EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP HMEF 5023 Dr. Allison Lee Gim Wah October 2009 topic 5 part 1
Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>The School as a Social System </li></ul><ul><li>Assumptions of a Socia...
Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Concept of Open Systems </li></ul><ul><li>A system is an entity made u...
Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>The Organization as a System </li></ul><ul><li>    Feedback </li></ul>...
Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Impact of the systems approach on leadership and </li></ul><ul><li>man...
Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Concept of Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Organization = a consciously...
Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Concept of Organizational Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational s...
Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Tall versus Flat Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Tall structure: </li>...
Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Concept of Organizational Culture </li></ul><ul><li>The set of values ...
Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Weberian Bureaucracy and Structures in Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Max W...
Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Benefits of Bureaucratic Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Maximizes rat...
Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Criticisms of the Weberian Bureaucratic Model </li></ul><ul><li>Divisi...
Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Role Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Getzels (1958, 1967) defined roles as th...
Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Roles of Principals </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-faceted and changing roles...
Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Sources of Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Who determines the roles of Princip...
Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>(c)  Reformation Era (The Present) </li></ul><ul><li>- emphasis on sta...
Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Role Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>3 dimensions of role expectations:...
Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Role Expectations and Role Perception Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>...
Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Value Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Every society has its own values and va...
Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Three Levels of Values </li></ul><ul><li>The Core or Sacred Values </l...
Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>The Secular Values </li></ul><ul><li>= Core values that manifest thems...
Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>The Operational Values </li></ul><ul><li>= the alteration of secular v...
Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Basic Principles of Education </li></ul><ul><li>Schools Belong to the ...
Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>2.  Education is a Function of the States </li></ul><ul><li>In the U.S...
Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Current Trends in the Education Scenario </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the...
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Educational Leadership (Hmef 5023) Topic 5

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Educational Leadership (Hmef 5023) Topic 5

  1. 1. EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP HMEF 5023 Dr. Allison Lee Gim Wah October 2009 topic 5 part 1
  2. 2. Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>The School as a Social System </li></ul><ul><li>Assumptions of a Social System (Miskel, 2001): </li></ul><ul><li>Are open systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Have people performing different roles. </li></ul><ul><li>Consist of interdependent parts, characteristics and activities that contribute to and receive from the whole. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal oriented. </li></ul><ul><li>Have structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Are normative to prescribe behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Are sanction bearing – norms for behavior are enforced through rewards and punishments. </li></ul><ul><li>Are political. </li></ul><ul><li>Have distinctive cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>Are conceptual and relative. </li></ul><ul><li>Are formal </li></ul>
  3. 3. Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Concept of Open Systems </li></ul><ul><li>A system is an entity made up of interrelated parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Systems may be “closed’ or “open.” </li></ul><ul><li>Closed systems are completely self-supporting and thus do not interact with the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Open systems interact with their environment and has 3 major characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Receive inputs or energy from the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Convert these inputs into outputs. </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Discharge outputs into the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Systems theory was developed by Ludwig Bertalanffy. All functioning entities should be viewed as systems composed of subsystems and acting as parts of larger systems. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>The Organization as a System </li></ul><ul><li> Feedback </li></ul>Technical Subsystem Psycho-Social Subsytem Structural Subsystem Goals and Values Subsystem Managerial Subsystem Inputs Outputs
