Information Architecture: An emerging 21 st  century profession By : Dr. A.K. Ramani Prof. & Head SCSIT, DAVV, Indore(M.P....
AGENDA <ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>Notion of Design </li></ul><ul><li>Business and IT evolution </li></ul><ul><l...
Information  <ul><li>The world isn’t run by weapons anymore…It is run by small bits of data…0’s and 1’s…. </li></ul><ul><l...
Information  <ul><li>More and more work depends upon effective use of Information </li></ul><ul><li>Novel ways of accessin...
Notion of Design <ul><li>Separation of thinking and doing </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of manual and intellectual work </l...
Key Challenge: Towards  a New Discipline “ Storage, retrieval and transmission of information has been a challenge since t...
Systems are complex The purpose is to teach the machine as we think.
Different perceptions Systems are Complex…..
Systems are Complex….. <ul><li>Technology has progressed. It can do practically whatever people want it to do.  </li></ul>...
Yesterday’s Scenario
Today’s Scenario
Business Evolution <ul><li>Old System </li></ul><ul><li>De-centralized </li></ul><ul><li>Federation  </li></ul><ul><li>Ret...
IT Evolution <ul><li>Old System </li></ul><ul><li>Mainframes </li></ul><ul><li>Novell </li></ul><ul><li>DOS </li></ul><ul>...
Vertical   Business Processes
Value Chains
Technology/Business cycle times
Why innovative system? <ul><li>A rapidly changing technology and business landscape demands innovation and agility. </li><...
“ Never innovate out of fear, but never fear to innovate”.
Innovation lifecycle
How to evolve new  innovative system from old system?? Big Question????
Solution is….. i.e. Architecture
Architecture: A Thing of  Harmony and Beauty <ul><li>Architecture  -- the discipline dealing with the principles of design...
<ul><li>Architecture  </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>=  </li></ul><ul><li>Information...
Theses of Information Architecture <ul><li>People need information. </li></ul><ul><li>More importantly, people need the ri...
Missing information Lost sales - Expensive support - Duplicated effort - Lost trust - Lost lives?
Why Information Architecture Information Architecture helps make sure that business needs and user needs are met, leaving ...
Information Architecture includes
IA vs. Design <ul><li>Two sides of the same coin? </li></ul><ul><li>Each part of the other? </li></ul><ul><li>IA = one kin...
Is IA omnipresent?? <ul><li>Yes, it is.. </li></ul>
An enigma history of information architecture <ul><li>Information architecture is as old as human communication. </li></ul...
What Does An Information Architecture Contain? <ul><li>The  information architecture  contains information about a number ...
What Does An Information Architecture Contain? <ul><li>the goals of the organization,   </li></ul><ul><li>the business fun...
The most interesting architectures spring from problems of diversity: <ul><li>Diversity of information </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Internet and IA <ul><li>The Internet has changed how we live with information.  </li></ul><ul><li>It has made ubiquitous t...
The Architecture Team
Information Architects do: <ul><li>Research & understand user requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Find the patterns inherent in...
Information Architect :  Skills and experience needed <ul><li>Strong customer focus </li></ul><ul><li>Product knowledge </...
Approaches of IA <ul><li>Top Down  </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom Up </li></ul>
“ Top-down” IA <ul><li>It involves developing a broad understanding of the business strategies and user needs, before defi...
“ Bottom-up” IA <ul><li>It involves understanding the detailed relationships among contents,  </li></ul><ul><li>Create wal...
Top-Down OR Bottom-Up <ul><li>Not mutually exclusive—every project includes both. </li></ul>
What does an architecture process give us? <ul><li>Sufficient reality in architectural design  </li></ul><ul><li>Common se...
<ul><li>“ Vorstellung”: </li></ul><ul><li>Imagining </li></ul><ul><li>Picturing </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptualizing </li></u...
<ul><li>Developing system architecture is a tough way. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t do it unless there is a need. </li></ul><ul...
Visualization <ul><li>Visualization of product and its architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Visualization of organization requi...
<ul><li>TOGAF will help </li></ul>
TOGAF   provides an  EASY  and  EFFICIENT  approach towards defining an  INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE
Architecture Framework <ul><li>TOGAF is an architecture framework -  The Open Group Architecture Framework.   </li></ul><u...
