Systematic analysis of algalbio-fuel production integrated with domestic wastewater treatment in Armenia<br />By: Mambreh Gharakhani<br />Supervisors: Dr. Artak Hambarian<br /> Dr. Edwin Safari<br />Referee: Dr. Aram Hajian<br />Special Thanks to: Dr.Knel Touryan<br />Special Thanks to: Prof. Evrik Afrikian<br />
Objectives<br /><ul><li>Evaluation of the effect of the proposed scheme on reducing carbon emission (Green house Gas),and sustainable development
Assessment of the economic and technical feasibility and efficiency of wastewater treatment using algae and influencing parameters based on past experience</li></li></ul><li>Contents of presentation<br />Problem<br />What is Algae<br />Algae cultivation technologies<br />Algae harvesting <br />Oil extraction<br />Biodiesel production<br />Future work<br />Conclusion<br />
The plan (?)<br />Waste water<br />Algae<br />Green house gasses(CO2, NO2, CH4)<br />Biomass, Biofuel fertilizer, etc..<br />
Problems Related to Armenia<br /><ul><li> Armenia like other former Soviet Union member states, has suffered from lack of technical and financial support to properly operate wastewater treatment plants.
The existing networks collect waste water from 60-80% of urban areas, while rural areas do not basically have sewage systems, so that waste water is entirely discharged into the river basin.</li></ul>Eutrophication (algal bloom)<br />We are Dying<br />
Algae: simple plants, they do not have complex system (Xylem and phloem) to circulate water and nutrients<br />Autotrophic: Using sunlight <br />Heterotrophic: does not require sunlight and Use organic Carbon (CH2O)n instead<br />carbon dioxide + water + sunlight-> carbohydrate + oxygen<br />multicellular forms: seaweed (Macro algae) and unicellular species which Microalgae: unicellular ,exist individually, or in chains or groups<br />
– “Dirty Water”. Species flourish in brackish, Saline and wastewater. <br />• Wastewater nutrients support highly productive algal cultures<br />
Microalgae<br /><ul><li>It has been estimated that about 200,000-800,000 species exist of which about 35,000 species are known.</li></ul>Composition of microalgae (dry basis): protein (12–35%); lipid (7.2–23%); carbohydrate (4.6–23%).<br /><ul><li>According to scientists fossil fuels have been biologically produced from prehistoric Algaeduring past million years.
scientists are trying to speed up the same process by mass producing the algal cells and consequently develop methods to use them in transportation fuel production, (Biofuel-Biodiesel)</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Biofuel - liquid fuels derived from renewable resources such as plant or animal materials, Biomass and biowaste.
distinguished from – fossil fuels, which are derived from long dead biological material and are not renewable.
Theoretically - produced from any biological carbon source; although, the most common sources are photosynthetic plants </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Biodiesel and bioethanol are two potential renewable fuels that have attracted the most attention.</li></ul>Wide-scale production of crops for biodiesel feedstock can cause an increase in worldwide food and commodity prices<br />
Biomass: is low cost plant matter for production of commodities (feeds, fuels, foods, fibers, chemicals)<br />Algae yield: 30 tones/acre. year Other crops: 15 tones/ acre. year<br />
Generate up to 300 times more biomass per acre
Grow Crops in both fresh and sea water, also in wastewater (sewage)</li></ul>Bonus:<br />microalgae can be used in the wastewater treatment as the micro organisms influencing the cleaning process<br />Well we can! >> Micro-algae will do all these things<br />
What algae needs for growth and productivity of biomass?<br />A little bit of everything…<br />• Sunlight<br />•Temperature<br />•Water (Fresh, brackish, wastewater, etc.)<br />•Supply of carbon dioxide (use exhaust of power plants)<br />•Macronutrients: C, N, P, Mg, Ca, K, Na, Cl, NO3, NH4<br />•Micronutrients (Trace elements): Fe, B, Zn, Mn, Mo, Cu, SO4, Co, Al, Br, Etc..<br />
Energy from photosynthesis<br />The energy - in the form of biomass - that can be obtained via photosynthesis thus depends on the level of PAR and the efficiency of the conversion process Q. <br /> Ebiomass= PAR x Q <br />Micro algae eight photons to capture one molecule of CO2into carbohydrate (CH2O)nGiven that one mole of CH2O has a heating value of 468kJ and that the mean energy of a mole of PAR photons is 217.4kJ, then the maximum theoretical conversion efficiency of PAR energy into carbohydrates is: <br /> 468kJ/(8 x 217.4kJ) = 27% <br />In Practical Case: decreases to 10%<br />
Which Algae Production Technology?<br />Microalgae were first mass cultured on rooftop at MIT during the early 1950s, first mention of algae biofuels in report of that project. <br />The energy shocks of the 1970s led renewed study of microalgae biofuels, methane combination with wastewater treatment .<br />Many Oil companies are doing research program to make biodiesel for transportation needs<br />1980 - 1995 <br />
Which Algae Production Technology?<br /><ul><li>Open raceway paddle wheel mixed ponds now used by 98% commercial microalgae production
High Rate Algal Ponds are the most economical technology but are presently not cost effective for biofuel production alone.(Dr.JasonPark,2009)</li></li></ul><li>
Which Algae Production Technology?<br />Closed photobioreactors are economic for high value applications (nutraceuticals) but are presently not cost effective for biofuel production<br />
Technologies Based On wastewater treatment<br />Biodiesel production from algae grown in wastewater has the potential to address three important goals: <br />Development of new energy sources (oil production)<br />Management of agricultural wastes to protect aquatic environment<br /> Reduction of the global anthropogenic green house effect<br />
Direct Cost<br />Direct production costs(combined annual maintenance and operating costs) contribute highest: 68%<br />Nutrient expenses: 33.7%<br />Labor and overheads: 24%<br />Water: 16%<br />Electricity: 7%<br />
Ideal Goal: Biofuels from Algae: using Non-Fresh Water Sources<br />
Preliminary treatment (removing large objects like rocks or bottles, etc), primary treatment (removing solid material), and secondary treatment (removing biological material)<br />
Implementation of proposed technology in real life in one of the major treatment centers<br /><ul><li>site location is selected to model a possible facility for wastewater treatment trough algal technology
The site is in city of Gavar near to second largest wastewater treatment plant
It dumps the incomplete treated wastewater with a flow rate of 2400 cubic meter per day.
