Emotion Notes

Theories of Emotion- bodily arousal, cognition, and expressed
behavior
 James-Lange- “J-L” jump, then labe...
 Facial-feedback hypothesis- according to this hypothesis,
  mimicking facial movements associated with an emotion can
  ...
Sexual Motivation Notes

• Hypothalamus stimulation (lateral) not only eating but frenzy
  sexual behaviors if sexual part...
• DANGER- erotic material may cause people to create false
  realities
• Female very affected by male smell- “musk” resear...
Achievement Motivation Notes

• Murray defines this as a desire for significant
  accomplishment, mastering skills and ide...
•   MIT social psychologist- Kurt Lewin- instrumental in
    “Japanese- style participative management” – employees need
 ...
o   Individuals with high fear  very “safe” paths or nearly
    impossible ones
       Allows failures since even they d...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Trapnsaprency Notes For Last Week

559 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
559
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Trapnsaprency Notes For Last Week

  1. 1. Emotion Notes Theories of Emotion- bodily arousal, cognition, and expressed behavior  James-Lange- “J-L” jump, then label- we feel sad because we cry; we become afraid because we run  Cannon-Bard- (Thalamic Theory) after the thalamus, the relay station in the mid brain, the recognition of physiological changes and the awareness of the emotion are processed simultaneously by the thalamus. Emotions accompany bodily responses to triggering stimuli but are not caused by them. o Pictures yourself standing next to a cannon that unexpectedly fires and you leap in the air while simultaneously expressing surprise  Schacter’s Two-Factor- Schachter- Singer Theory or Cognitive- Physiological Theory- The combination of physiological arousal and cognitive appraisal (labeling) of the source of the arousal produces the emotional state- the context in which they occur is considered.  LeDoux’s Dual-pathway model of fear- a pathway leads from the thalamus to the amygdale, which produces the initial fear response (bodily arousal), while a second pathway leads to the cortex, which further processes the fear stimulus and produces the conscious awareness of fear.  Opponent process theories- similar to drive reduction that suggests we are driven to satisfy needs in order to return to homeostasis. You first experience your initial emotion and then you have an opposing feeling.
  2. 2.  Facial-feedback hypothesis- according to this hypothesis, mimicking facial movements associated with an emotion can produce the corresponding emotional state.  Plutchik’s Color Wheel of Emotions- people experience 8 primary emotions and the combination of these primary emotions can produce the corresponding emotional state.  Cognitive emotional theories and stress o Hans Selye- we all deal with stress in much the same way- General Adaptation Syndrome G.A.S. - steps of alarm, resistance, and exhaustion A.R.E. o Richard Lazarus- individual cognitive appraisal of the situation is the key in responding to stress- first evaluate whether this is a stressful event to us (primary appraisal) and we then judge and how we can cope with the stressor (secondary appraisal)  Ekman on Universality of Facial Expressions- cross cultural studies support universal recognition of the facial expressions of six basic emotions: anger, fear, disgust, sadness, happiness, and surprise.  Physiological bases of emotion- emotions are accompanied by activation of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. Emotions are processed by the structures of the limbic system (the amygdale, hippocampus, and the parts of the hypothalamus) and by the cerebral cortex.  Strenberg’s Triangular Theory of love- different types of love can be characterized on the basis of different combinations of three basic components of love: intimacy, passion, and decision/commitment.
  3. 3. Sexual Motivation Notes • Hypothalamus stimulation (lateral) not only eating but frenzy sexual behaviors if sexual partner is available. • Hormones are important • First massive sexual practice survey study completed by Alfred Kinsey • Famous lab studies of WM. Masters and Virginia Johnson used volunteers to observe sexual characteristics. o Documents the sexual response cycle in women and men- 4 stages  Initial excitement- genital areas become engorged with blood, Respiration and heart rate increase.  Plateau phase- respiration and heart rate elevated, genitals secrete fluids in preparation ( enough sperm was secreted to impregnate)  Orgasm- rhythmic genital contractions may help conception, respiration, and heart rate increase further, males ejaculate; pleasure euphoria  Resolution phase- respiration and heart rate return to normal, men exp. Refractory period- a time period that arousal isn’t possible. Women don’t and can repeat cycle immediately. Psychological Factors of Sexual Motivation • Sex not only controlled by hormones • Sexual desire still there if “hardware” isn’t • Erotic material (visual/auditory) can inspire feelings and physiological response in men and women
  4. 4. • DANGER- erotic material may cause people to create false realities • Female very affected by male smell- “musk” research • More teenage pregnancy • Less than 10% of married people engaged in extramarital sex in the past year • The majority of AM. men do not approve of extramarital sex • Sex studies are very inaccurate- such as Kinsey’s studies • Alcohol consumption and marijuana use found to decrease self-awareness decreases sexual inhibitions Sexual Orientation • Heterosexual, bisexual, homosexual, asexual preferences • Homosexuality more common than bisexuality • Male homosexuality more common than female • Brain structure slight different- hypothalamus neural cluster- nucleus accumbens smaller in homosexuals • Hormonal levels in the prenatal environment of animals has been manipulated to alter sexual orientation • Single gene transplanted in fruit flies causes homosexual behavior • Reported environmental backgrounds of homo/hetero similar • Exposure to lifestyle doesn’t cause increase • Abuse doesn’t cause • Sexual abuse does cause sexual dysfunction and sexual aggression and hostility
  5. 5. Achievement Motivation Notes • Murray defines this as a desire for significant accomplishment, mastering skills and ideas, for control, and for rapidly attaining a high standard • Murray, McClelland, and Atikinson felt that people’s fantasies would reflect ideals of achievement • Intrinsic motivation- internal- achieve for your own sake • Extrinsic motivation- external rewards/ avoiding punishments • Controlling rewards- extrinsic motivation • Informative rewards- intrinsic motivation Ramifications in Management Needs of: Accomplishment Differ between all people Recognition Affiliation Power • Choosing an appropriate leadership style • Participative/democratic vs. authoritative/directive • Leaders must decide on a leadership style based on their assumptions about the human motivation of their workforce. • Douglas McGregor (1960) Theory X- Theory Y Theory o Theory X- workers are basically lazy and extrinsically motivated by money and incentives to work harder and with less waste- directive/authoritative o Theory Y- belief that workers also are intrinsically motivated- partcipative/democratic
  6. 6. • MIT social psychologist- Kurt Lewin- instrumental in “Japanese- style participative management” – employees need to participate to control their destiny. Kurt Lewin- Motivational Conflicts- also conflicts of other topic areas • Approach-approach conflict- 2 equally attractive options and couldn’t decide which one to choose. Both attractive but you can only opt for one of them. • Avoidance- avoidance conflict- you are compelled to choose between 2 equally unattractive options. Must do one or the other. • Approach- avoidance conflict- certain situation has both attractive and unattractive elements that make it difficult for you to decide what to do- EX. You are in love with someone but also fear losing your freedom if you commit. Drive to achieve has been attempted to be measured by various methods- • Thematic Apperception Test (T.A.T.) o Projective test o Presenting a photograph or picture to a volunteer and asking the volunteer to tell a story about it. o The stories are then rated for levels of achievement motivation. • McClelland and others have found that there is a link between desire to achieve and a fear of failure. o Individuals with high drive and low fear seek challenges that are worthy and reasonably attainable.
  7. 7. o Individuals with high fear  very “safe” paths or nearly impossible ones  Allows failures since even they don’t think they will succeed. o Martina Horner (1970) Projective Test  Supplied the first line of a possible story  Ask volunteers to take it from there  Rates drive to succeed  She found that women often fear success, they have a “will to fail”

×