Real life definition of TOGAF What TOGAF  is What TOGAF is not Generic Perspective about how to customize the  framework. ...
TOGAF:Developing an architecture
TOGAF: Information Architecture Process <ul><li>TOGAF consists of three main parts: </li></ul><ul><li>The TOGAF Architectu...
TOGAF Framework concepts Ownership
The TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM) Figure : Architecture Development Cycle
Figure : Architecture Development Cycle - Expansion
The architecture development process needs to be linked into the organization
Why Architecture in  Enterprise? <ul><li>Be it a standalone site or an enterprise, the users need information, and they ne...
<ul><li>Information is mostly tied with Technology it resides on </li></ul><ul><li>Every enterprise has some master data w...
<ul><li>Global Presence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial Centers at geographically dispersed locations (50+ countries) </li...
<ul><li>A Financial Enterprise … </li></ul><ul><li>Master Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Driven by changing business (Bank holding company)  </li></ul><ul><li>Overall Enterprise Architecture is being wor...
<ul><li>A mid-size company </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5000+ employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple locations within US <...
<ul><li>Re-architecting of what is important for the enterprise (From legacy to multi-tier architecture) </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>One of the top Insurance companies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Millions of...
<ul><li>Revamping of Business and Technology organizations (as a result of some business setbacks)  </li></ul><ul><li>Work...
<ul><li>Key Points To Remember: </li></ul><ul><li>In an Enterprise, architecture is driven by business (users, processes, ...
Information architecture’s impact on  business <ul><li>1. Customers consistently request: </li></ul><ul><li>Better retriev...
Information architecture’s impact on the business <ul><li>2. Good information architecture can fulfill those requests and:...
Information architecture’s impact on the business <ul><li>3. All information developers can work toward these goals in the...
Conclusions <ul><li>IA is a rapidly emerging field concerned with the art and science of applying many approaches to the d...
Conclusions <ul><li>Information architecture is first an act, then a practice, then a discipline.  </li></ul><ul><li>Shari...
Worth reading
<ul><li>Questions ??? </li></ul>
Wrap Up <ul><li>Contact information: </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. A.K Ramani </li></ul><ul><li>Prof. & Head SCSIT,DAVV(Indore) </...
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Information Architecture Profession

  1. 1. Information Architecture: An emerging 21 st century profession By : Dr. A.K. Ramani Prof. & Head SCSIT, DAVV, Indore(M.P.), India [email_address]
  2. 2. AGENDA <ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>Notion of Design </li></ul><ul><li>Business and IT evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Information Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>IA vs. Design </li></ul><ul><li>Theses of IA </li></ul><ul><li>Website Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture team </li></ul><ul><li>Approaches of IA </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to TOGAF </li></ul><ul><li>Wrap Up </li></ul>
  3. 3. Information <ul><li>The world isn’t run by weapons anymore…It is run by small bits of data…0’s and 1’s…. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s not the one who has got the most bullets but one who controls the information… </li></ul><ul><li>What we SEE…What we HEAR…What we THINK….. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IT”S ALL ABOUT INFORMATION. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Information <ul><li>More and more work depends upon effective use of Information </li></ul><ul><li>Novel ways of accessing information are seen in offices, home, society, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>More specialized, complex, more perplexing … </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, design and efficient communication are more challenging than ever, requiring great deal of time, practice and knowledge </li></ul>
  5. 5. Notion of Design <ul><li>Separation of thinking and doing </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of manual and intellectual work </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of conceptual part of work from the labor process </li></ul><ul><li>Design-build process is more specialized </li></ul><ul><li>Can be clearly seen in building-architects and builders </li></ul>
  6. 6. Key Challenge: Towards a New Discipline “ Storage, retrieval and transmission of information has been a challenge since the evolution of human being”.
  7. 7. Systems are complex The purpose is to teach the machine as we think.
  8. 8. Different perceptions Systems are Complex…..
