Unit I - Origins Of Government

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Unit I - Origins Of Government

  1. 1. THE NATURE OF POWER, POLITICS AND YOU Citizenship Test
  2. 2. The New York Times and CBS News Poll… How much of the time do you think you can trust the government in Washington to do what is right: just about always, most of the time, or only some of the time?”  5% (1 person in 20) responded “just about always”  4% responded “most of the time”  87% responded “only some of the time”  4% responded never
  3. 3. How can you link this poll to why it is important to study our government?
  4. 4. Big Idea Throughout our history, Americans have tended  to be distrustful of power, government, and politics. Nonetheless, we look to our government to provide goods and services that we all want and need.
  5. 5. UNIT I ORIGINS OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT
  6. 6. Origins of American Government: A customized government Ancient Greece and Rome Roots   Direct democracy: citizens make public decisions directly  Representative democracy: power is exercised by elected leaders who work in the interests of the people  ““I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, to the republic for which it stands, one nation, under God, indivisible with liberty and justice for all”
  7. 7. Geographic Distribution of Power Unitary Centralized State Government
  8. 8. Geographic Distribution of Power Confederate State Central Government
  9. 9. Geographic Distribution of Power Federal Central State Government
  10. 10. Essential questions to consider… How did colonial American history lead to the  development of American political ideals about the role and structure of government? How did the ideas of government from Great  Britain impact the establishment of our government?
  11. 11. Exploring 3 Types of Government…
  12. 12. Ordered Government Orderly regulation of relationships o  What does this mean? Created local governments similar to o those in England Present Day Examples?   Counties, townships, sheriff, justice of the peace, grand jury…
  13. 13. Limited Government Government is not all powerful o Cannot take away natural rights o  What does this mean?  Individuals have certain rights that the government cannot take away.
  14. 14. Representative Government Government should serve the will of the o people People have a VOICE!! o  What does this mean? “Government of, by, and for the people”
  15. 15. Where did the colonists get these basic concepts of government??? English history provides the key…
  16. 16. Warm-up: An Interesting Dilemma… One morning, Ms. Brown woke up with no voice. Obviously, she could not teach that day. She called the automated system that finds substitute teachers, punched in the correct numbers, and left a message. This machine is meant to find a substitute, but a lightning bolt hits the building where the machine is located, and a substitute is never found. At 7:25 am, the 1st block bell rings and, after some time, no one comes to teach Ms. Brown’s class… Imagine you were in that class… 1. If you were to make a suggestion to your classmates about a course of action, what would it be? 2. Who, or how many of you, would make a decision as to what to do?
  17. 17. Questions to Consider… How would humans be without any external  government? Would we be kind and generous, or cruel and  self serving? Does anyone have the right to govern another?  How are governments created? 
  18. 18. POLITICAL PHILOSOPHERS State of Nature & Social Contract Theory
  19. 19. English Philosopher: Thomas Hobbes State of Nature: early  humans lived in unbridled freedom, in which no government existed and there was no superior power. Believed life is “solitary,  poor, nasty, brutish and short”. Believed people were too  selfish to govern themselves – we NEED government to control and protect.
  20. 20. English Philosopher: John Locke Ideas helped lay  foundations for democratic government Thomas Jefferson called  the DOI – “Pure Locke” Believed people were  innately good, and formed governments to protect their rights and freedoms.
  21. 21. John Locke vs. Thomas Hobbes John Locke Thomas Hobbes
  22. 22. With which theory do you agree more? Why? Which philosopher is correct in his 1. understanding of human nature? Which philosopher is correct in his 2. understanding of Government?
  23. 23. MAJOR POLITICAL THEORIES
  24. 24. Political Theories Force Theory Evolutionary Theory small group forced all to developed naturally out of submit to person and/or the evolution of the family group’s rule Divine Right Social Contract held that God created the argues that state arose out state, and God had given of a voluntary act of free those of royal birth “divine people. State exists only to right” to rule serve the will of the people
  25. 25. Social Contract Theory Theory through which Thomas Jefferson  justified colonial independence . Assume people live in a state of nature (no  government) and are willing to give up some of their freedom and liberty to maintain order .
  26. 26. Day 3 Focus Activity Recall the three types of government from Day 1. For each type of government draw a picture that would help you identify its meaning. Be prepared to share!
