The Romans Create a Republic Rome was founded in ________ BC by Romulus and Remus. The city was located near a ford on the _________ River. Because the ______________ Peninsula is located centrally in the Mediterranean region, the city of Rome was destined to be an economic powerhouse. From around 1000 to 500 BC three groups: Greeks, __________, and Etruscans fought for control of the region called ___________. Rome was built on a collection of ___ hills – the largest being the Palatine. The early Romans became skilled at growing grapes and _________: an essential commodity in cooking and other uses. The Romans adopted religious ideas from the Greeks to include _______________. The gods of Greece were known by different names that we associate today with the _________________. 753 Tiber Italian Latins Latium 7 olives mythology planets
The Senate <ul><li>300 Members </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled public funds, determined foreign policy, and acted as court. </li></ul><ul><li>Could call for a dictator in time of crisis. </li></ul>Dictator: could rule for a maximum of six months and would be both the military and judicial authority. Julius Caesar claimed himself Dictator for life.
Popular Assemblies <ul><li>Assembly of citizens, normally made up of common people. (Plebeians) </li></ul><ul><li>Voted to make war and peace. </li></ul><ul><li>Elected 10 Tribunes </li></ul>Tribunes: elected reps from the assembly. They could refuse to approve Senate bills.
Magistrates <ul><li>Public officials who governed in the name of Rome </li></ul>(2) Consuls Praetors Censors Chief executives and military Commanders. Had veto powers over the Senate. Acted as judges during times of peace, military during times of war. Elected every 5 years Appointed members of the Senate Oversaw the moral conduct of the people.
Checks & Balances: prevents any one component from becoming to powerful
The Roman Republic: Foundation for the American Government
The Early Republic The ___________ eventually ruled and helped unify the collection of villages into the city of Rome. They established a _____________ which would end with the reign of __________ the Proud. The aristocrats overthrew Tarquin in ________ BC establishing a ________________. There were (2) principal groups in early Rome that fought for power – the ___________ were the elite, wealthy landowners. The ______________ were the common people of Rome. The Patricians were represented in the Senate while the Plebeians had limited representation through their _______________. There was hostility between the groups until ______ BC when a group of laws were written down called the __________ ____________. This helped to bring order to early Rome and gave the Plebeians greater authority and legal protection. Instead of a king, the Republic had two ___________ that acted as an executive and would command the army as well. Etruscans Monarchy Tarquin 509 Republic Patricians Plebeians Tribunes 451 Twelve Tables Consuls MONARCHY – an autocracy governed by a monarch who usually inherits the authority REPUBLIC – A state or nation in which the supreme power rests in all the citizens entitled to vote. This power is exercised by representatives elected, directly or indirectly, by them and responsible to them.
The Early Republic The Roman Senate had _______ members and they served for life. The assemblies included the ____________ Assembly where citizen-soldiers were represented and the __________ Assemblies created by the _______________. In time of crisis a ______________ can be appointed for 6 months. ___________ __________ claimed to be dictator for life. The Roman army was divided into units of 5,000 men called ___________. Each legion was subdivided into a _____________ of 80 men. They were also supported by ____________ or men who fought on horseback. 300 Centuriate Tribal Plebeians Dictator Julius Caesar Legions Century Cavalry
Rome Expands Rome began to spread it’s influence throughout the Italian peninsula. It suffered a set back when the _____ sacked Rome in 390 BC. By ______ BC, however; Rome will control all of Italy. Rome became heavily involved in trade and became an economic rival of the city of _______________ in North Africa. Eventually, this would lead to the _________ Wars that were fought between 264 and 146 BC. ___________ won all three resulting in their domination of the central Mediterranean region. The second Punic War: ______ BC is notable because the Carthaginian general ____________ attempted to invade Rome after crossing the _______ on elephants. He was eventually defeated by ________ at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC. Gauls 265 Carthage Punic Rome 218 Hannibal Alps Scipio
The Punic Wars The First Punic War 264 – 241 BC Causes Carthage was afraid Rome would take Sicily. Rome could close the Adriatic Sea and the Strait of Messina to Carthagian traders. Effects Carthage asked for peace, paid an indemnity and gave up control of Sicily.
