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Spinal Cord


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Spinal Cord

  1. 1. Spinal Cord <ul><li>Austin Penman </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen Newell </li></ul><ul><li>Logan su </li></ul><ul><li>Marissa Smallwood </li></ul>
  2. 2. Spinal Cord Function <ul><li>The Spinal Cord is a long, thin bundle of nervous tissue and support cells connected to the brain and located along your back and neck </li></ul><ul><li>The spinal cord receives and transmits electric signals throughout the entire body and then back to the brain </li></ul><ul><li>The spinal cord is protected by the vertebrae, which are bones running down your back, and also by cerebral spinal fluid, which helps to cushion the nerve tissue </li></ul>
  3. 3. Anatomy <ul><li>The spinal column is divided into four areas: Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, and Sacral </li></ul><ul><li>Each section contains nerves that control certain muscles of your body </li></ul><ul><li>Each nerve has its corresponding vertebrate, with the exception of C8 which is located between the C7 and the T1 vertebrates </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cervical Nerves <ul><li>The cervical section of the spinal cord is located in the neck </li></ul><ul><li>The cervical nerves control the motion and senses in the neck </li></ul><ul><li>There are 7 vertebrae protecting the cervical nerves, and 8 Cervical nerves. (C8 does not have its own corresponding vertebrate) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Thoracic Nerves <ul><li>The thoracic nerves are the spinal nerves emerging from the thoracic vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>There are 12 Thoracic nerves and 12 Thoracic vertebrae. </li></ul><ul><li>They run between the ribs and down your back. </li></ul><ul><li>Thoracic Nerves (nerves in the upper back) supply the trunk and abdomen. They control most of your torso. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Lumbar Nerves <ul><li>The lumbar vertebrae, L1-L5, carry the most amount of body weight and are subject to the largest forces and stresses along the spine. </li></ul><ul><li>The Spinal Cord ends at the L1-L2 area, though there are still nerves in the Lumbar area. </li></ul><ul><li>These nerves control most of the lower body function, such as your hips, thighs, legs and feet. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sacral Nerves <ul><li>There are 5 sacral vertebral bones, represented by symbols S1-S5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>situated between the lumbar vertebrae and the coccyx (the lowest bone in the vertebral column). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control your bodily functions: bladder, sexual organs, bowels, etc. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Common Causes of Spinal Damage
  9. 9. Spinal Cord Injury <ul><li>There are two types of Spinal Cord Injuries: Complete and Incomplete </li></ul><ul><li>Complete injuries- complete loss of sensation and motor functions at and below the point of injury. I.E. the spinal cord is severed at that point, or has undergone intense trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete injuries- partial damage to spinal cord, meaning there is only partial loss of sensation and motor function at the point of injury; portions below may or may not be affected </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cervical Nerve Injuries <ul><li>The cervical nerves are labeled C1-C8. </li></ul><ul><li>C1-C3 nerve injuries will result in loss of involuntary functions -such as breathing, which would require use of ventilators and breathing aids </li></ul><ul><li>C4 nerve injury results in significant loss of function at the biceps and shoulders </li></ul><ul><li>C5 nerve injury results in potential loss of function in the shoulders and biceps, and some loss of function in the wrists </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cervical Nerve Injuries Cont’d <ul><li>An injury in the C6-C8 vertebrates results in loss of function in the wrists, hands, and fingers. People with injuries at this level may be able to exercise their triceps, wrists and wriggle their fingers, but will have severe dexterity loss. </li></ul><ul><li>A severe injury in any of the Cervical nerves may result in quadriplegia, where you lose all or partial function of all four limbs. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Thoracic Nerves Injuries <ul><li>T1 nerve injury will cause loss of control of the hands, (because this nerve is so close to the C8 & C7 nerves) </li></ul><ul><li>T1-T8 nerve injuries will cause loss of function in abdominal muscles, such as the intercostals. </li></ul><ul><li>T8-T12 nerve injury will cause loss of function in torso area. </li></ul><ul><li>Injuries in Thoracic section of the spinal cord could possibly result in full or complete paraplegia , or loss of the function of legs </li></ul>
  13. 13. Lumbar Nerves Injuries <ul><li>L1 nerve injury would result in loss of function in your Quadratus lumborum , or lower back muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>L2-L5 nerve injuries would result in loss of function in your lower back, glueteus maximus (your butt), and legs. This may cause possible paraplegia. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Sacral Nerves Injuries <ul><li>Injuries to the Sacral nerves may involve loss of bladder functioning, ultimately requiring use of a catheter </li></ul>
  15. 15. Common Diseases and Problems <ul><li>Spina Bifida </li></ul><ul><li>Central Pain Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Scoliosis </li></ul><ul><li>Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Poliomyelitis </li></ul><ul><li>Meningitis </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Sclerosis </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse Myelitis </li></ul>
