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  1. 1. 6 Apollo Landings on the Moon On each mission two astronauts went down to the Moon’s surface. The third astronaut had to stay in the Command-Service Module that was orbiting the Moon The launch in 1972 of Apollo 16
  2. 2. One View seen by Apollo 17 astronauts orbiting the Moon The maria are smooth, lower, and darker than the highlands The arrow is pointing to one crater that has a diameter of 20 kilometers!
  3. 3. Apollo 17 astronauts repaired a broken fender with a map and duct tape.
  4. 4. One key task for the people who will live and work at a lunar base is field geology. The real work of geology is mapping rock distributions and observing the different features in the field on both large and small scales. A common feature in basaltic lava flows on Earth is the lava tube. In the illustration, astronauts are examining a lava tube on the Moon.
  5. 5. This astronaut collected many walnut-sized rocks with a rake These samples proved to be extremely valuable because they provided a very broad sampling of the rock types present at the landing site.
  6. 6. Returned by the Apollo 15 Mission The holes are frozen gas bubbles called “vesicles”, a common feature of terrestrial volcanic rocks
  7. 7. Returned by the Apollo 15 mission Anorthosites are 98% Plagioclase Feldspar This kind of mineral rock is formed by either floating or sinking in a magma
  8. 8. Returned by the Apollo 16 mission Rock Rock fragments fragments mixed mixed together together are called are called breccias breccias With so many craters of all sizes in the lunar highlands, it is no wonder that the rocks have been modified by meteorite impact
  9. 9. The Moon has no running water or air to breathe, but its soil contains enormous amounts of oxygen This is a key This is a key element for element for life support rocket propellants can be extracted can be extracted from the surface from the surface materials by materials by reaction with reaction with hydrogen hydrogen It might be exported for use in Earth orbit or to fuel spacecraft on trips to Mars and elsewhere in the Solar System
  10. 10. Returned by the Apollo 17 mission Orange drops of lava cooled very quickly and did not have time crystallize so most of the droplets are composed of glass The dark drops did have time to partially crystallize, and so formed the opaque mineral ilmenite, which appears black. This view Is 2.5 millimeters across
  11. 11. NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, HOUSTON, TEXAS Samples remain in glass and steel cabinets, bathed in an atmosphere of pure nitrogen, to protect the samples from altering by reaction with air. Technicians who curate lunar samples don’t really touch them. They can pick them up using Teflon - covered gloves that are mounted on the sealed cabinets
  12. 12. Traditional ideas for the lunar origin had flaws so scientists devised an idea that the Moon formed as a result of an impact of a projectile the size of Mars. The impact melted our planet and some of the material spun off ending up in orbit around Earth forming our Moon. Painting by William Hartmann
  13. 13. The far-side of the Moon was never seen until the time of the Apollo era. The dark areas are called maria and they are barely visible from Earth The lighter areas are on average just a few kilometers higher than most of the maria and are intensely cratered.
  14. 14. NOW Use your own This is what the Earthrise imagination to looks like from lunar orbit envision YOU on the MOON Here you are, our Earth’s first Space Generation, explaining to a member of the next space generation just exactly where our ancestors came from.
  15. 15. During your lifetime, a lunar base will exist. TATA agrees to explore all alternatives to all of our energy needs. In your lifetime