  27. 27. Reading Activity: A close-up on primary sources Please read the Locke and Jefferson article Underline words you do not understand Answer the two [2] questions for discussion and be prepared to share your responses with the class
  28. 28. In the 1770s, a small group of citizens, known as the Founding Fathers, decided that they should rule the country and overthrow the government… • We will look at the actual document that got this group into so much trouble with the King of England… THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE!
  29. 29. Big Ideas in the DOI Thomas Jefferson was the primary author 1. Reflects two main ideas: 2. Natural Rights Philosophy – we are all equal 1. and have the right to life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness. Social Contract Theory – government arises 2. from agreement of the people People are willing to give up individuals  rights for a government to protest their natural rights .
  30. 30. Video Viewing Activity Follow along in your mini booklet as you listen to the celebrity reading of the DOI. Underline ideas that reflect natural rights and social contract theory (“Pure Locke”).
  31. 31. FYI On July 4th, 1776, the Congress voted to accept the DOI. This is why we celebrate July 4th as Independence Day. DOI in 2009 Lingo
  32. 32. Journal Question… What might the consequences of a weak government be?
  33. 33. NOTABLE AMERICAN DOCUMENTS…
  34. 34. Vocabulary to be familiar with … Confederation: an association of states that  delegates power to a central government Confederate State Central Government Ratification: formal approval 
  35. 35. Notable American Documents Articles of Confederation  First government of the United States  Replaced by the Constitution because  Constitution provided a much stronger national government The Articles of Confederation had many weaknesses….
  36. 36. DRAFTING THE CONSTITUTION
  37. 37. Constitutional Convention Met in Philadelphia in 1787  Composed of some of the greatest  thinkers, educators, statesmen, and politicians of the day These men were collectively  known as “The Framers”
  38. 38. Purpose of the Convention Initial purpose was to revise the Articles of  Confederation . Delegates quickly realized they were meeting to  create a new government (with 3 branches!)
  39. 39. Several plans were proposed to correct the weaknesses of the AOC… a Bundle of Compromise…
  40. 40. ISSUE OF REPRESENTATION Virginia Plan v. New Jersey Plan Major similarities between the 2 plans: Three branches of government 1. Congress retains powers granted 2. under AOC Executive chosen by Congress 3.
  41. 41. Virginia Plan “Large State Plan” Strong central gov’t  L: Bicameral Congress   Representation based on population E: “President”   Chosen by Congress J: 1+ supreme courts with lower courts   Chosen by Congress
  42. 42. New Jersey Plan “Small State Plan” Strong state government  L: Unicameral Congress   Each state would have = representation  Expand power to tax & regulate trade E: Two-person presidency   Chosen by Congress; able to be removed J: Single Supreme Court   Chosen by Executive
  43. 43. Your Task Create a billboard advertisement detailing the features of one of the plans – NJ or VA - the choice is yours!  GOAL: “sell” your plan to the people – persuade them to choose your plan!!!  Use catchy phrases/slogans and be sure to include the historical features of your plan (VA or NJ).  At the end of the period, we will vote on the most persuasive and appealing billboard – this group will receive extra credit on the Unit Assessment!!!
  44. 44. Closing Activity Survival Simulation Game…
  45. 45. A Bundle of Compromise Complete the graphic organizer - Big Idea: The main disagreement was over small points, not the fundamental questions. Nearly all delegates had agreed that a new national government had to be created (Federal Government), but it needed the powers necessary to deal with the nation’s problems.
  46. 46. Though the final draft was created after much debate, it had to be ratified (approved) by 9 of the 13 colonies … and this would be another difficult task.
  47. 47. FIGHT FOR RATIFICATION complete the graphic organizer …
  48. 48. Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists Anti-Federalists Federalists - Opposed Constitution - Favored Constitution - Believed Constitution was too - Believed Constitution was strong strong enough to solve - Wanted a Bill of Rights added to country’s problems protect individual freedoms - Supported a - Supported a Federal Government Confederate Government - Led by Alexander Hamilton and - Led by Patrick Henry and James Madison John Hancock
  49. 49. Your Turn… Working with one partner, you will create an  advertisement to support either the Federalists, or the Anti-Federalists. You will use this Ad to help debate / argue the Fed v. Anti-Fed P.O.V. Requirements:  Must convey an appropriate message Must make use of historical content Must FILL one blank sheet of paper Must use color NO STICK FIGURES 15 pts
  50. 50. Debating … Pair up with an opposing group  Engage in a debate, making sound arguments  in support of your position (using your Ad as supplemental evidence). Propose rebuttal questions to the opposing  team.
