Normas y Estándares

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Normas y Estándares

  1. 1. Module 4: Examining the Network <br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />Scope of Networks<br />Basic Connectivity Components<br />Network Topologies<br />Network Technologies <br />Expanding the Network<br />
  3. 3. Scope of Networks<br />Local Area Network<br />Wide Area Network<br />
  4. 4. <ul><li>Basic Connectivity Components</li></ul>Network Adapters<br />Network Cables<br />Wireless Communication Devices<br />
  5. 5. Network Adapters<br /><ul><li>Receive data and convert it into electrical signals
  6. 6. Receive electrical signals and convert them into data
  7. 7. Determine if the data received is for a particular computer
  8. 8. Control the flow of data through the cable</li></li></ul><li>Network Cables<br />Twisted-Pair<br />Unshielded (UTP)<br />Shielded (STP)<br />10BaseT<br />Coaxial<br />ThinNet<br />ThickNet<br />10Base2, 10Base5<br />Fiber-Optic<br />Types of Cables<br />
  9. 9. Wireless Communication Devices<br />Infrared Transmission<br />Narrowband Radio Transmission<br />Wireless Communication Devices<br />
  10. 10. <ul><li>Network Topologies</li></ul>Bus Topology<br />Star Topology<br />Ring Topology<br />Mesh Topology<br />Hybrid Topologies<br />
  11. 11. Bus Topology<br />Segment<br />Terminator<br />Terminator<br />
  12. 12. Star Topology<br />Hub<br />
  13. 13. Ring Topology<br />
  14. 14. Mesh Topology<br />
  15. 15. Hybrid Topologies<br />Star-Bus<br />Bus<br />Star-Ring<br />
  16. 16. <ul><li>Network Technologies</li></ul>Ethernet<br />Token Ring<br />Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)<br />Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)<br />Frame Relay<br />
  17. 17. Ethernet<br />Characteristics<br />Description<br />Access Method<br />CSMA/CD<br />Transfer Speed<br />Standard Ethernet – 10 Mbps<br />Fast Ethernet – 100 Mbps<br />Gigabit Ethernet – 1 Gbps (1000 Mbps)<br />Collision Detection<br />Carrier Sense Multiple Access<br />Detects signal<br />Transmits signal<br />Collision detected<br />
  18. 18. Token Ring<br />Physical Ring<br />Logical Ring<br />MSAU<br />Characteristics<br />Description<br />Access Method<br />Tokenpassing<br />Transfer Speed<br />4 to 16 Mbps for all cable types<br />
  19. 19. Asynchronous Transfer Mode<br />ATM<br />Switch<br />Cell<br />ATM<br />Switch<br />Cell<br />ATM <br />Switch<br />Characteristics<br />Description<br />Access Method<br />Point-to-point. Transfers fixed-sized packets from one computer to anotherthrough ATM switching equipment<br />Transfer Speed<br />Fiber-optic at 155 Mbps to 622 Mbps <br />
  20. 20. Fiber Distributed Data Interface<br />Secondary Ring<br />Primary Ring<br />Characteristics<br />Description<br />Access Method<br />Token passing<br />Transfer Speed<br />Fiber-optic at 155 Mbps to 622 Mbps<br />
  21. 21. Frame Relay<br />Characteristics<br />Description<br />Access Method<br />Point-to-point<br />Transfer Speed<br />Dependent upon transmittal capabilities of digital leased lines<br />Main Office<br />Frame Relay Network<br />Frame<br />Branch Offices<br />Frame<br />Frame<br />
  22. 22. <ul><li>Expanding the Network </li></ul>Repeaters and Hubs<br />Bridges<br />Switches<br />Routers<br />Gateways<br />Remote Access Connectivity Types<br />Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)<br />Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)<br />X.25<br />Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)<br />
  23. 23. Repeater<br />Transmits data to <br />all connected computers<br />Repeaters and Hubs<br />Hub<br />Transmits data to all connected<br /> computers in a star topology<br />Repeater<br />Hub<br />
  24. 24. Bridges<br />Bridge<br />
  25. 25. Switches<br />Switch<br />
  26. 26. Routers<br />Router<br />Router<br />Router<br />Router<br />
  27. 27. Gateways<br />Ethernet<br />Token Ring<br />Gateway<br />
