Theories of Emotion- bodily arousal, cognition, and expressed
James-Lange- “J-L” jump, then label- we feel sad because
we cry; we become afraid because we run
Cannon-Bard- (Thalamic Theory) after the thalamus, the
relay station in the mid brain, the recognition of physiological
changes and the awareness of the emotion are processed
simultaneously by the thalamus. Emotions accompany bodily
responses to triggering stimuli but are not caused by them.
o Pictures yourself standing next to a cannon that
unexpectedly fires and you leap in the air while
simultaneously expressing surprise
Schacter’s Two-Factor- Schachter- Singer Theory or
Cognitive- Physiological Theory- The combination of
physiological arousal and cognitive appraisal (labeling) of the
source of the arousal produces the emotional state- the context
in which they occur is considered.
LeDoux’s Dual-pathway model of fear- a pathway leads
from the thalamus to the amygdale, which produces the initial
fear response (bodily arousal), while a second pathway leads
to the cortex, which further processes the fear stimulus and
produces the conscious awareness of fear.
Opponent process theories- similar to drive reduction that
suggests we are driven to satisfy needs in order to return to
homeostasis. You first experience your initial emotion and
then you have an opposing feeling.
Facial-feedback hypothesis- according to this hypothesis,
mimicking facial movements associated with an emotion can
produce the corresponding emotional state.
Plutchik’s Color Wheel of Emotions- people experience 8
primary emotions and the combination of these primary
emotions can produce the corresponding emotional state.
Cognitive emotional theories and stress
o Hans Selye- we all deal with stress in much the same
way- General Adaptation Syndrome G.A.S. - steps of
alarm, resistance, and exhaustion A.R.E.
o Richard Lazarus- individual cognitive appraisal of the
situation is the key in responding to stress- first evaluate
whether this is a stressful event to us (primary appraisal)
and we then judge and how we can cope with the stressor
Ekman on Universality of Facial Expressions- cross
cultural studies support universal recognition of the facial
expressions of six basic emotions: anger, fear, disgust,
sadness, happiness, and surprise.
Physiological bases of emotion- emotions are accompanied
by activation of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic
nervous system. Emotions are processed by the structures of
the limbic system (the amygdale, hippocampus, and the parts
of the hypothalamus) and by the cerebral cortex.
Strenberg’s Triangular Theory of love- different types of
love can be characterized on the basis of different
combinations of three basic components of love: intimacy,
passion, and decision/commitment.
Sexual Motivation Notes
• Hypothalamus stimulation (lateral) not only eating but frenzy
sexual behaviors if sexual partner is available.
• Hormones are important
• First massive sexual practice survey study completed by
• Famous lab studies of WM. Masters and Virginia Johnson
used volunteers to observe sexual characteristics.
o Documents the sexual response cycle in women and
men- 4 stages
Initial excitement- genital areas become engorged
with blood, Respiration and heart rate increase.
Plateau phase- respiration and heart rate elevated,
genitals secrete fluids in preparation ( enough sperm
was secreted to impregnate)
Orgasm- rhythmic genital contractions may help
conception, respiration, and heart rate increase
further, males ejaculate; pleasure euphoria
Resolution phase- respiration and heart rate return
to normal, men exp. Refractory period- a time
period that arousal isn’t possible. Women don’t and
can repeat cycle immediately.
Psychological Factors of Sexual Motivation
• Sex not only controlled by hormones
• Sexual desire still there if “hardware” isn’t
• Erotic material (visual/auditory) can inspire feelings and
physiological response in men and women
• DANGER- erotic material may cause people to create false
• Female very affected by male smell- “musk” research
• More teenage pregnancy
• Less than 10% of married people engaged in extramarital sex
in the past year
• The majority of AM. men do not approve of extramarital sex
• Sex studies are very inaccurate- such as Kinsey’s studies
• Alcohol consumption and marijuana use found to decrease
self-awareness decreases sexual inhibitions
• Heterosexual, bisexual, homosexual, asexual preferences
• Homosexuality more common than bisexuality
• Male homosexuality more common than female
• Brain structure slight different- hypothalamus neural cluster-
nucleus accumbens smaller in homosexuals
• Hormonal levels in the prenatal environment of animals has
been manipulated to alter sexual orientation
• Single gene transplanted in fruit flies causes homosexual
• Reported environmental backgrounds of homo/hetero similar
• Exposure to lifestyle doesn’t cause increase
• Abuse doesn’t cause
• Sexual abuse does cause sexual dysfunction and sexual
aggression and hostility
Achievement Motivation Notes
• Murray defines this as a desire for significant
accomplishment, mastering skills and ideas, for control, and
for rapidly attaining a high standard
• Murray, McClelland, and Atikinson felt that people’s
fantasies would reflect ideals of achievement
• Intrinsic motivation- internal- achieve for your own sake
• Extrinsic motivation- external rewards/ avoiding punishments
• Controlling rewards- extrinsic motivation
• Informative rewards- intrinsic motivation
Ramifications in Management
Needs of: Accomplishment Differ between all people
• Choosing an appropriate leadership style
• Participative/democratic vs. authoritative/directive
• Leaders must decide on a leadership style based on their
assumptions about the human motivation of their workforce.
• Douglas McGregor (1960) Theory X- Theory Y Theory
o Theory X- workers are basically lazy and extrinsically
motivated by money and incentives to work harder and
with less waste- directive/authoritative
o Theory Y- belief that workers also are intrinsically
• MIT social psychologist- Kurt Lewin- instrumental in
“Japanese- style participative management” – employees need
to participate to control their destiny.
Kurt Lewin- Motivational Conflicts- also conflicts of other
• Approach-approach conflict- 2 equally attractive options
and couldn’t decide which one to choose. Both attractive but
you can only opt for one of them.
• Avoidance- avoidance conflict- you are compelled to choose
between 2 equally unattractive options. Must do one or the
• Approach- avoidance conflict- certain situation has both
attractive and unattractive elements that make it difficult for
you to decide what to do- EX. You are in love with someone
but also fear losing your freedom if you commit.
Drive to achieve has been attempted to be measured by various
• Thematic Apperception Test (T.A.T.)
o Projective test
o Presenting a photograph or picture to a volunteer and
asking the volunteer to tell a story about it.
o The stories are then rated for levels of achievement
• McClelland and others have found that there is a link between
desire to achieve and a fear of failure.
o Individuals with high drive and low fear seek
challenges that are worthy and reasonably attainable.
o Individuals with high fear very “safe” paths or nearly
Allows failures since even they don’t think they will
o Martina Horner (1970) Projective Test
Supplied the first line of a possible story
Ask volunteers to take it from there
Rates drive to succeed
She found that women often fear success, they have
a “will to fail”