  51. 51. Closing Activity A compromise was eventually reached. To get  the Anti-Federalists to support the Constitution, the Federalists agreed that it would draft a Bill of Rights, listing the rights of citizens that were not to be violated by the federal government. Today, the Bill of Rights has proved to be vitally  important to the protection of basic rights of the American people… let’s take a look at this now
  52. 52. THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION
  53. 53. Daily Enduring Understanding The United States was founded on a set of ideas  and principles developed over many centuries. Those ideas helped give rise to a system of representative government based on the rule of law and a respect for individual rights and liberties.
  54. 54. Structure of Constitution Constitution   Provides basic framework for U.S. government  Outlines basic principles, structure and processes  Three part document:  Preamble  Articles  Amendments
  55. 55. F.Y.I. The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1788, is the oldest written constitution still in use anywhere in the world.
  56. 56. Structure of Constitution Preamble   Introduction to the Constitution  Lists ideas that the government should stand for and states purposes  We the people of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.”
  57. 57. Purpose of Government Form a More Perfect Union  Establish Justice  Insure Domestic Tranquility  Provide for the Common Defense  Promote the General Welfare  Secure the Blessings of Liberty 
  58. 58. Preamble Homework Discussion
  59. 59. Structure of Constitution Articles   Main body of the Constitution  Lay out basic structure of the national government  Further broken down into sections and clauses  Article I: Legislative branch  Article II: Executive branch  Article III: Judicial branch  Articles IV: Relations among the states  Article V: Amendment process  Article VI: Payment of debts; Supremacy Clause; oaths of office  Article VII: Ratification
  60. 60. Structure of Constitution Amendments   Formal changes made to the Constitution  Twenty-seven in total  First ten referred to as the Bill of Rights
  61. 61. Structure of U.S. Government Legislative Branch Three Branches of Government Executive Judicial Branch Branch
  62. 62. PRINCIPLES OF THE CONSTITUTION
  63. 63. Six Principles of the Constitution Principle - rule of action or conduct  Six principles established in the Constitution  Popular Sovereignty  Limited Government  Separation of Powers  Checks and Balances  Judicial Review  Federalism 
  64. 64. Constitutional Principle Explanation Idea that people are the source of all power Popular Sovereignty held by the government Government possesses only the powers the Limited Government people give it—it must obey the Constitution Establishes three separate branches, that share the government’s power. These Separation of Powers branches are the executive, the legislative and the judicial Ensures that none of the three branches can become too powerful. Each branch has ways Checks and Balances to limit the power of the other two (ex. President veto power) Power of the courts to decide what the Constitution means. The courts also have the Judicial Review power to declare a government action to be against the Constitution (unconstitutional). Divides the power between the central Federalism government and the States
  65. 65. EXPECTATIONS OBJECTIVE - All group members are Create & perform a skit that expected to work depicts a constitutional collaboratively to create the principle … providing a way skit for your classmates to remember the meaning come - All group members must exam and final time. participate in the exhibition See rubric for grading requirements Skits should be 2-3 minutes in length You are required to create and turn-in a script that will be Humor is appreciated! evaluated. SIX PRINCIPLE SKITS
  66. 66. THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION
  67. 67. Daily Enduring Understanding For more than 200 years, the Constitution has  served as a blueprint for republican government and a guarantor of basic rights and freedoms for the American people. It has endured because of its flexibility and the strength of its underlying principles.
  68. 68. Warm-Up Activity quot;The Constitution belongs to the living and not to the dead.“ - Thomas Jefferson Considering the quote above, explain how the Constitution has endured for over 200 years. In other words, what is Jefferson implying in this quote?
  69. 69. Checks and Balances HW Check
  70. 70. What you should be doing… Get out a blank piece of paper   Divide your papers into three hot dog style columns  Label the first column “principle”, label the middle column “suggestion or kudos” and label the last column “how it will help me remember for the test”  As your classmates present, fill out these columns  This will be collected and evaluated as part of your “attention to other presentations” grade.
  71. 71. PRINCIPLES OF DEMOCRACY Admit Ticket
  72. 72. Principles of American Democracy Notions of American Democracy • Equality of All Persons • Majority Rule, Minority Rights Protected • Necessity of Compromise •Individual Freedom • Choose 2 of the 4 principles of democracy listed above. • Draw two circles on your piece of paper. • Create PINs that illustrate YOUR OWN representation of each principle. Total of two pins will be created…
  73. 73. What does it mean to be an American? Ideals Values Goals Symbols

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