - Body - - - - + + same Bitterness - - - - - Astringency - - - - same Acidity + + + + + + same same Aroma - same same Preference + + + + By reducing flowering intensity and productivity, shade consistently leads to enhanced beverage quality in both favorable and unfavorable ecological conditions
  14. 14. Potential benefits for East African smallholder farmers Coffee • Potential increase in coffee yields, generally in suboptimal conditions • Better quality coffee • Reduced damage by hail and rain storms • Reduced occurrence of some pests and diseases • Longevity of coffee plants reduces need to replant Soils • Provision of soil mulch (moisture and fertility, weed suppression) • Aeration and drainage of soil for intercrops • Reduced soil erosion on slopes • Enhanced soil fertility (recycling of deep nutrients and nitrogen fixation)
  15. 15. Potential benefits for East African smallholder farmers Management • Reduced weeding costs • If compared to full sun systems, can it reduce labor costs? • More efficient use of labor and machinery with more constant interannual production for harvesting and processing. • More constant volume and quality of coffee supplies to buyers Diversification in farm production • Alternate income and security from diversity of marketable products (timber, fruits, fodder, fiber, etc). – Fruit and timber=60% and 3% of farm income in Venezuela (Escalante et al., 87) – Shade tree products=28% and 19% of coffee income in Peru and Guatemala (Somarriba et al., 04) – 42% farmers market timber and fuelwood products in E. Mt Kenya; $35 per year (Holding et al, 06) • Service wood and other non necessarily marketed products + food crops
  16. 16. Some disadvantages of shade coffee • Damage by fallen branches to the coffee crop • Additional labor for tree pruning • Mechanization hampered by trees • Implementation of soil erosion measures rendered difficult by trees • Poor shade adaptation of newly bred cultivars • Coffee-tree competition • Increased occurrence of specific pests and diseases with increased humidity • Allelopathy • Trees providing alternate hosts for coffee pests and diseases • Erosion, crop damage and reduced water absorption in soil by leaf drip damage
  17. 17. Implications for East Africa • Most studies originate from C. and S. America. Limited data on condition of coffee system • Characterization and mapping of shade coffee systems in East Africa. • Comparative coffee shade versus sun studies to better define the potential of shade in East Africa Central Province of Kenya • What areas have optimal and sub- optimal conditions in East Africa? • Where and how significant is impact of shade on production and quality? • How much shade? Is it sufficient to make a difference? • Large contribution of smallholder farming, that includes a diverse tree cover by default. Document, validate, refine recommendation domains • Varies by country
  18. 18. Estimates • Kenya: 50% large full sun industrial plantations-50% smallholder farms • Rwanda: Heavy traditional promotion of coffee growing in full sun (ACDI-VOCA) • Tanzania: 20% industrial plantations-80% smallholders • Uganda: 99% smallholder systems
  19. 19. Shade coffee and biodiversity conservation • Agricultural system with great potential to conserve biodiversity. Structural diversity and vegetation complexity of original forest vegetation it is derived from. • 2nd largest traded natural commodity after oil, has a major economic importance for livelihoods and national export revenues. • Quantitative vs. location: 15/34 hotspots located in coffee regions • Areas of intense deforestation where shade coffee may be only remnant vegetation • Major opportunity for combining conservation and economic improvement
  20. 20. Conservation potential of shade coffee • Largely emphasized in Central and N. Latin America as habitat for migratory birds through Mesoamerican Biological Corridor • Varies according to management types, complexity providing food, shelter and reproduction • Species dependent on trees for their life cycle vs. species that rely on fragmented forest habitat in wider landscape • Most often lower bird species richness than primary forest and different composition • Rustic systems may host similar or higher bird diversity, especially for winter migrants with flexible habitat needs
  21. 21. Shade coffee and biodiversity conservation in East Africa • Not a similar regional corridor function • Contribution to conservation of European migrants not emphasized • Relatively limited information in East Africa • Naidoo 04, bird richness correlated to tree density and distance to intact forest in Mabira, Southern Uganda. Limited contribution of coffee-banana systems to conservation of forest- dependent songbird species • Soini 06, tree cover reduction and fragmentation, highland homegardens with coffee-banana and large trees more bird-diverse than lowland and midland systems. European-style highland richest due to high niche diversity and lower human disturbance of shrub layer