  28. 28. Remote Access Connectivity Types<br />Dial-up Remote Access<br />Remote Access Server<br />Remote Access Client<br />Virtual Private Network<br />Internet<br />Tunnel<br />Remote Access Client<br />Windows 2000 VPN Server<br />CorporateIntranet<br />
  29. 29. Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) <br />Telephone <br />Wires<br />PSTN<br /><ul><li>Analog Voice Data
  30. 30. Worldwide Availability
  31. 31. Analog Modem
  32. 32. 56 Kbps</li></ul>Client<br />Server<br />Analog Modem<br />Analog<br />Modem<br />
  33. 33. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) <br />Digital Telephone Lines or Telephone Wires<br /><ul><li>International Communication Standard
  34. 34. Digital Transmission
  35. 35. Extends over Local Telephone Exchange
  36. 36. ISDN Modem
  37. 37. 64 Kbps or Faster</li></ul>ISDN Modem<br />Client<br />Server<br />ISDN <br />Modem<br />ISDN<br />
  38. 38. X.25<br />PAD Service<br />Client<br />Server<br />Modem<br />X.25 Smart Card<br />X.25<br /><ul><li>Based on Packet Switching
  39. 39. X.25 Packet Assembler/Disassembler (PAD)
  40. 40. Client Configuration
  41. 41. Server Configuration</li></li></ul><li>Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)<br />ADSL Wires<br />LAN<br />Adapter<br />LAN<br />Adapter<br />Client<br />Server<br />ATM<br />Adapter<br />ATM<br />Adapter<br />ADSL<br /><ul><li>Copper Telephone Lines
  42. 42. Simultaneous Voice and Data Transmission
  43. 43. 1.5 to 9 Mbps Downstream Rate
  44. 44. 16 to 640 Kbps Upstream Rate
  45. 45. LAN Interface or Dial-up Interface</li></li></ul><li>Lab A: Examining the Network Architecture<br />
  46. 46. Review<br />Scope of Networks<br />Basic Connectivity Components<br />Network Topologies<br />Network Technologies<br />Expanding the Network<br />
  47. 47. Module 5: Examining Network Protocols<br />
  48. 48. Overview<br />Introduction to Protocols<br />Protocols and Data Transmissions<br />Common Protocols<br />Other Communication Protocols<br />Remote Access Protocols<br />
  49. 49. <ul><li>Introduction to Protocols</li></ul>Types of Protocols<br />Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model<br />Protocol Stacks<br />
  50. 50. Types of Protocols<br /><ul><li>Open Protocols</li></ul>TCP/IP<br />Internet<br /><ul><li>Vendor-Specific Protocols</li></ul>IPX/SPX<br />
  51. 51. Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model<br />Application Layer<br />Presentation Layer<br />Session Layer<br />Transport Layer<br />Network Layer<br />Data Link Layer<br />Physical Layer<br />
  52. 52. Protocol Stacks<br />Application Protocols<br />Application Layer<br />Application Layer<br />Application Protocols<br />Presentation Layer<br />Presentation Layer<br />Session Layer<br />Session Layer<br />Transport Protocols<br />Transport Protocols<br />Transport Layer<br />Transport Layer<br />Network Layer<br />Network Layer<br />Network Protocols<br />Network Protocols<br />Data Link Layer<br />Data Link Layer<br />Physical Layer<br />Physical Layer<br />
  53. 53. <ul><li>Protocols and Data Transmissions</li></ul>Routable/Non-Routable Protocols<br />Types of Data Transmission<br />
  54. 54. Routable Protocols<br />Non-Routable Protocols<br />Router<br />TCP/IP<br />NetBEUI<br />Router<br />TCP/IP<br />NetBEUI<br />Routable/Non-Routable Protocols<br />
  55. 55. Types of Data Transmissions<br />Broadcast<br />Unicast<br />Multicast<br />
  56. 56. <ul><li>Common Protocols</li></ul>Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)<br />Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX)<br />NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface (NetBEUI)<br />AppleTalk<br />
  57. 57. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)<br />Routed Network Environment<br />Windows Client<br />Windows Client<br />Segment 1<br />Segment 2<br />Router<br />TCP/IP<br />TCP/IP<br />