The Punic Wars The Second Punic War 218 - 202 BC Causes Effects Hannibal invaded Italy from Carthago Nova in Spain, across the Alps on elephants, towards Rome. Carthage asked for peace after the defeat at Zama. Carthage paid an indemnity again and lost the Spanish colonies.
Scipio, the Roman General who wins the Battle of Zama Hannibal, a great General of Carthage, fails to win his conquest of Rome.
The Punic Wars The Third Punic War 149 - 146 BC Causes Effects Rome declared war. Most Romans hated Carthage and decided to act preemptively. Carthage was destroyed. Most men were killed, women were enslaved and the city was burned. Salt was placed in the ground so crops couldn’t be grown ever again.
The Roman Empire Brings Change Rome begans to suffer growing pains around 100 BC. Wealthy landowners created large estates called __________. Small farms couldn’t compete so they closed up and were even forced into _________. Almost 1/3 of the population were slaves. Others went to the city and made up the urban poor. Two brothers, ______ and _______ Gracchus attempted reforms, but were killed leading to civil war. Strong Generals attempted reform at the tip of a sword (_______). Sulla marched on _______ and became dictator. Gaius _______ opened the army so everyone can join leading to upward mobility. Eventually, ________ ________, the hero from the war with ________; would bring about the last days of the _______________. Latifundias slavery Tiberius Gaius Gladius Rome Marius Julius Caesar Gaul Republic
The Republic fails to hold the citizens of Rome together. The Appian Way Roman Empire Imperivm Romanorvm
Political Changes in Rome Gracchus Brothers introduce reform measures to help the poor and limit the power of the Senate Angry citizens and sympathizers rioted and violently killed both Gracchi Violence became the primary tool of Roman politics Leaders begin recruiting their own armies, loyal to themselves rather than the Roman government Sulla marched his loyal legions on Rome, starting a civil war Sulla becomes dictator and sets a dangerous precedence. Military leaders can take over in a coup d etat
The First Triumvirate <ul><li>Julius Caesar: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A general who built a huge following among the lower classes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gaius Pompey: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Another general who was head of the Roman army in the west. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Licinius Crassus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The third general, assisted Caesar. </li></ul></ul>The Pantheon
Julius Caesar <ul><li>Superb military general: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defeated the Gauls, wrote the Gallic Wars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social background: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nephew of Gaius Marius </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rose in the ranks of the military </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Political accomplishments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appealed to the lower classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stood against the power of the senate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Downfall: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Claimed to be Dictator for life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Took credit for the accomplishments of the Senate </li></ul></ul>
Caesar takes control In 60 BC, Caesar creates the first ___________ made up of himself, Crassus, and ___________. After Caesar’s success in the ________ Wars, Pompey and the Senate ordered him home without his army. In ___ BC, Caesar crossed the ______ River with his army. Pompey fled and was eventually hunted down and killed in ______ by the forces of Ptolemey III. In 46 BC, he returned to Rome and became ________ for life. He was then assassinated in ____ BC because of his disregard for the Senate. He made sweeping changes as an ________ ruler and helped the poor adding to his popularity. Triumvirate General Pompey Gallic 49 Rubicon Egypt Dictator 44 absolute
An Empire Emerges After the death of Caesar, _____ _____ broke out. Eventually, a new __________ emerged with Marc _______, Octavian, and _________. Lepidus would leave public office; Antony and Octavian would fight for complete power. Civil War Triumvirate Antony Lepidus
The Battle of Philippi Brutus and Cassius are defeated leaving the 2 nd Triumvirate in power
An Empire Emerges Antony, along with __________ would be defeated at the Battle of ________ in 31 BC. Octavian would be the victor and would be granted the title ___________ or “exalted one”. Under Augustus, the _______ ________ would begin and last until AD 180. Augustus was the first in the line of Emperors called the _______________. Under the Pax Romana, the Romans created 15,000 miles of road, constructed the ___________ that held 50-80,000 people, and built the ___________ thanks to Roman concrete (dome) Cleopatra IV Actium Augustus Pax Romana Julio-Claudians Colosseum Pantheon
Ancient Rome Video Tour <ul><li>The Forum Then… </li></ul>
Ancient Rome Video Tour <ul><li>The Coloseum Then… </li></ul>
Ancient Rome Video Tour <ul><li>The Rome Then… </li></ul>
Cleopatra and Caesar: Cleopatra IV was a Macedonian pharoah. She began an affair with Julius Caesar and had a child with him. They had a son whom Marc Antony and Cleopatra fought to have placed on the throne. They lost at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. This left Octavian (Augustus) as the first Emperor of Rome.
