Educational Leadership (Hmef 5023) Topic 4


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Educational Leadership (Hmef 5023) Topic 4

  1. 1. EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP HMEF 5023 Dr. Allison Lee Gim Wah October 2009 topic 4
  2. 2. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>What Is Motivation? </li></ul><ul><li>There are some 140 distinct definitions for the concept of motivation (Golembiewski, 1993). </li></ul><ul><li>Etymologically, motivation is derived from the Latin word motus , a form of the verb movere, which means “to move” (Steers & Porter, 1987). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Definitions of Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation is the degree to which a person is moved or aroused to expend effort to achieve some purpose. It refers to the psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation concerns actions, and the internal and external forces which influence an individual’s choice of action or engagement in certain specified behaviors. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Definitions of Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>3. Motivation is the willingness to exert high levels of effort towards organizational goals conditioned by the efforts ability to satisfy some individual need. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Motivation is getting people to do willingly and well those things which have to be done. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Why is motivation important? </li></ul><ul><li>Employees have different needs, aspirations, and attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>It explains: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) What energizes human behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>(b) What directs or channels behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>(c) How is behavior maintained or sustained? </li></ul><ul><li>There is a critical need to identify the motivated, the unmotivated, and the demotivated employee </li></ul>
  6. 6. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Characteristics of a motivated employee </li></ul><ul><li>High and consistent performance </li></ul><ul><li>Energetic, enthusiastic, and determined to succeed </li></ul><ul><li>Unstinting cooperation in overcoming problems </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to accommodate necessary change </li></ul>
  7. 7. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation Inner state of disequillibrium: Needs, desire, expectancy Behavior or Action Incentive or goal Modification of inner state A General Model of the Basic Motivation Process
  8. 8. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Types of Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Originated from the proponents of the behaviorist theories. </li></ul><ul><li>Involves external incentives, e.g., rewards and punishments. </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Originated from the proponents of the cognitive theories. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes factors such as self-direction, curiosity, challenge and effort. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Theories of Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Early Theories of Motivation: </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of Needs Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Theory X and Y </li></ul><ul><li>Motivator-Hygiene Theory / Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory </li></ul>
  10. 10. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Theories of Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary Theories of Motivation: </li></ul><ul><li>Existence, Relatedness, and Growth (ERG) Theory </li></ul><ul><li>McClelland’s Theory of Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Evaluation Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Task Characteristic Theories </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Requisite Task Attributes Theory </li></ul><ul><li>(b) The Job Characteristic Model (JCM) </li></ul><ul><li>Goal-setting Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Equity Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Expectancy Theory </li></ul>
  11. 11. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Motivation Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation theories fall into 2 main categories: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Content theories </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Process theories </li></ul><ul><li>Content theories explain the dynamics of employee needs, such as why people have different needs at different times. </li></ul><ul><li>Process theories describe the processes through which needs are translated into behavior. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Hierarchy of Needs Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed by Abraham Maslow. </li></ul><ul><li>People are motivated by the desire to satisfy specific groups of needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Needs are divided into “lower-order needs” and “higher-order needs.” </li></ul><ul><li>Lower-order needs are physiological and safety needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher-order needs are social, esteem and self-actualization needs. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Hierachy of Needs </li></ul><ul><li>1. Physiological needs = Need for food, sleep, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Safety needs = Need for a stable, secure environment </li></ul><ul><li>3. Social needs = Need for affection, belongingness, </li></ul><ul><li>acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>4. Esteem needs = Need for self-respect, status, recognition, </li></ul><ul><li>attention </li></ul><ul><li>5. Self-actualization needs = Need for self-fulfillment </li></ul>5 4 3 2 1
  14. 14. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Lower-order needs are fulfilled before the higher-order needs </li></ul><ul><li>As each of these needs becomes substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant </li></ul><ul><li>Implication: To motivate a person, leaders have to understand what level of the hierarchy that person is currently on and focus on satisfying those needs at or above that level. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Theory X and Theory Y </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed by Douglas McGregor </li></ul><ul><li>Two distinct views of human beings: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Theory X </li></ul><ul><li>– assumes subordinates dislike work, are lazy, </li></ul><ul><li>and must be coerced to perform. </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Theory Y </li></ul><ul><li>– assumes subordinates like work, are creative, </li></ul><ul><li>seek responsibility, and can exercise self- </li></ul><ul><li>direction </li></ul><ul><li>Implication: Theory X assumes lower-order needs </li></ul><ul><li>dominate individuals. Theory Y assumes higher- </li></ul><ul><li>order needs dominate individuals. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed by Frederick Herzberg </li></ul><ul><li>Herzberg conducted a research on 200 engineers and accountants to investigate what do people want from their jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Found that “motivators” or “satisfiers” such as achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement and growth lead to job satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hygiene” factors or “dissatisfiers” such as company policy, supervision, work conditions, salary, interpersonal relationships, status and security lead to dissatisfaction. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Satisfaction-Dissatisfaction Continuum </li></ul><ul><li>Typical View: </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction Dissatisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Herzberg’s View: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Satisfaction No Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>2. Dissatisfaction No Dissatisfaction </li></ul>
  18. 18. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Implication of Herzberg’s theory: </li></ul><ul><li>- Factors leading to job satisfaction are distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>- Leaders who seek to eliminate factors that create job dissatisfaction can bring about peace, but not necessarily motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>- To motivate, use intrinsically rewarding factors, e.g., emphasizing achievement, work itself, responsibility and growth. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Existence, Relatedness and Growth (ERG) Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Founded by Clayton Alderfer of Yale University who reworked on Maslow’s theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasized 3 needs </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Existence needs = concerned with basic existence </li></ul><ul><li>requirements </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Relatedness needs = desire to maintain </li></ul><ul><li>interpersonal relationships </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Growth needs = intrinsic desire for personal </li></ul><ul><li>development </li></ul>