  9. 9. Systems are Complex….. <ul><li>Technology has progressed. It can do practically whatever people want it to do. </li></ul><ul><li>So why doesn’t everyone using a computer system have a large smile on their face? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Yesterday’s Scenario
  11. 11. Today’s Scenario
  12. 12. Business Evolution <ul><li>Old System </li></ul><ul><li>De-centralized </li></ul><ul><li>Federation </li></ul><ul><li>Retailer Push </li></ul><ul><li>Large inventories </li></ul><ul><li>Manual processes </li></ul><ul><li>Buying/Selling </li></ul><ul><li>Mass consumers </li></ul><ul><li>New System </li></ul><ul><li>Group </li></ul><ul><li>Cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Customer pull </li></ul><ul><li>Just in time </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic processes </li></ul><ul><li>Category management </li></ul><ul><li>Individual customers </li></ul>
  13. 13. IT Evolution <ul><li>Old System </li></ul><ul><li>Mainframes </li></ul><ul><li>Novell </li></ul><ul><li>DOS </li></ul><ul><li>Own development </li></ul><ul><li>SNA, IPX, Paper </li></ul><ul><li>Unmanaged </li></ul><ul><li>Unresponsive </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>New System </li></ul><ul><li>Unix </li></ul><ul><li>Windows NT </li></ul><ul><li>Windows …… </li></ul><ul><li>Application Packages </li></ul><ul><li>TCP/IP </li></ul><ul><li>Managed </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling change </li></ul><ul><li>Benefit </li></ul>
  14. 14. Vertical Business Processes
  15. 15. Value Chains
  16. 16. Technology/Business cycle times
  17. 17. Why innovative system? <ul><li>A rapidly changing technology and business landscape demands innovation and agility. </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation and agility provides value to the system. </li></ul>
  18. 18. “ Never innovate out of fear, but never fear to innovate”.
  19. 19. Innovation lifecycle
  20. 20. How to evolve new innovative system from old system?? Big Question????
  21. 21. Solution is….. i.e. Architecture
  22. 22. Architecture: A Thing of Harmony and Beauty <ul><li>Architecture -- the discipline dealing with the principles of design and construction and ornamentation of fine buildings; </li></ul><ul><li>Structure, Architecture -- the manner of construction of something and the disposition of its parts; ``artists must study the structure of the human body&quot;; &quot;the architecture of a computer's system software'' ) </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture – “It is a product of mind like a picture or a painting”. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>= </li></ul><ul><li>Information Architecture </li></ul>
  24. 24. Theses of Information Architecture <ul><li>People need information. </li></ul><ul><li>More importantly, people need the right information at the right time. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Missing information Lost sales - Expensive support - Duplicated effort - Lost trust - Lost lives?
  26. 26. Why Information Architecture Information Architecture helps make sure that business needs and user needs are met, leaving every one happy.
  27. 27. Information Architecture includes
  28. 28. IA vs. Design <ul><li>Two sides of the same coin? </li></ul><ul><li>Each part of the other? </li></ul><ul><li>IA = one kind of design? </li></ul><ul><li>Design = one kind of IA? </li></ul>
  29. 29. Is IA omnipresent?? <ul><li>Yes, it is.. </li></ul>
  30. 30. An enigma history of information architecture <ul><li>Information architecture is as old as human communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Where there’s information, there’s architecture. </li></ul>
  31. 31. What Does An Information Architecture Contain? <ul><li>The information architecture contains information about a number of things of interest to the business. In its early stages of development, it contains information about:  </li></ul><ul><li>the current or planned organization structure,    </li></ul>
  32. 32. What Does An Information Architecture Contain? <ul><li>the goals of the organization,  </li></ul><ul><li>the business functions that must be carried on to achieve the goals, and  </li></ul><ul><li>the major categories of things (subjects) the organization needs information about in order to perform the functions. </li></ul>
  33. 33. The most interesting architectures spring from problems of diversity: <ul><li>Diversity of information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity of audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity of modes of access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity of use </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Internet and IA <ul><li>The Internet has changed how we live with information. </li></ul><ul><li>It has made ubiquitous the once rare entity: the shared information environment </li></ul>
  35. 35. The Architecture Team
  36. 36. Information Architects do: <ul><li>Research & understand user requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Find the patterns inherent in data, making the complex clear </li></ul><ul><li>An information architect manages IA process with appropriate tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply Experience </li></ul>
  37. 37. Information Architect : Skills and experience needed <ul><li>Strong customer focus </li></ul><ul><li>Product knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of information design principles </li></ul><ul><li>Three to five years of technical writing </li></ul><ul><li>agement and delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Good interpersonal skills </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of user needs and usability assessment techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrated ability to work in a team environment </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to perform needs analysis </li></ul>
  38. 38. Approaches of IA <ul><li>Top Down </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom Up </li></ul>
  39. 39. “ Top-down” IA <ul><li>It involves developing a broad understanding of the business strategies and user needs, before defining the high level structure , </li></ul><ul><li>Finally the detailed relationships among contents. </li></ul>
  40. 40. “ Bottom-up” IA <ul><li>It involves understanding the detailed relationships among contents, </li></ul><ul><li>Create walkthroughs (or storyboards) to show how the system could support specific user requirements and </li></ul><ul><li>Then consider the higher level structure that will be required to support these requirements. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Top-Down OR Bottom-Up <ul><li>Not mutually exclusive—every project includes both. </li></ul>
  42. 42. What does an architecture process give us? <ul><li>Sufficient reality in architectural design </li></ul><ul><li>Common services </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of service </li></ul><ul><li>Vendor co-operation </li></ul><ul><li>Centralisation of services vs. flexibility in choice of services </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>“ Vorstellung”: </li></ul><ul><li>Imagining </li></ul><ul><li>Picturing </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptualizing </li></ul><ul><li>Visualizing </li></ul>The Challenge!!!!!!!