The average temperature in the coldest month is take 5
By this example I try to model the economics: cost, efficiency, investment, and environmental impact of the proposed method.</li></li></ul><li>22000)<br />30000<br />Momodelind sample<br />50% -60%<br />min. monthly average (January) ° C - 15<br />max. monthly average (August) ° C + 17<br />Flow rate: 3200 m3/day<br />Average temp of coldest month: 5 ° c <br /><ul><li>The wastewater treatment plants is located on the territory of Gegharkunic Marz
The local economy is improving in a very slow rate
BOD5 and suspended solids values were very low: not metered water consumption, leaking water pipes causing large infiltration amounts in the sewers and connections existing between sewerage and storm water network.
Same latitude as Denver city~ 30000 liters oil/ hectare . Year </li></ul>(Kristina M. Weyer, Al Darzins, “Theoretical and maximum algal production”, Springerlink.com)<br />
Table. 1: Input parameters for wastewater in Gavar <br />30000 × 100 × 80% × 10-3 = 2400<br />
The Alternative options for the solution (Cultivation of algae) <br />1. The traditional wastewater ponds system<br />2. Advance integrated wastewater treatment<br />3. Photobioreactor integrated with wastewater treatment<br />Algal biomass harvesting<br />Oil extraction<br />
Parameters of the wastewater<br />The characteristics of sewage indicate the quality of the wastewater<br /><ul><li>The physical characteristic is the level of suspended solids: the presence of various chemicals and microbiological pollutants.
The biological characteristic is the amount of oxygen required to oxidize the various organic chemicals.
BOD: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), concentration of Organic compounds in wastewater (waste) that are the source of food for bacteria and are digested by them.(g/m3 or mg/liter) >>>> BOD5
Primary Facultative pond<br />Aerobic: algae<br />1-3<br />Detention time :28 days<br />intermediate zone<br />anaerobic bacteria<br /><ul><li>Facultative ponds receive raw wastewater.
Facultative organisms function with or without dissolved oxygen
Treatment in a facultative pond is provided by settling of solids and reduction of organic oxygen demanding material by bacterial activity.
Facultative ponds are designed for BOD removal (100-400 mg/liter)</li></li></ul><li>NH4- ammonia is the source of nitrogen<br />PH will rise above 9 which will kill coliforms<br />Biological Oxygen Demand<br />
Secondary facultative pond (algal high rate pond)<br />Wastewater treatment High Rate Algal Ponds are presently the only option for cost-effective biofuel production due to co-benefits of wastewater treatment, nutrient recovery and GHG abatement + The various byproducts.<br />
Settlingponds<br />To increase the concentration of algae in up to 3 g/l<br />Decrease the operational and power consumption costs<br />50 to 80 percent of algae can be removed. <br />If higher degrees of algae are required secondary harvesting method is required.<br />
Algal oil to Biodiesel<br />Transesterification<br />Transesterification is the process that the algae oil must go through to become biodiesel. <br />It is a simple chemical reaction requiring only four steps and two chemicals:<br />1. Mix methanol and sodium hydroxide creates sodium methoxide<br />2. Mix sodium methoxide into algae oil<br />3. Allow to settle for about 8 hours<br />4. Drain glycerin and filter biodiesel to 5 microns<br />
Future Work<br /><ul><li>If enough investment is affordable in the field, Photo bioreactors can be used for biodiesel production, also for local wastewater treatment.
Onsite systems which are flexible and can be moved can be used
Decentralized systems provide very effective and sustainable wastewater treatment near the source</li></li></ul><li>Conclusion<br />Algae is the part of solution and had lots of advantages<br /><ul><li>Wastewater treatment is cost competitive now</li></ul>Biofuel production cost covered by treatment fees<br />1,100 ton/year CO2 abattement per 100,000 population<br /> Industrial and agricultural wastewater also can be treated<br />Harvesting costs decrease due to biofloculations • Lipids produced – 25% lipid content, current maximum – 1500 gallons per acre per year (best est.) <br /> Global warming is a fact that needs to be stopped<br /><ul><li>The future of transportation is in biofuels specially algae</li></li></ul><li>