  58. 58. Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX)<br />Router<br />Routed Network Environment<br />Windows 2000<br />Server<br />NetWare Client<br />Segment 1<br />Segment 2<br />IPX/SPX<br />IPX/SPX<br />
  59. 59. NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface (NetBEUI)<br />Routed Network Environment<br />Routed Network Environment<br />Windows Client<br />Windows Client<br />Windows Client<br />Windows Client<br />Segment 1<br />Segment 2<br />Segment 1<br />Segment 2<br />Router<br />Router<br />NetBEUI<br />NetBEUI<br />NetBEUI<br />NetBEUI<br />
  60. 60. AppleTalk<br />Routed Network Environment<br />Windows 2000<br />Server<br />Macintosh Client<br />Segment 1<br />Segment 2<br />Router<br />AppleTalk<br />AppleTalk<br />
  61. 61. <ul><li>Other Communication Protocols</li></ul>Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)<br />Infrared Data Association (IrDA)<br />
  62. 62. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)<br />Transmission of Video, Audio, or Data by Using ATM<br />ATM Switch<br />ATM Switch<br />
  63. 63. Infrared Data Association (IrDA)<br />Wireless Communication by Using IrDA<br />Windows Client<br />Laptop<br />Mouse<br />
  64. 64. <ul><li>Remote Access Protocols</li></ul>Dial-up Protocols<br />VPN Protocols<br />
  65. 65. Dial-up Protocols<br />TCP/IP<br />PPP<br />Internet<br />NetBEUI<br />TCP/IP<br />or IPX/SPX<br />PPP<br />TCP/IP<br />SLIP<br />Local Area Network<br />Remote Access Server Windows 2000 Server<br />Remote Access Client<br />Windows 2000 Professional<br />Remote Access Server Windows 2000 Server<br />UNIX SLIP<br />Server<br />
  66. 66. VPN Protocols <br />PPTP<br />L2TP<br /><ul><li>Internetwork must be IP-based
  67. 67. Header compression
  68. 68. No tunnel authentication
  69. 69. Uses MPPE encryption
  70. 70. Internetwork can be IP, frame relay, X.25, or ATM-based
  71. 71. Header compression
  72. 72. Tunnel authentication
  73. 73. Uses IPSec encryption</li></ul>PPTP or L2TP<br />TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, NetBEUI traffic<br />Remote Access Client<br />RemoteAccess Server<br />IPSec<br /><ul><li>Ensures data security in IP-based communications
  74. 74. Can be used by both PPTP and L2TP</li></li></ul><li>Lab A: Identifying Protocol Capabilities<br />
  75. 75. Review<br />Introduction to Protocols<br />Protocols and Data Transmissions<br />Common Protocols<br />Other Communication Protocols<br />Remote Access Protocols<br />
  76. 76. Module 6: Examining TCP/IP <br />
  77. 77. Overview<br />Introduction to TCP/IP<br />TCP/IP Protocol Suite<br />Name Resolution<br />Examining the Data Transfer Process<br />Routing Data<br />
  78. 78. <ul><li>Introduction to TCP/IP</li></ul>The Communication Process<br />TCP/IP Layers<br />Identifying Applications<br />
  79. 79. The Communication Process<br />Post Office<br />Post Office<br />Post Office<br />Post Office<br />Name<br />Name<br />Name<br />Address<br />Address<br />Address<br />Name<br />Address<br />
  80. 80. TCP/IP Layers<br />Application Layer<br />Application Layer<br />FTP<br />HTTP<br />Transport Layer<br />Transport Layer<br />UDP<br />TCP<br />Internet Layer<br />Internet Layer<br />IP<br />ICMP<br />IGMP<br />ARP<br />Network Interface Layer<br />Network Interface Layer<br />Ethernet<br />ATM<br />
  81. 81. Identifying Applications<br />IP Address + TCP Port or UDP Port<br />= Socket<br />TCP Port 20, 21<br />FTP<br />HTTP<br />FTP Server<br />UDP<br />TCP<br />TCP Port 80<br />192.168.2.150<br />HTTP Server<br />
  82. 82. <ul><li>TCP/IP Protocol Suite</li></ul>Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)<br />User Datagram Protocol (UDP)<br />Internet Protocol (IP)<br />Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)<br />Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)<br />Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)<br />TCP/IP Utilities<br />
  83. 83. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)<br />UDP<br />TCP<br />IP<br />ICMP<br />IGMP<br />ARP<br />
