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Risk Mgmnt&Pl 08 Dba Pr

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“Risk Management in Premises Liability”

Requires Quality Control in Design, Construction & Maintenance

 Slip and Fall Accidents caused by slippery floors, standing water and foreign objects, ice and snow.
 Trip and Fall Accidents caused by uneven floor surfaces, faulty steps, poor lighting and house keeping.
 Falling objects from store shelves, adjacent construction work, dead or dying trees.
 Malfunctioning equipment, including automatic door closures, escalators and elevators.
 Lack of security, insufficient lighting and surveillance, lack of access controls and building and grounds features enabling criminal intent or facilitating accidents.
 Pool drowning.

Published in: Design
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Risk Mgmnt&Pl 08 Dba Pr

  1. 1. “ Risk Management in Premises Liability” Design, Construction & Maintenance Johann F. Szautner, P.E., P.L.S. Cowan Associates, Inc.
  2. 2. The Accident <ul><li>A hazard exists </li></ul><ul><li>A person who is unaware of the hazard. </li></ul><ul><li>A foreseeable event </li></ul><ul><li>An unforeseeable event </li></ul>
  3. 3. Risks and Safety <ul><li>What is a Risk? </li></ul><ul><li>What is Safety? </li></ul><ul><li>Define Acceptable Risks </li></ul><ul><li>Define Un-acceptable Risk </li></ul><ul><li>System Analysis </li></ul>
  4. 4. System Life Cycle <ul><li>Conceptual Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Design & Development </li></ul><ul><li>Production, Fabrication & Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution, Deployment & Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Disposal, Termination & Retirement </li></ul>
  5. 5. Hazard Identification <ul><li>Mechanical Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Kinetic Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Acoustic Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Radiant Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Hazards </li></ul>
  6. 6. Legal Status of Possessor of Land <ul><li>Knows or by exercise of reasonable care, should discover hazard as an unreasonable risk, and </li></ul><ul><li>Should expect that they will not discover or realize the danger, or will fail to protect themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Fails to exercise reasonable care to protect them against the danger </li></ul>
  7. 7. Restatement of Torts Provides <ul><li>A possessor of land is not liable to his invitees for physical harm caused by any condition on the land, whose danger is known or obvious </li></ul><ul><li>Unless the possessor anticipated the injury despite the invitee’s knowledge or the obviousness of the condition </li></ul><ul><li>Possessor of land does not owe the invitee a duty to prevent or warn against open and obvious dangers. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Risk Doctrine Absolves Landowner from Liability <ul><li>If plaintiff knows of the risk or hazard </li></ul><ul><li>And voluntary proceeds in that activity </li></ul>
  9. 9. Examples of Premises Liability <ul><li>Slip and Fall Accidents caused by slippery floors, standing water and foreign objects, ice and snow. </li></ul><ul><li>Trip and Fall Accidents caused by uneven floor surfaces, faulty steps, poor lighting and house keeping. </li></ul><ul><li>Falling objects from store shelves, adjacent construction work, dead or dying trees. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Additionally… <ul><li>Malfunctioning equipment, including automatic door closures, escalators and elevators. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of security, insufficient lighting and surveillance, lack of access controls and building and grounds features enabling criminal intent or facilitating accidents. </li></ul><ul><li>Pool drowning. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Standards <ul><li>Municipal Ordinances and Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>State Codes and Regulations - IBC DEP, NFPA, Penn. DOT </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Codes and Regulations –FEMA, OSHA, CPSC; </li></ul><ul><li>Industry Standards - ASTM, ANSI, ASSE </li></ul>
  12. 12. Legal Doctrines <ul><li>Hills & Ridges </li></ul><ul><li>Trivial Defect </li></ul><ul><li>Attractive Display </li></ul><ul><li>Attractive Nuisance </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of Ways </li></ul>
  13. 13. GOLD STANDARD OR RED HERRING SR = 0.5 = safe walking maybe ?! People can walk on ice if they know that they are walking on ice.
