Small Pox


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Small Pox

  1. 1. By: Myles Salazar, Stephanie Nieto, Maria Retana
  2. 2. The Origin of Smallpox <ul><li>It is uncertain. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed to have begun in Africa and spread to India and China. </li></ul><ul><li>1 st recorded outbreak of smallpox was during the Egyptian Hittite War (1350 BC). </li></ul><ul><li>Many epidemics occurred throughout the world for thousands of years. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Smallpox (also called variola) is the only disease that has completely wiped out throughout the world. </li></ul><ul><li>There are four types of variola: classic, hemorrhagic, malignant and modified. </li></ul><ul><li>They differ by certain types of bleeding sores in mucous tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Variola is a member of the orthopoxvirus genus, which also includes viruses such as cowpox and monkeypox. </li></ul><ul><li>Poxviruses are the largest viruses visible under a microscope. They are larger than some bacteria some bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Poxviruses are the only viruses that don’t need a cell’s nucleus to duplicate inside the cell. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 4 Types <ul><li>Classic smallpox was considered the most communicable disease; about 30% of unvaccinated people who came in contact with the virus were infected. </li></ul><ul><li>The hermorrhagic variety of variola had a much higher death rate (95%) than classic smallpox and lead to death more quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>The malignant or flat forms of smallpox affected 6% of the population and evolved slower than the classic type of smallpox but with a death rate of almost 100%. </li></ul><ul><li>The modified variety of variola essentially affected people who were vaccinated. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The virus begins growing in the blood steam from 72-96 hours after infected. </li></ul><ul><li>The initial symptoms that the person has are fever, body aches, headache, chills and vomiting. </li></ul><ul><li>After the initial symptoms the virus creates a rash that starts as macules (flat, red lesions) on the skin. Then vesicles (raised blisters) form and lastly pustules (pus filled blisters) appear. </li></ul><ul><li>Just after the rash appears, the virus is highly contagious as it moves into the mucous membrane. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Variolation <ul><li>People begin to make assumptions that survivors of the disease were immune the rest of their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Variolation was the 1 st attempt at cure. </li></ul><ul><li>Consisted of grinding up scabs into powder taken from an infected person and blowing in the nostrils of a non immune patient. </li></ul><ul><li>2%-3% died of smallpox after variolation. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The disease survived through continual person to person transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>The body sheds the cells and virus particles are release by coughing and sneezing (through saliva) into the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>The virus is acquired by inhalation. </li></ul><ul><li>Virus particles could remain on items such as clothing, bedding and surfaces for a week. </li></ul><ul><li>An infected person can be infectious for up to 3 weeks until the scabs fall off (2-4 weeks) </li></ul><ul><li>It was the most contagious during the first week of the infection. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Treatment <ul><li>No proven treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Only thing done was to give them Intravenous Fluids and medicine to control fever and pain. </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotics, given to prevent possible bacterial infections. </li></ul><ul><li>There have always been treatments researched against smallpox. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Comes from latin root “vaca” meaning cow. </li></ul><ul><li>The fluid taken from a cowpox pustule was taken from the milk maids hands to create a vaccine against smallpox. </li></ul><ul><li>Was given to millions of Americans over many decades. </li></ul><ul><li>There were no long term side effects were found that might have been caused by vaccintation. </li></ul>
  10. 10. How Common Is It? <ul><li>The disease has been officially eradicated. </li></ul><ul><li>It used to be spread worldwide and caused massive epidemics leading to death. </li></ul><ul><li>The last known epidemic was in Somalia in 1977, after words the world was declared free of the disease by the World Health Assembly (1980). </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The last case in USA was in 1949. </li></ul><ul><li>People began to fear that the locked up smallpox virus in the two labs (one in the USA, the other in Russia) would reach terrorist s and that they would use it as a biological weapon. </li></ul><ul><li>President Bush announced a plan to protect Americans by an outbreak of vaccinations. </li></ul><ul><li>Bush has worked with state and local governments to develop national stockpile of the vaccine. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Citations <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>   </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>