  44. 44. <ul><li>Developing system architecture is a tough way. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t do it unless there is a need. </li></ul><ul><li>It is expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a very difficult thing. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, it is the most difficult of all. </li></ul>- Szabolcs Michael De Gyurky
  45. 45. Visualization <ul><li>Visualization of product and its architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Visualization of organization required to build it. </li></ul><ul><li>Visualization of the tools and techniques to achieve end objective. </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>TOGAF will help </li></ul>
  47. 47. TOGAF provides an EASY and EFFICIENT approach towards defining an INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE
  48. 48. Architecture Framework <ul><li>TOGAF is an architecture framework - The Open Group Architecture Framework. </li></ul><ul><li>It enables you to design, evaluate, and build the right architecture for your organization. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Real life definition of TOGAF What TOGAF is What TOGAF is not Generic Perspective about how to customize the framework. Process driven Perspective, Artefact driven “ One size fits all organizations”. Specific to company size or to an industry Flexible Ontology Driven Set of conceptual tools Tool Providing generic deliverables Prescribing a specific set of deliverables.
  50. 50. TOGAF:Developing an architecture
  51. 51. TOGAF: Information Architecture Process <ul><li>TOGAF consists of three main parts: </li></ul><ul><li>The TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM), </li></ul><ul><li>The Enterprise Continuum </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The TOGAF Foundation Architecture </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The TOGAF Standards Information Base (SIB), </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The TOGAF Technical Reference Model (TRM) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Integrated Information Infrastructure Reference Model </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The TOGAF Resource Base </li></ul>
  52. 52. TOGAF Framework concepts Ownership
  53. 53. The TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM) Figure : Architecture Development Cycle
  54. 54. Figure : Architecture Development Cycle - Expansion
  55. 55. The architecture development process needs to be linked into the organization
  56. 56. Why Architecture in Enterprise? <ul><li>Be it a standalone site or an enterprise, the users need information, and they need it fast </li></ul><ul><li>It has to be secured and reliable </li></ul><ul><li>A typical enterprise has at least a few ERP systems and hundreds of other supporting systems </li></ul><ul><li>Information is duplicated, stale and retrieval is slow </li></ul><ul><li>Every extra minute spent on information gathering results in operational overhead </li></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>Information is mostly tied with Technology it resides on </li></ul><ul><li>Every enterprise has some master data which is core to its business </li></ul><ul><li>Sanctity and reliability of master data may determine success or failure for an organization </li></ul><ul><li>Master Data Management (MDM) is key </li></ul>Why Architecture in Enterprise?.........