  14. 14. Exterior Walkway Hazards <ul><li>An elevation difference of half of an inch or more is sufficient to cause a trip. </li></ul><ul><li>Slippery surfaces are marble, wood and ceramic tile, especially when wet. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Walkway Hardware Hazards <ul><li>Grates, utility boxes, manhole covers, etc., should not be placed on walkways. </li></ul><ul><li>If they are, provide slip resistant covers, set flush with surrounding surface and inspect them on a regular basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Openings in grates shall be less than 0.5 inches in the direction of travel. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Parking Lot Hazards <ul><li>Pot Holes : Guard and/or sign them immediately and repair them as soon as practical. </li></ul><ul><li>Wheel Stops and Speed Bumps : Pedestrian tripping is very common, ASTM-F 1637 discourages its use. If used provide visual cues, such as traffic yellow paint, signage & adequate lighting. </li></ul><ul><li>Disabled Zones : Flared ramp transitions cause many tripping and stumbling accidents. Provide straight slope ramps whenever possible. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Interior Floor Surface Hazards <ul><li>Floor Transitions: Keep elevation differences at less than a quarter inch. Provide slip resistant edging. </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning protocol : Restrict access to cleaning operations. Ascertain that finishes and detergents and buffing operations are compatible. </li></ul><ul><li>Use mats at entrances to prevent water and snow from being dragged in. Use mats in areas prone to spills of liquids. Use absorbent gripper mats with beveled edges. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Short Cut Hazards <ul><li>Owner created or permitted pedestrian paths through lawn, shrubbery or other hazardous areas will imply owner’s responsibility for a safe walking surface. </li></ul><ul><li>If no path exists, pedestrian taking short cut assumes risks inherent to such environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Choice between maintained and un-maintained access. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Attractive Display <ul><li>Self service stores displays are purposefully arranged to distract the customer’s field of view from the aisles to eye level and higher display of goods. </li></ul><ul><li>Casinos use floor cover patterns and colors which have a tiring effect on customers forcing them to look up to the slot machines and gaming tables. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Single Step Fall <ul><li>Step not anticipated, visually concealed and/or poorly lit </li></ul><ul><li>IBC requires use of a ramp for changes of elevation < 12” within egress path </li></ul><ul><li>IBC defines single step as stairway </li></ul><ul><li>IBC prohibits single steps on accessible routes, except for use groups F, H, R-2 & R - 3 </li></ul><ul><li>IBC requires placement of one hand rail </li></ul>
  21. 21. Falls from Stairs <ul><li>Provide adequate landings </li></ul><ul><li>Provide consistent step dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Provide slip resistant surface </li></ul><ul><li>Provide railings </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid visual camouflage </li></ul><ul><li>Provide adequate lighting </li></ul>
  22. 22. Accident system
  23. 23. Hazard Resolution Sequence <ul><li>Accepted Hierarchy by NSC and ANSI : </li></ul><ul><li>Design to eliminate or minimize the hazard. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide guarding and safety devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide warning devices and signs. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide procedures and training, including personal protection equipment. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Slip & Fall - 1
  25. 25. Slip & Fall - 2
  26. 26. Slip & Fall - 3
  27. 27. The Trip & Fall - 1
  28. 28. The Trip & Fall - 2
  29. 29. The Trip & Fall - 3
  30. 30. Close-up of Trip & Fall - 3
  31. 31. The Trip & Fall - 4
  32. 32. The single step fall -1
  33. 33. The single step fall - 2
  34. 34. The single step fall - 3
  35. 35. Fall from height
  36. 36. Stair Fall
  37. 37. Stair Stumble & Fall
  38. 38. The Speed Bump - Trip & Fall -1
  39. 39. The Speed Bump - Trip & Fall - 2
  40. 40. The Short Cut - Trip & Fall
  41. 41. Icy spot Slip & Fall
  42. 42. Falling from being hit by Car
  43. 43. Falling in open Manhole
  44. 44. Risk Management <ul><li>Floor maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Staircase </li></ul><ul><li>Walkways </li></ul><ul><li>Ramps </li></ul><ul><li>Parking lots </li></ul><ul><li>Speed bumps and wheel stops </li></ul><ul><li>Shoes </li></ul>
  45. 45. Risk Evaluation <ul><li>Analyzing prior claim & incident reports </li></ul><ul><li>Self-inspections </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Inclement weather precautions </li></ul><ul><li>Employee training </li></ul><ul><li>Health & safety plan </li></ul><ul><li>Guarding and signing </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring results </li></ul>
  46. 46. Thank You for Listening - any Questions <ul><li>?? </li></ul><ul><li>?? </li></ul><ul><li>?? </li></ul><ul><li>?? </li></ul>

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