  84. 84. User Datagram Protocol (UDP)<br />UDP<br />TCP<br />IP<br />ICMP<br />IGMP<br />ARP<br />
  85. 85. Internet Protocol (IP)<br />Router<br />UDP<br />TCP<br />IP<br />ICMP<br />IGMP<br />ARP<br />
  86. 86. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)<br />Router<br />UDP<br />TCP<br />IP<br />ICMP<br />IGMP<br />ARP<br />
  87. 87. Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)<br />UDP<br />TCP<br />IP<br />ICMP<br />IGMP<br />ARP<br />
  88. 88. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)<br />1<br />5<br />ARP<br />Cache<br />ARP<br />Cache<br />2<br />B<br />3<br />6<br />A<br />UDP<br />TCP<br />4<br />C<br />1. ARP cache is checked<br />2. ARP request is sent<br />3. ARP entry is added<br />4. ARP reply is sent<br />5. ARP entry is added<br />6. IP packet is sent<br />IP<br />ICMP<br />IGMP<br />ARP<br />
  89. 89. TCP/IP Utilities<br />Arp<br />Hostname<br />Ipconfig<br />Nbstat<br />Netstat<br />Ping<br />Tracert<br />Ftp<br />Connectivity <br />Utilities<br />Diagnostic <br />Utilities<br />Telnet<br />Tftp<br />TCP/IP <br />Printing <br />Service<br />Server-based<br />Software<br />Internet <br />Information<br />Services<br />
  90. 90. Lab A: Using TCP/IP Utilities<br />
  91. 91. <ul><li>Name Resolution</li></ul>Types of Names<br />Static IP Mapping<br />Dynamic IP Mapping<br />Name Resolution in Windows 2000<br />
  92. 92. Types of Names<br /><ul><li>Assigned to a computer’s IP address
  93. 93. 255 characters in length
  94. 94. Can contain alphabetic and numeric characters, hyphens, and periods
  95. 95. Can take various forms
  96. 96. Alias
  97. 97. Domain name </li></ul>Host Names<br /><ul><li>16-byte address
  98. 98. Used to represent a single computer or group of computers
  99. 99. 15 of the characters may be used for the name
  100. 100. 16th character is used by the services that a computer offers to the network </li></ul>NetBIOS Names<br />
  101. 101. Static IP Mapping<br /><ul><li>Provides name resolution for host names to IP addresses
  102. 102. Multiple host names can be assigned to the same IP address
  103. 103. Entries are case sensitive</li></ul>Hosts File<br /><ul><li>Provides name resolution for NetBIOS names to IP addresses
  104. 104. A part of the Lmhosts file is pre-loaded into memory</li></ul>Lmhosts File<br />
  105. 105. Dynamic IP Mapping<br /><ul><li>DNS is a system for naming computers and network services
  106. 106. DNS naming system is organized in a hierarchical fashion
  107. 107. Maps domain names to IP address
  108. 108. Mapping records are stored on a DNS server</li></ul>DNS Server<br /><ul><li>Provides a distributed database for registering dynamic mappings of NetBIOS names
  109. 109. WINS maps NetBIOS names to IP addresses</li></ul>WINS Server<br />
  110. 110. Name Resolution in Windows 2000<br />Host Name Resolution<br />NetBIOS Name Resolution<br />LMHOSTS<br />File<br />Host Name Resolution<br />LMHOSTS<br />File<br />8<br />1<br />Enter Command<br />1<br />8<br />1<br />Enter Command<br />Enter Command<br />Broadcast<br />7<br />2<br />Local Host Name<br />7<br />DNS Server<br />HOSTS<br />File<br />Broadcast<br />2<br />NetBIOS Name Cache<br />3<br />6<br />WINS Server<br />2<br />7<br />Local Host Name<br />HOSTS<br />File<br />5<br />6<br />4<br />DNS Server<br />NetBIOS Name Cache<br />HOSTS<br />File<br />3<br />WINS Server<br />1<br />Enter Command<br />7<br />DNS Server<br />6<br />WINS Server<br />3<br />2<br />NetBIOS Name Cache<br />HOSTS<br />File<br />LMHOSTS<br />File<br />6<br />NetBIOS Name Resolution<br />5<br />Broadcast<br />4<br />5<br />3<br />WINS Server<br />DNS Server<br />NetBIOS Name Cache<br />4<br />LMHOSTS<br />File<br />5<br />Broadcast<br />4<br />
  111. 111. <ul><li>Examining the Data Transfer Process</li></ul>Packet Terminology<br />Frame Components<br />Data Flow<br />
  112. 112. Packet Terminology<br /><ul><li>Segment