  20. 20. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Contended: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) No rigid step-like progression of needs </li></ul><ul><li>(b) More than one need may be operative </li></ul><ul><li>simultaneously </li></ul><ul><li>(c) If gratification of a higher-level need is stifled, </li></ul><ul><li>the desire to satisfy a lower-level need </li></ul><ul><li>increases </li></ul><ul><li>Implication: Frustration may lead to a regression to a lower need e.g., inability to satisfy a need for social interaction might increase the desire for more money! </li></ul>
  21. 21. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>McClelland’s Theory of Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed by David McClelland </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on 3 needs: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Need for Achievement ( nAch) </li></ul><ul><li>= the drive to excel/succeed </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Need for Power ( nPow ) </li></ul><ul><li>= the desire to control/influence others </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Need for Affiliation ( nAff ) </li></ul><ul><li>= the desire for close interpersonal </li></ul><ul><li>relationships </li></ul>
  22. 22. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Implications: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) nAch individuals need to attain realistic but challenging goals. They need feedback on their performance. </li></ul><ul><li>(b) nPow individuals need to have impact. They prefer to be emplaced in competitive and status-oriented situations and are more concerned with prestige than effective performance. </li></ul><ul><li>(c) nAff individuals desire to be well-liked. They strive for friendship, prefer cooperative situations, rather than competitive ones. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Vroom’s Expectancy Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed by Victor Vroom (1964) </li></ul><ul><li>Examines motivation from the perspective of why individuals choose to follow a particular course of action. </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes people can be motivated to perform if they believe that there is a positive correlation between effort and reward. </li></ul><ul><li>3 variables involved in motivation: </li></ul>Motivation = Valence x Expectancy x Instrumentality
  24. 24. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Valence </li></ul><ul><li>= the importance individuals have with regards to the outcomes or rewards. (What do subordinates value?) </li></ul><ul><li>Expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>= the belief that effort leads to performance. (What are the expectations of subordinates?) </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumentality </li></ul><ul><li>= the belief that if individuals perform as expected, then they will get what they desired as promised. (Leaders must ensure promises of rewards are honored) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation Ability Motivation Effort Performance Outcomes (Rewards) Satisfaction Model of the Expectancy Theory
  26. 26. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Implication: </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation is determined by perceived expectancies, outcome values and a rational decision-making process. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Goal-Setting Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed by Edwin Locke </li></ul><ul><li>Intentions to work towards a goal are a major source of motivation because goals tell a person what needs to be done and how much effort to expend. </li></ul><ul><li>This theory is a cognitive approach and it states that: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Specific goals increase performance than a </li></ul><ul><li>generalized goal, e.g., “Do your best.” </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Difficult goals, when accepted, results in higher </li></ul><ul><li>performance than easy goal. </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Feedback leads to higher performance than does </li></ul><ul><li>non-feedback. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Self-efficacy (the individual’s belief the he/she is capable of performing the task), internal locus of control, and participative rather than assigned goals may affect the achievement of the goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Implication: </li></ul><ul><li>Direction, accuracy and clarity of goals are important for attainment of goals. Participation of subordinates in the setting of goals and feedback are essential for goal achievement. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Behavior Modification and Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior Modification </li></ul><ul><li>= the process of changing an undesired behavior to a desirable one. </li></ul><ul><li>= a systematic application of learning theories to bring about a desired change in the pattern of behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives of Behavior Modification </li></ul><ul><li>Increase and maintain desirable behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease and make extinct undesirable behaviors. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Theories of Behavior Modification </li></ul><ul><li>- Please refer to slides on Theories of Learning </li></ul>
  31. 31. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Principles of Behavior Change </li></ul><ul><li>Human behavior is due to learning which is guided by the laws of learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior is a product of learning, therefore, it can be unlearned and corrected. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior is influenced by results/consequences. It is strengthened by rewards and weakened by negative consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior is also controlled by internal and external factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Undesirable/maladjusted behavior can be changed by changing the environment (Nature vs nurture?) </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior is learnt by training, conditioning, or observing others. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Management of Behavioral Change </li></ul><ul><li>Steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Setting goals </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of baseline data </li></ul><ul><li>- gather data through observation, records, research etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention selection </li></ul><ul><li>- identify and implement intervention program </li></ul><ul><li>5. Evaluation </li></ul>
  33. 33. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Motivation and Students’ Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of students (Dweck,1986): </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Learning oriented students </li></ul><ul><li>- interested in achieving good grades </li></ul><ul><li>- motivated to learn </li></ul><ul><li>- positive perception towards self </li></ul><ul><li>- willing to take up challenges </li></ul><ul><li>- believe that intelligence is not fixed; the harder </li></ul><ul><li>they work, the smarter they become </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Image oriented students </li></ul><ul><li>- more interested in looking smart/making a good impression </li></ul><ul><li>- less motivated to work hard </li></ul><ul><li>- believes intelligence is predetermined by brains, not due to effort </li></ul><ul><li>- Self-esteem and pride are based on their impression management </li></ul>
  34. 34. Topic 4: Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>Attribution Theory and Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Many studies have been conducted to examine why some people are more motivated than others. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Attribution theory (Weiner, 1980), high achievers have these characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>- believe success is due to ability and effort. </li></ul><ul><li>- Do not quit easily. </li></ul><ul><li>- Choose moderate challenges </li></ul><ul><li>- Work very hard </li></ul>