  5. 5. Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Impact of the systems approach on leadership and </li></ul><ul><li>management </li></ul><ul><li>(a) An organization is the sum of all its parts. </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Every aspect of a system is important; if one </li></ul><ul><li>is ineffective, there are negative effects in </li></ul><ul><li>other parts. </li></ul><ul><li>(c) An organization is not a closed entity. </li></ul><ul><li>(d) Each organization is unique because </li></ul><ul><li>interacting parts and environments are not </li></ul><ul><li>identical. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Concept of Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Organization = a consciously coordinated social unit, </li></ul><ul><li>composed of two or more people, </li></ul><ul><li>that functions on a relatively </li></ul><ul><li>continuous basis to achieve a </li></ul><ul><li>common goal or set of goals. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Concept of Organizational Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational structure comprises functions, </li></ul><ul><li>relationships, responsibilities, authorities, and </li></ul><ul><li>communications of individuals within each </li></ul><ul><li>department. </li></ul><ul><li>The typical depiction of structure is the organizational chart. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of structures: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Functional – Divided according to specific functions </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Matrix – Arranged according to projects </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Divisional - Organization is split up into a number of self- </li></ul><ul><li>contained units. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Tall versus Flat Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Tall structure: </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralized authority </li></ul><ul><li>Many authority levels </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow span of control (No. of people reporting directly to a person) </li></ul><ul><li>Flat structure: </li></ul><ul><li>Centralized authority </li></ul><ul><li>Few authority levels </li></ul><ul><li>Wide span of control </li></ul>
  9. 9. Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Concept of Organizational Culture </li></ul><ul><li>The set of values and norms that ae shared by staff and which control the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders. </li></ul><ul><li>Determines the goals to be pursued and the standards of behaviour to adopt to attain goals. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Weberian Bureaucracy and Structures in Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Max Weber (1947) proposed bureaucracy as the basis of organizational structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of bureaucracies: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Division of labor and specialization of tasks </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Impersonal relationships </li></ul><ul><li>- scientific approach in decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>- decisions based on facts not affections or feelings </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Hierarchy of authority </li></ul><ul><li>- many levels of authority </li></ul><ul><li>- compliance to directives from superiors </li></ul><ul><li>(d) Rules and regulations </li></ul><ul><li>- to ensure uniformity, stability and efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>(e) Career orientations </li></ul><ul><li>- Recruitment based on technical and academic qualifications </li></ul><ul><li>- Promotions based on seniority and achievements </li></ul>
  11. 11. Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Benefits of Bureaucratic Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Maximizes rational decision-making and administrative efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Division of labor ensures every member is an expert in an area of specialization. </li></ul><ul><li>Rationality and the scientific approach bring precise results without wastage of resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of authority ensures subordinates executes their duties and responsibilities as planned. </li></ul><ul><li>The lines of authority, rules and regulations dictate all actions of subordinates. Therefore, there is compliance and less disagreements. </li></ul><ul><li>Recruitment is based on academic and technical qualifications which ensures the quality of the workforce. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Criticisms of the Weberian Bureaucratic Model </li></ul><ul><li>Division of labor causes boredom due to the repetitive nature of the job, which eventually leads to lower productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Impersonal orientation means there is lack of warmth and the personal touch. This leads to low morale. </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of authority promotes compliance among subordinates but this “top-down” management may disrupt effective and efficient communication. The lack of feedback may become dysfunctional. The boss may not always be right! </li></ul><ul><li>Rules and regulations provide stability, continuity and uniformity but lead to rigidity and inflexibility. Subordinates become less creative and less innovative and the organization may not adapt fast to changes in the environment or realize its goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Hiring and promotions may be based on qualifications and performance but there may be biasness and the use of ingratiation techniques to influence the boss resulting in much jealousy and conflict in the organization. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Role Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Getzels (1958, 1967) defined roles as the normative rights and duties that define what a person should or should not do under various circumstances while he is incumbent of a particular role within an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of roles: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Roles are complementary </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Roles are determined by the institution </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Roles are flexible having behaviors in a </li></ul><ul><li>continuum ranging from “required” to “prohibited” </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness in carrying out roles is measured by the extent of the incumbent in fulfilling the roles. </li></ul><ul><li>2 approaches to measure effectiveness: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Task approach </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Decision making approach </li></ul>