  113. 113. Message
  114. 114. Datagram
  115. 115. Frame</li></li></ul><li>Frame Components<br />Header<br />Data<br />Trailer<br />0.5 KB - 4 KB<br />CRC<br />Source<br />Address<br />Alert Signal<br />Destination<br />Address<br />
  116. 116. Data Flow<br />CRC<br />CRC<br />Data<br />Data<br />Data<br />Data<br />Data<br />Data<br />Data<br />Data<br />Data<br />Data<br />Data<br />FTP<br />HTTP<br />FTP<br />HTTP<br />FTP<br />HTTP<br />FTP<br />HTTP<br />FTP<br />HTTP<br />FTP<br />HTTP<br />Application<br />Application<br />Transport<br />Transport<br />UDP<br />TCP<br />UDP<br />TCP<br />UDP<br />TCP<br />UDP<br />TCP<br />UDP<br />TCP<br />UDP<br />TCP<br />Internet<br />Internet<br />IP<br />ICMP<br />IGMP<br />ARP<br />IP<br />ICMP<br />IGMP<br />ARP<br />IP<br />ICMP<br />IGMP<br />ARP<br />IP<br />ICMP<br />IGMP<br />ARP<br />IP<br />ICMP<br />IGMP<br />ARP<br />IP<br />ICMP<br />IGMP<br />ARP<br />Preamble<br />Preamble<br />Ethernet<br />ATM<br />Ethernet<br />ATM<br />Ethernet<br />ATM<br />Ethernet<br />ATM<br />Ethernet<br />ATM<br />Ethernet<br />ATM<br />
  117. 117. <ul><li>Routing Data</li></ul>IP Routing <br />Data Transfer Across Routers<br />
  118. 118. IP Routing<br />Portion of Routing Table<br />192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.1<br />192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.1<br />192.168.3.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.3.1<br />192.168.4.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.4.1<br />192.168.5.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.5.1<br />192.168.6.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.6.1<br />192.168.7.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.7.1<br />192.168.8.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.8.1<br />Router<br />IP Routing<br />
  119. 119. Data Transfer Across Routers<br />Verify packet<br />Verify IP address<br />Send the packet up to the next layer<br />Is destination local?<br /> Yes, add the destination MAC address No, add the router’s MAC address<br />Always add the destination’s IP address<br />Is destination local?<br /> Yes, add the destination MAC address No, add the Router’s MAC address<br />Always add the destination’s IP address<br />Verify packet<br />Decrease TTL<br />Is destination local? Yes, add the destination MAC address No, add another Router’s MAC address<br />Verify packet<br />Verify IP address<br />Send the packet up to the next layer<br />Verify packet<br />Decrease TTL<br />Is destination local? Yes, add the destination MAC address No, add another router’s MAC address<br />Router 1<br />A<br />B<br />C<br />D<br />Router 2<br />
  120. 120. Lab B: Identifying Processes and Protocols in TCP/IP<br />
  121. 121. Review<br />Introduction to TCP/IP<br />TCP/IP Protocol Suite<br />Name Resolution<br />Examining the Data Transfer Process<br />Routing Data <br />
  122. 122. Module 7: Examining IP Addressing <br />
  123. 123. Overview<br />Classful IP Addressing<br />Subnetting a Network<br />Planning IP Addressing<br />Assigning TCP/IP Addresses<br />
  124. 124. <ul><li>Classful IP Addressing</li></ul>IP Addresses<br />IP Address Classes<br />
  125. 125. IP Addresses<br />IP<br />Address<br />192.168.1.100<br />192.168.2.100<br />192.168.3.100<br />192.168.1.0<br />192.168.3.0<br />192.168.2.0<br />Network ID<br />192.168.1.100<br />192.168.2.101<br />Host ID<br />
  126. 126. IP Address Classes<br />Class A<br />Network ID<br />Host ID<br />Class B<br />Network ID<br />Host ID<br />Class C<br />Network ID<br />Host ID<br />w<br />x<br />y<br />z<br />
  127. 127. <ul><li>Subnetting a Network</li></ul>Subnets<br />Subnet Masks<br />Determining Local and Remote Hosts<br />
  128. 128. Subnet 1<br />Subnet 2<br />1<br />2<br />Subnets<br />Hub<br />Hub<br />Router<br />
