Frontal Lobe


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Frontal Lobe

  1. 1. Frontal Lobe Duke Keonavongsa Jacob Bisher Cody Snyder Asante Muhammad
  2. 2. Location <ul><li>Behind the forehead </li></ul><ul><li>In front of the central sulcus, which divides the frontal lobe and the parietal lobe. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Functions <ul><li>The Frontal lobe is considered the emotional control center and the home of our personality. </li></ul><ul><li>The frontal lobe controls higher level thinking: </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Impulse control </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Function </li></ul><ul><li>Initiation </li></ul><ul><li>Social/ Sexual Behavior </li></ul>Frontal Lobe
  4. 4. Left and Right <ul><li>Left </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for language related movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps convert thoughts into words </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Right </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for non verbal abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order and planning </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Neuroanatomy <ul><li>In the front: Prefrontal Cortex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls personality, concentration, and higher cognitive functions (behavior, emotions) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the back: Premotor and Motor Areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor areas have neurons which produce the movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Premotor area modifies these movements and stores muscle memory </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Gyri <ul><li>Precentral Gyrus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains the primary motor cortex. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Superior Frontal, Middle Frontal, and Inferior Frontal Gyrus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Located in the prefrontal cortex. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes part in the higher aspects of motor control and the planning and execution of behavior, tasks that require the integration of information over time. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Broca's Area <ul><li>Located in the left frontal </li></ul><ul><li>lobe, around the opercular </li></ul><ul><li>and triangular sections of </li></ul><ul><li>the inferior frontal gyrus. </li></ul><ul><li>Controls Facial Neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Controls Speech Production </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding Language </li></ul>
  8. 9. Pick’s Disease <ul><li>Causes a slow shrinking of brain cells in the frontal and temporal lobes due to excess protein build-up. </li></ul><ul><li>Classified as frontotemporal dementia. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>changes in behavior and personality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>problems with language. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The initial symptoms affect personality and behaviour more and memory rather less than those of Alzheimer's. </li></ul><ul><li>Strikes people between ages of 40 and 60. </li></ul><ul><li>Slightly more in woman than men. </li></ul><ul><li>After death Pick's disease can be distinguished from Alzheimer's because there are characteristic changes in affected areas, known as Pick's bodies and Pick's cells, that are found. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Alzheimer Disease <ul><li>Spread through the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Short-Term Memory, Forgetfulness </li></ul><ul><li>As it progresses, the disease causes muscle deterioration and decreases independence. In extreme cases, people cannot even feed themselves </li></ul><ul><li>The disease usually lasts 7-10 years </li></ul><ul><li>Patient usually dies of a heart attack or pneumonia </li></ul>
  10. 11. Parkinson's Disease <ul><li>It is characterized by muscle rigidity, tremor, a slowing of physical movement and a loss of physical movement in extreme cases. </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased stimulation of the motor cortex. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by the insufficient amount of dopamine. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Schizophrenia <ul><li>Schizophrenia occurs with changes in brain chemistry, specifically, excessive levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that transports signals between nerve endings in the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Significant changes in the activation of the brain's frontal and parietal lobes have been associated with schizophrenia. </li></ul><ul><li>People with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders produce too much dopamine. </li></ul>
  12. 14. The Damaged Brain <ul><li>Damage to the frontal lobes can lead to a variety of results: </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of simple movement of various body parts (Paralysis). </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to plan a sequence of complex movements needed to complete multi-stepped tasks, such as making coffee. </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of spontaneity in interacting with others. </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of flexibility in thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Persistence of a single thought. </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to focus on task. </li></ul><ul><li>Mood changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in social behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in personality. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty with problem solving. </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to express language (Broca's Aphasia). </li></ul>
  13. 15. Phineas Gage <ul><li>Phineas Gage (1823-1860) is one of the earliest documented cases of severe brain injury. </li></ul><ul><li>On 13th September, 1848, 25-year-old Gage and his crew were working on the Rutland and Burlington Railroad near Cavendish in Vermont. Gage was preparing for an explosion with explosive powder using a tamping iron. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Phineas Gage <ul><li>While he was doing this, a spark from the tamping iron ignited the powder, causing the iron to be propelled at high speed straight through Gage’s skull. It entered under the left cheek bone and exited through the top of the head, and was later recovered some 30 yards from the site of the accident. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Phineas Gage <ul><li>Damaged left side of frontal lobe more than right. </li></ul><ul><li>From energetic and smart to vulgar and irreverent. </li></ul><ul><li>The side that was damaged was not responsible for vital functions, but it was responsible for higher level thinking and social skills. </li></ul>