  58. 58. <ul><li>Global Presence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial Centers at geographically dispersed locations (50+ countries) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Country/Local laws and regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30,000+ employees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complex business processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer Financial Transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Banking Transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate Processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Transactions </li></ul></ul>A Financial Enterprise:
  59. 59. <ul><li>A Financial Enterprise … </li></ul><ul><li>Master Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vendor/Supplier Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Banking Data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dozens of ERP systems </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of Master data systems (duplication of information – result of build as you go) </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of applications and information systems (integration is a nightmare!) </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>Driven by changing business (Bank holding company) </li></ul><ul><li>Overall Enterprise Architecture is being worked on by CTO organization </li></ul><ul><li>An architecture roadmap and reference architecture (RA) is being developed (TOGAF is being evaluated) </li></ul><ul><li>Individual technology teams are developing their own roadmaps (Remember it is a BIG organization) </li></ul><ul><li>Roadmaps are then used to prepare Information strategies (Disbursement, Financial strategy, Sub-ledger strategy etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidation of Master Data - development of “Source of Truth” data storages </li></ul><ul><li>SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) based integration architecture </li></ul><ul><li>A long-term strategy </li></ul>A Financial Enterprise – Solution:
  61. 61. <ul><li>A mid-size company </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5000+ employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple locations within US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children companies (in supporting businesses) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medium complexity business processes (it is all relative  ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International shipments, laws, regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration with Rail-roads, Inter-modal (Trucking, other carriers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online tracking - Ship & shipment locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backend financial processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disburse Master Data (duplication) – result of build as you go </li></ul>An Ocean Transportation Company:
  62. 62. <ul><li>Re-architecting of what is important for the enterprise (From legacy to multi-tier architecture) </li></ul><ul><li>Data-warehouse and Data-mart based architecture for information </li></ul><ul><li>Master data management – ETL based integration </li></ul><ul><li>Business Intelligence solution for easy retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Services based integration at the business processes level </li></ul><ul><li>A work in progress </li></ul>An Ocean Transportation Company – Solution:
  63. 63. <ul><li>One of the top Insurance companies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Millions of clients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complex business processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy and Security is the key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation of data and access to it drives the architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health industry regulations based processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Master Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clients, Doctors, Hospitals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Out of Network Doctors/Hospitals, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But… still duplication of information (as a result of…?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complex business Rules and their application on data </li></ul>A Health Insurance Organization:
  64. 64. <ul><li>Revamping of Business and Technology organizations (as a result of some business setbacks) </li></ul><ul><li>Work in progress on a Reference Architecture (RA) and an Enterprise Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Master Data Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consolidation of master data, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security based access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mapping of Business processes to application services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integration of Health industry standards and regulations into new Business processes rather than as an add-on </li></ul>A Health Insurance Organization – Solution:
  65. 65. <ul><li>Key Points To Remember: </li></ul><ul><li>In an Enterprise, architecture is driven by business (users, processes, adaptation to changes etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Information Architecture is not a stand-alone entity, it is a part of Enterprise Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Even in case of individual web-sites, it is driven by business architecture and user experience </li></ul><ul><li>Architecting is a continuous process (more of a circular process) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology and business innovations are taking place periodically – resulting in new strategies for Information Architecture </li></ul>
  66. 66. Information architecture’s impact on business <ul><li>1. Customers consistently request: </li></ul><ul><li>Better retrievability </li></ul><ul><li>Solution-oriented information </li></ul><ul><li>A seamless information experience </li></ul><ul><li>across products </li></ul>
  67. 67. Information architecture’s impact on the business <ul><li>2. Good information architecture can fulfill those requests and: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce total cost of ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce customer support calls </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce number of non-defect </li></ul><ul><li>customer support issues (NDOPs) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase customer satisfaction </li></ul>
  68. 68. Information architecture’s impact on the business <ul><li>3. All information developers can work toward these goals in their information deliverables and contribute to the overall information architecture. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Conclusions <ul><li>IA is a rapidly emerging field concerned with the art and science of applying many approaches to the design of IS </li></ul><ul><li>Several disciplines have to merge to architect the right systems </li></ul><ul><li>Inf. Architect to develop Information structures usable at multiple levels of interaction among humans, machine and environment </li></ul>
  70. 70. Conclusions <ul><li>Information architecture is first an act, then a practice, then a discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing the practice grows the discipline, and makes it stronger. </li></ul><ul><li>A 21 st Century Profession; Information Architect </li></ul>
  71. 71. Worth reading
  72. 72.
  73. 73.
  74. 74. <ul><li>Questions ??? </li></ul>
  75. 75. Wrap Up <ul><li>Contact information: </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. A.K Ramani </li></ul><ul><li>Prof. & Head SCSIT,DAVV(Indore) </li></ul><ul><li>email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you and Good Luck…. </li></ul>

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