  16. 16. Spina Bifida <ul><li>Also known as “cleft spine” or “open spine” </li></ul><ul><li>Most common disabling birth defect in U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Neural tube defect , meaning problem with spinal cord or covering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>occurs when fetal spinal column does not close during first month of pregnancy; leaves infant’s spine protruding from back </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usually causes nerve damage; ultimately paralysis in legs </li></ul><ul><li>Often leads to: bowel or urinary problems, hydrocephalus (excess fluid in skull), or learning difficulties </li></ul>
  17. 17. Central Pain Syndrome <ul><li>A neurological condition caused by damage to or dysfunction of the central nervous system, and can be caused by stroke, tumors, epilepsy, or a separate and previously contracted disease. </li></ul><ul><li>May affect a large portion of the body or a small region. </li></ul><ul><li>Pain is typically constant, and differs in intensity. </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of touch sensations may result. </li></ul><ul><li>Pain medication, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants are the only treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Not fatal, but very disabling. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Scoliosis <ul><li>Causes sideways curve in spine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S or C shaped curves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most common in young adults, particularly females, following growth spurts of adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Can be temporary or birth defec t </li></ul><ul><li>Only severe cases require assista nce in the form of a back brace </li></ul>
  19. 19. Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome <ul><li>a neurological disorder caused by tissue attachments that limit the movement of the spinal cord within the spinal column and cause abnormal stretching. </li></ul><ul><li>results from improper growth of the neural tube (closely related to spina bifida) </li></ul><ul><li>symptoms may include lesions, hairy patches, dimples, or fatty tumors on the lower back; foot and spinal deformities; weakness in the legs; low back pain; scoliosis; and incontinence. </li></ul><ul><li>May go undiagnosed until adulthood. </li></ul><ul><li>As treatment, surgery is recommended to prevent further neurological deterioration. </li></ul><ul><li>If surgery is not advisable, spinal cord nerve roots may be cut to relieve pain. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Poliomyelitis <ul><li>Viral disease </li></ul><ul><li>Enters intestine, multiplies, spreads to nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly affects young children </li></ul><ul><li>Preventable by immunization </li></ul>
  21. 21. Meningitis <ul><li>Viral or bacterial infection causing inflammation of membranes covering spinal cord (or brain) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>viral usually clears without treatment; bacterial is severe and may cause brain damage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some forms are contagious; there are highly effective vaccines available to prevent bacterial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>can be spread through respiratory/throat secretions (coughing, kissing, sneezing); not as easily spread as cold or flu </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Multiple Sclerosis <ul><li>a chronic, often disabling disease that attacks the central nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms may be mild, such as numbness in the limbs, or severe, such as paralysis or loss of vision </li></ul><ul><li>Causation is unknown, but possible reasons include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immunologic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infectious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>more common in females, Caucasians, and those aged between 20-50 years old </li></ul><ul><li>no cure </li></ul><ul><li>treatment is primarily based off symptom management </li></ul>
  23. 23. Transverse Myelitis <ul><li>a neurological disorder caused by inflammation across both sides of a segment of the spinal cord. </li></ul><ul><li>The segment of the spinal cord at which the damage occurs determines which parts of the body are affected. </li></ul><ul><li>No effective cure currently exists. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>spontaneous recovery is possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 1/3 of patients show good or full recovery </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Kyphosis <ul><li>Also known as “hunchback” </li></ul><ul><li>Four main types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Postural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheuermann’s (disease) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congenital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commonly treated with orthosis by use of body braces, particularly Milwaukee brace </li></ul>
  25. 25. Types of Kyphosis <ul><li>Postural - usually attributed to slouching (bad postur e). Can be corrected in young; in old, also known as hyperkyphosis </li></ul><ul><li>Scheuermann’s - found predominately in teenagers; painful; worse deformities than postural. Posture cannot be willfully corrected. Vertebrae and disks appear irregular </li></ul><ul><li>Congenital - most commonly results from incorrect fetal spine development. Vertebrae malformed or fused together. Leads to other types of kyphosis later in life </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional - from nutritional deficiencies, especially of Vitamin D which softens bones, causing curvature under child’s weight </li></ul>