  22. 22. Mabira Forest banana-coffee landscape, Southern Uganda Ordination of the 96 stations obtained from a Detrended Correspondence Analysis of the species composition of bird communities. primary 160 secondary 140 agro 120 Distance between 100 stations 80 indicates degree of 60 similarity in bird community 40 composition 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 Number of species primary=secondary>agro
  23. 23. Factors enhancing conservation value Coffee plantation characteristics • Structural complexity (habitat) and floristic composition (food sources) • Plantation management intensity (thinning, pollarding, fertilizers) • Vertical canopy thickness, coffee height and presence of epiphytes for butterfly diversity Landscape factors Source: Turyomurugyendo • Overall landscape degradation • Landscape characteristics – Number and size of forest fragments – Distance and connectivity to forest patches (mobile vs less mobile spp) • Forest management policy. Hard edges in East Africa for segregating land uses, reducing h-w conflicts, easier enforcement of restrictions
  24. 24. Eastern Arc Mountains & Coastal Forests hotspot
  25. 25. The Albertine Rift Maiko NP Tayna Kahuzi-Biega NP Mukura FR Nyungwe NP Kibira NP Itombwe Massif
  26. 26. Wild forest coffee in Ethiopia • Focus on conserving the Arabica center of endemism • Wild coffee forests, transformation of undisturbed coffee forest to semi- forest coffee – Removal of overstorey trees and shrubs – Increase of 26% of plant species (disturbance-adapted) • 25% of national coffee production Pressures • Internal and government-planned resettlement for Northerners • Land conversion for agriculture and settlement • Demand for forest products Potential and current forest cover
  27. 27. Shade coffee certification and conservation • Markets of shade-grown coffee appear important for providing a reward for conservation • Caution: encouraging primary forest conversion; lowering of standards; blanket endorsement of all shade systems • Challenge of ensuring that farmers are main recipients of premiums • Capacity of programs to certify systems according to their conservation efficiency? – SMBC, Rainforest Alliance, SCAA all rule in rustic coffee systems and rule out shade monocultures. But variable for intermediate shade intensities. • Need to improve conservation benchmarks (transitory habitat use to breeding viability) • Consider yield losses; Establishing premiums complicated due to non-linearity of relationship between shade and yield, and sensitivity to shade removal varies between species
  28. 28. Shade coffee certification and conservation • Lowest market share among fair trade, organic, and shade-grown, 10% of all certified exports from L. America • Exclusively for L. American coffee • A few certification initiatives in East Africa (local brands, Fair Trade, Organic, Utz Kapeh, Starbuck,….Rainforest Alliance ) • Potential of appellation coffee where shade is a recognized practice?
  29. 29. Conclusions • Sun coffee adapted for maximizing yields, but optimal conditions and intensive management are required. High environmental costs (soil erosion, water pollution). Little knowledge of long term effects. • Critical role in smallholder systems with limited management capacity in sub-optimal conditions for moderating microclimate, diversifying production and minimizing risk. Present by default, but needs systematic investment. • Lots of emphasis on Central American shade coffee systems. Characterization, management intensity, importance for biodiversity conservation, commercial promotion.
  30. 30. Conclusions • Great need to better characterize and invest in EA coffee systems if potential of shade is to be explicitly utilized. • Compared to Mesoamerican regional corridor function, conservation potential of EA shade coffee systems is more diffused. Needs greater documentation. • Due to high renowned quality, much potential for developing coffee certification programs in EA • Nascent market mechanisms to reward shade management and coffee quality. Shade coffee best integrated in other certification approaches • Research on constraints in integrating trees and commercializing products (technical, grading, prices, knowledge)
  31. 31. Second International Symposium on Multi-Strata Agroforestry Systems with Perennial Crops, 17-21 September 2007, Turrialba, Costa Rica, CATIE • Biophysical interactions of shade at plant and plot level • Quantification and valuation of environmental services of perennial crop AFS at landscape level • Science of certification schemes for eco-labeling of perennial crop products from AFS • Social and economical importance of products derived from perennial AFS
  32. 32. Thank you!