  129. 129. Subnet Masks<br />IP<br />Address<br />IP<br />Address<br />IP<br />Address<br />Subnet<br />Mask<br />10.<br />50.100.200<br />10.50.<br />100.200<br />10.50.100.<br />200<br />255.255.<br />0.0<br />Subnet<br />Mask<br />Subnet<br />Mask<br />Subnet<br />Mask<br />255.<br />0.0.0<br />255.255.<br />0.0<br />255.255.255.<br />0<br />IP<br />Address<br />192.168.<br />Network<br />ID<br />Network<br />ID<br />Network<br />ID<br />2.200<br />192.168.<br />10.<br />0.0.0<br />10.50.<br />0.0<br />10.50.100.<br />0<br />Host ID<br />Network ID<br />
  130. 130. Determining Local and Remote Hosts<br />Example 1<br />Example 2<br />1<br />2<br />1<br />2<br />Local Hosts<br />Remote Hosts<br />A<br />D<br />A<br />D<br />192.168.1.100<br />192.168.1.100<br />192.168.2.100<br />Subnet Mask<br />Subnet Mask<br />255.255.0.0<br />255.255.255.0<br />B<br />E<br />B<br />E<br />192.168.2.100<br />Router<br />Router<br />C<br />F<br />C<br />F<br />
  131. 131. Lab A: Determining Class Addresses and Subnet Masks<br />
  132. 132. <ul><li>Planning IP Addressing</li></ul>Addressing Guidelines<br />Assigning Network IDs<br />Assigning Host IDs<br />
  133. 133. Addressing Guidelines<br />The First Number in the Network ID Cannot Be 127<br />The Host ID Cannot Be All 255s <br />The Host ID Cannot Be All Zeros <br />The Host ID Must Be Unique to the Local Network ID<br />
  134. 134. Assigning Network IDs<br />Router<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />10.0.0.0<br />192.168.2.0<br />172.16.0.0<br />
  135. 135. Assigning Host IDs<br />Router<br />172.16. 0.1<br />10.0.0.1<br />1<br />2<br />172.16. 0.10<br />10.0.0.10<br />192.168.2.1<br />192.168.2.10<br />172.16. 0.11<br />10.0.0.11<br />192.168.2.11<br />172.16. 0.12<br />10.0.0.12<br />3<br />10.0.0.0<br />192.168.2.0<br />172.16.0.0<br />
  136. 136. Lab B: Identifying Valid IP Addresses<br />
  137. 137. <ul><li>Assigning TCP/IP Addresses</li></ul>Static IP Addressing<br />Automatic IP Addressing<br />Viewing TCP/IP Configuration<br />Viewing TCP/IP Configuration Using Ipconfig<br />
  138. 138. Static IP Addressing<br />Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties<br />General<br />You can get IP settings assigned automatically if your network supports this capability. Otherwise, you need to ask your network administrator for the appropriate IP settings.<br />Obtain an IP address automatically<br />Use the following IP address:<br />192 . 168 . 1 . 200<br />IP address:<br />255 . 255 . 255. 0<br />Subnet mask :<br />192. 168 . 1 . 1<br />Default gateway:<br />Obtain DNS server address automatically<br />Use the following DNS server addresses:<br />Preferred DNS server:<br />Alternate DNS server:<br />Advanced...<br />OK<br />Cancel<br />
  139. 139. Automatic IP Addressing<br />Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties<br />General<br />You can get IP settings assigned automatically if your network supports this capability. Otherwise, you need to ask your network administrator for the appropriate IP settings.<br />Obtain an IP address automatically<br />Use the following IP address:<br />IP address:<br />Subnet mask :<br />Default gateway:<br />Obtain DNS server address automatically<br />Use the following DNS server addresses:<br />Preferred DNS server:<br />Alternate DNS server:<br />Advanced...<br />OK<br />Cancel<br />
  140. 140. Viewing TCP/IP Configuration<br />Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties<br />General<br />You can get IP settings assigned automatically if your network supports this capability. Otherwise, you need to ask your network administrator for the appropriate IP settings.<br />Obtain an IP address automatically<br />Use the following IP address:<br />192 . 168 . 1 . 200<br />IP address:<br />255 . 255 . 255. 0<br />Subnet mask :<br />192. 168 . 1 . 1<br />Default gateway:<br />Obtain DNS server address automatically<br />Use the following DNS server addresses:<br />Preferred DNS server:<br />Alternate DNS server:<br />Advanced...<br />OK<br />Cancel<br />
