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The heart and cardiac cycle

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The heart and cardiac cycle

  1. 1. The Heart and Cardiac Cycle
  2. 2. What Do We Remember? <ul><li>Why is blood type AB+ the universal recipient? </li></ul><ul><li>What would happen if someone receives blood that is not compatible with their own? </li></ul><ul><li>What does plasma do? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the three layers of arteries? </li></ul><ul><li>What would happen if veins had no valves? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do veins have a lower blood pressure than arteries? </li></ul><ul><li>What blood vessels carry oxygen poor blood? </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Heart <ul><li>The pump that drives the cardiovascular system is the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Drives blood down through your arms, legs, head and throughout every organ in your body. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not drive blood through the body in a circle, but more in a figure 8 pattern. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The heart pumps blood along 2 pathways in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>1. The Pulmonary Circuit </li></ul><ul><li>2. The Systemic Circuit </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary Circuit : Heart pumps blood to the lungs and back to the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>deoxygenated blood leaves heart  pulmonary artery  lungs  oxygenated blood enters pulmonary vein  heart </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic Circuit : Carries blood from the heart to the body organ systems and back to the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>oxygenated blood leaves heart  aorta  body systems  deoxygenated blood enters superior/inferior vena cava  heart </li></ul><ul><li>Whole circuit takes about 90 seconds. </li></ul>
  5. 6. The Heart <ul><li>Consists of 4 chambers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right and left atriums, and right and left ventricles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A 2 pump system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right and left side of the heart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The septum separates the 2 sides of the heart and keeps oxygen rich blood from mixing with oxygen poor blood. </li></ul>
  6. 8. The 4 Chambers of the Heart <ul><li>Atria (plural): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper chambers are the each is an atrium . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right atrium and left atrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The atria receive blood that is returning to the heart. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The blood is then transferred to ventricles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ventricles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower chambers of the heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right ventricle and left ventricle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ventricles receive blood from the atria and pump blood from the heart </li></ul></ul>
  7. 10. Valves in the Heart <ul><li>Atrioventricular Valves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate atrium from ventricle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tricuspid valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bicuspid (mitral) valve </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semilunar Valves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor blood flow leaving the ventricles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary valve (to the lungs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aortic valve (to the rest of the body). </li></ul></ul>Valves of the Heart Video
  8. 11. Right Lung Left Lung
  9. 12. Systole and Diastole <ul><li>Systole - contractions of the heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) a 0.1 second contraction of the atria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Completely fills the ventricles with blood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Followed by 0.3 second contraction of the ventricles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This closes atrioventricular valves and forces open the semilunar valves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pumps blood into the large arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood also flows into the atria at this time while ventricles are contracted. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diastole - entire heart is relaxed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atrialventricular valves are open </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood flows into all 4 chambers </li></ul></ul>http:// www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/hhw/hhw_all.html The Movement of Blood Through the Heart
  10. 13. Electrical System of the Heart Sinoatrial Node “ Pacemaker” Atrioventricular Node Start 1 2 3 4
  11. 14. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/hhw/hhw_electrical.html
  12. 15. Questions <ul><li>What are the four chambers of the heart? </li></ul><ul><li>The right side of the heart contains oxygen poor blood. True/False? </li></ul><ul><li>What chamber pumps the blood to the rest of the body? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the heart’s “pacemaker”? </li></ul><ul><li>Why might someone need an artificial pacemaker? </li></ul><ul><li>What does systole mean? </li></ul><ul><li>How would being scared affect your heart rate? </li></ul>
  13. 16. Assignment: <ul><li>Label the parts of the heart diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Using a flow chart, follow the flow of blood from the vena cava to the rest of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. </li></ul><ul><li>Right atrium ►Right Ventricle ►…. </li></ul><ul><li>This will be handed in </li></ul>

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