  14. 14. Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Roles of Principals </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-faceted and changing roles: </li></ul><ul><li>An executive bureaucrat </li></ul><ul><li>A humanistic facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>A leader in the teaching & learning process </li></ul><ul><li>The role of principals is closely related to the purpose of setting up the school, e.g., science residential schools, cluster schools, etc. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Sources of Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Who determines the roles of Principals? </li></ul><ul><li>- Education Ministry and its departments. </li></ul><ul><li>- Influence of 3 information ears (Foo, 2003): </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Intensification Era (1980-1987) </li></ul><ul><li>- focused on centralized administration, </li></ul><ul><li>planning and implementation to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>objectives of educational development. </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Restructuring Era (1988 – 1995) </li></ul><ul><li>- empowerment of the professionals and </li></ul><ul><li>client’s choice. </li></ul><ul><li>- More relaxed centralized control </li></ul><ul><li>- State Education Depts, District Education Officers and Principals </li></ul><ul><li>have more control and say about the administration of the schools. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>(c) Reformation Era (The Present) </li></ul><ul><li>- emphasis on standards, accountability and </li></ul><ul><li>privatization of education (Murphey & Adams, </li></ul><ul><li>1998); effective schools and cluster schools. </li></ul><ul><li>- Principals are required to raise the quality </li></ul><ul><li>standards of schools in terms of administration </li></ul><ul><li>matters and the management of students and </li></ul><ul><li>staff. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Role Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>3 dimensions of role expectations: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) The Principal’s perceptions of the teachers’ </li></ul><ul><li>expectations of the roles of the Principal. </li></ul><ul><li>(b) The Principal’s self-expectations of his/her </li></ul><ul><li>roles. </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Teachers’ expectations of the Principal’s roles. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Role Expectations and Role Perception Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Intraceptive Distance = The difference between Principal’s perceptions of teachers’ expectations and Principal’s self-expectations of the Principal’s roles. </li></ul><ul><li>- may cause disharmony in the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>- may be minimized if actual roles known. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative Distance = The difference between the Principal’s perceptions of teachers’ expectations and the teachers’ expectations of the Principal’s roles. </li></ul><ul><li>- causes greater misunderstandings between both </li></ul><ul><li>parties. </li></ul><ul><li>Existential distance = The difference between the Principal’s self-expectations and the teachers’ expectations of the Principal’s roles </li></ul><ul><li>- to overcome , a checklist of the roles, responsibilities and duties of the Principal and the teachers should be made known to both parties. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Value Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Every society has its own values and value systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders/Principals must be aware of his/her own value system and its interface with the value system of others, more so in a multi-racial and multi-cultural country like Malaysia. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Three Levels of Values </li></ul><ul><li>The Core or Sacred Values </li></ul><ul><li>= Values which are based on religious or belief system and are embedded in a society (e.g., democracy). </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as a source for the legal and political structure of a society. </li></ul><ul><li>Expressed in the Constitution, laws and ordinances, judicial decisions and interpretation by the courts, administrative orders and regulations, etc. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>The Secular Values </li></ul><ul><li>= Core values that manifest themselves in the form of secular values once they become the structures of a society. They are subject to wide interpretations and continue to change as the society changes (e.g., moral relativism, present-time orientation, materialism, etc.) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>The Operational Values </li></ul><ul><li>= the alteration of secular values to suit the taste or orientations of the society. </li></ul><ul><li>- As a society becomes more affluent and liberal, individualism becomes more prominent. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Basic Principles of Education </li></ul><ul><li>Schools Belong to the People </li></ul><ul><li>- the right to have an education is guaranteed to all citizens of Malaysia. </li></ul><ul><li>- 1960’s, Malaysian schools were run by a Board under the Unified Teaching Scheme which actually represented the people but due to administrative difficulties, education has been centralized at the Ministry of Education. </li></ul><ul><li>- Since then, there is much interference from politicians. The people has no say in the determination of the curriculum, etc. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>2. Education is a Function of the States </li></ul><ul><li>In the U.S., schools are controlled by the state governments. </li></ul><ul><li>In Malaysia, schools are controlled by the Federal Government. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Education is of Federal Interest </li></ul><ul><li>- The Federal Government plays a great role in the education of every citizen. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Education is Terms of the Individual </li></ul><ul><li>There should be opportunities for every individual in the society to pursue education. Financial difficulties should not be a deterrent. </li></ul><ul><li>Question: What are the merits and demerits of the practice of Meritocracy (as in S’pore, Japan, etc.) and the Quota System (as in M’sia)? </li></ul><ul><li>5. Education is Equally Available for All </li></ul><ul><li>- To ensure equal access to education, proper infrastructure and funding of students should be in place. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Topic 5:The School As A Social Organization <ul><li>Current Trends in the Education Scenario </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the innovations and changes in the </li></ul><ul><li>Malaysian Education Policy that reflect the current </li></ul><ul><li>and future trends in the education scenario. Give </li></ul><ul><li>specific examples and justify their importance and </li></ul><ul><li>feasibility. </li></ul>

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