  141. 141. Viewing TCP/IP Configuration Using Ipconfig<br />Command Prompt<br />Microsoft Windows 2000 [version 5.00.2195]<br />(C) Copyright 1985-1999 Microsoft Corp.<br />C:&gt;ipconfig<br />Windows 2000 IP Configuration<br />Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection:<br /> Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :<br /> IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.1.200<br /> Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0<br /> Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.1.1<br />C:&gt;_<br />
  142. 142. Lab C: Examining the Configuration of TCP/IP<br />
  143. 143. Review<br />Classful IP Addressing<br />Subnetting a Network<br />Planning IP Addressing<br />Assigning TCP/IP Addresses<br />
  144. 144. Module 8: Optimizing IP Address Allocation <br />
  145. 145. Overview<br />Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR )<br />Binary IP Addresses<br />Binary Subnet Masks<br />IP Address Allocation Using CIDR<br />
  146. 146. Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)<br />Limitations of Classful IP Addressing<br />Defining CIDR<br />
  147. 147. Limitations of Classful IP Addressing<br />Wastes IP Addresses<br />Adds Multiple Entries to Routing Tables<br />2000<br />Allocated<br />63,534<br />Wasted<br />Class B<br />Class C<br />Network ID<br />Host ID<br />Network ID<br />Host ID<br />255<br />0<br />255<br />0<br />255<br />255<br />255<br />0<br />w<br />x<br />y<br />z<br />w<br />x<br />y<br />z<br />Company Network IDs<br />Internet<br />192.168.1.0<br />192.168.2.0<br />Network of 2000 Computers<br />Assigned 65,534 IP Addresses<br />192.168.3.0<br />Portion of Internet Routing Tables<br />192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.1<br />192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.1<br />192.168.3.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.3.1<br />192.168.4.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.4.1<br />192.168.5.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.5.1<br />192.168.6.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.6.1<br />192.168.7.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.7.1<br />192.168.8.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.8.1<br />192.168.4.0<br />192.168.5.0<br />192.168.6.0<br />192.168.7.0<br />192.168.8.0<br />
  148. 148. Defining CIDR<br />IP Address in Dotted Decimal Notation<br />w<br />x<br />y<br />z<br />10.217.123.7<br />4 Values<br />Network ID<br />Host ID<br />32 Values<br />IP Address in Binary Notation<br />00001010 11011001 0111101100000111<br />
  149. 149. <ul><li>Binary IP Addresses</li></ul>Converting to Binary Format<br />Converting to Binary Format Using a Calculator<br />
  150. 150. Converting to Binary Format<br />Decimal Notation (Base 10)<br />Binary Notation (Base 2)<br />104<br />103<br />102<br />101<br />100<br />27<br />26<br />25<br />24<br />23<br />22<br />21<br />20<br />10,000<br />1,000<br />100<br />10<br />1<br />8 Bits<br />128<br />64<br />32<br />16<br />8<br />4<br />2<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />0<br />2<br />1<br />7<br />1<br />1<br />0<br />1<br />1<br />0<br />0<br />1<br />0*104<br />2*103<br />1*102<br />7*101<br />1*128<br />1*64<br />0*32<br />1*16<br />1*8<br />0*4<br />0*2<br />1*1<br />128<br />64<br />32<br />16<br />8<br />4<br />2<br />1<br />128<br />64<br />0<br />16<br />8<br />0<br />0<br />1<br />0<br />200<br />10<br />7<br />Decimal Value 255<br />Example<br />Example<br />217<br />217<br />
  151. 151. Calculator<br />Edit View Help<br />0.<br />Standard<br />Scientific<br />Hex<br />Dec<br />Oct<br />Bin<br />Degrees<br />Radians<br />Grads<br />Hex<br />Decimal<br />Octal<br />Binary<br />F5<br />F6<br />F7<br />F8<br />Inv<br />Hyp<br />Backspace<br />CE<br />C<br />Sta<br />Sta<br />F-E<br />[<br />]<br />MC<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />/<br />Mod<br />And<br />Degrees<br />Radians<br />Grads<br />F2<br />F3<br />F4<br />MR<br />Or<br />Ave<br />dms<br />Exp<br />In<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />*<br />Xor<br />Sum<br />sin<br />x^y<br />log<br />MS<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />-<br />Lsh<br />Not<br />Digit grouping<br />s<br />cos<br />x^3<br />nl<br />M+<br />0<br />+/-<br />.<br />+<br />=<br />Int<br />Dat<br />tan<br />x^2<br />1/x<br />pi<br />A<br />B<br />C<br />D<br />E<br />F<br />Converting to Binary Format Using a Calculator<br />
  152. 152. Lab A: Using Windows Calculator to Convert Decimal and Binary Numbers <br />
  153. 153. <ul><li>Binary Subnet Masks</li></ul>Subnet Mask Bits<br />CIDR Notation<br />Calculating theNetwork ID<br />Determining Local and Remote Hosts<br />
  154. 154. Subnet Mask Bits<br />Binary Representation<br />Decimal Representation<br />11111111<br />255<br />w<br />x<br />y<br />z<br />11111110<br />254<br /> 10 . 217 . 123 . 7<br />11111100<br />252<br />Network ID<br />Host ID<br />11111000<br />248<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />11110000<br />240<br />11100000<br />224<br />11000000<br />192<br /> 255 . 255 . 255 . 0<br />10000000<br />128<br />00000000<br />0<br />
  155. 155. CIDR Notation<br />IP<br />Address<br /> 10 . 217 . 123 . 7<br />00001010 11011001 01111011 00000111<br />Subnet <br />Mask<br /> 255 . 255 . 240 . 0<br />11111111 11111111 11110000 00000000<br />Number of Subnet Mask Bits (ones)<br />8 + 8 + 4 + 0 = 20<br />IP Address in <br />CIDR Notation<br />10.217.123.7/20<br />
  156. 156. Calculating the Network ID <br />IP Address in CIDR Notation: 10.217.123.7/20<br />IP<br />Address<br /> 10 . 217 . 123 . 7<br />00001010 11011001 01111011 00000111<br />Subnet <br />Mask<br /> 255 . 255 . 240 . 0<br />11111111 11111111 11110000 00000000<br />Network<br />ID<br />00001010 11011001 01110000 00000000<br />Network ID in <br />CIDR Notation<br />10.217.112.0/20<br />
  157. 157. Determining Local and Remote Hosts<br />Local Host Example<br />Remote Host Example<br />1<br />2<br />1<br />2<br />A<br />A<br />D<br />D<br />00001010 11011001 01111011 00000111<br />00001010 11011001 01111011 00000111<br />10.217.123.7/10<br />10.217.123.7/ 20<br />Router<br />Router<br />B<br />B<br />E<br />E<br />0000101011011010 01100110 00000011<br />0000101011011010 01100110 00000011<br />10.218.102.31/20<br />10.218.102.31/10<br />C<br />C<br />F<br />F<br />
  158. 158. Lab B: Determining Local and Remote Destinations<br />
  159. 159. <ul><li>IP Address Allocation Using CIDR</li></ul>Available Host IDs<br />Optimizing the Allocation of IP Addresses<br />
  160. 160. Available Host IDs<br />Subnet Mask<br />Network ID<br />Host ID<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />N<br />Number of Host IDs : 2n - 2<br />
  161. 161. Optimizing the Allocation of IP Addresses<br />After Subnetting<br /> Routing Table for Router B<br /> Routing Table for Router B<br />Before Supernetting:<br /> Routing Table for Router B<br />After Supernetting:<br />220.78.168.0 255.255.252.0 220.78.168.1<br />220.78.168.0 255.255.252.0 220.78.168.1<br />220.78.168.0 255.255.255.0 220.78.168.1<br />220.78.168.0<br />220.78.169.0 255.255.255.0 220.78.168.1<br />220.78.168.64<br />220.78.170.0 255.255.255.0 220.78.168.1<br />220.78.171.0 255.255.255.0 220.78.168.1<br />220.78.168.128<br />Router A<br />220.78.168.0<br />220.78.168.192<br />Router B<br />Router B<br />Router A<br />Router B<br />220.78.169.0<br />220.78.169.0<br />RouterA<br />220.78.169.64<br />220.78.168.0<br />220.78.169.128<br />220.78.170.0<br />220.78.169.192<br />220.78.170.0<br />220.78.171.0<br />220.78.170.64<br />
  162. 162. Lab C: Allocating IP Addresses<br />
  163. 163. Review<br />Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR )<br />Binary IP Addresses<br />Binary Subnet Masks<br />IP Address Allocation Using CIDR<br />

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