The First Emperor of Rome <ul><li>Octavian defeats Marc Antony and Cleopatra at the sea Battle of Actium in 31 BC. </li></ul><ul><li>Octavian changes his name to Augustus meaning “revered one” </li></ul><ul><li>Augustus did not take the name Emperor. </li></ul><ul><li>He expanded the Empire further then it had ever been until the Roman legions were defeated at Teutoburg forest in AD 9. </li></ul>
The Julio-Claudians <ul><li>They were descendants of Julius Caesar. </li></ul><ul><li>Included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiberius: followed Augustus, capable ruler 14-37 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caligula: insane and brutal, named his horse consul. Assassinated in AD 41. 37-41 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Claudius: wise ruler who conquered Britain. He was killed by his wife in AD 54. 41-54 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nero: accused of starting the fire that burned Rome. He blamed it on the Christians. He was interested in acting and was considered insane. He killed himself in AD 68 before he could be assassinated. 54-68 </li></ul></ul>
Caligula – just sick… <ul><li>Killed on a whim… </li></ul><ul><li>Slept with other men’s wives and bragged about it </li></ul><ul><li>Involved in incest with his sisters and sold them out as prostitutes </li></ul><ul><li>Made his palace a brothel </li></ul><ul><li>Had a very difficult childhood </li></ul>
Nero – quite a strange duck… <ul><li>“ He castrated the boy Sporus and actually tried to make a woman of him; and he married him with all the usual ceremonies, including a dowry and a bridal veil, took him to his home attended by a great throng, and treated him as his wife. And the witty jest that someone made is still current, that it would have been well for the world if Nero's father Domitius had that kind of wife. This Sporus, decked out with the finery of the empresses and riding in a litter, he took with him to the courts and marts of Greece, and later at Rome through the Street of the Images, fondly kissing him from time to time.” </li></ul>
A Christian women is martyred by Nero and his Praetorian. Nero blamed the Christians for the fire of AD 64. He also is held responsible for the killing of Peter and Paul.
Other Emperors <ul><li>Galba, Otho, and Vitellius (AD 69) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legion commanders who attempted to seize the throne at various times in the year 69. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vespasian (AD 69 – 79) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally one of Nero’s most trusted legion commander. He rebuilt areas left in ruin by the fire of AD 69 and built the Colosseum and the temple of Peace in the forum. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Titus (AD 79 – 81) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Son of Vespasian, was a general who also fought in Judea. Died of mysterious causes (maybe killed by brother Domitian) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domitian (AD 81 – 96) </li></ul><ul><li>- Attempted to control the region of Dacia. Was assassinated in a military coup after killing many Senators he saw as a threat. </li></ul>
The Good Emperors <ul><li>A series of 5 Emperors that ruled for about 100 years. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important ones are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerva: AD 96 – 98. Ended the killing of Senators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trajan: ruled from AD 98 to AD 117. He was a Spanish general who brought the Empire to it’s largest size. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hadrian: ruled from AD 117 to AD 138. Built his wall in England and several other fortifications. Gave up parts of Asia, reducing the size of the Empire. Built the Pantheon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marcus Aurelius: AD 161 to 180. Stoic philosopher who defended the Empire. Died of pneumonia, replaced by his son, Commonius. </li></ul></ul>
Nerva Marcus Aurelius Trajan Hadrian Commodus Antonius Pius
Gods and Goddesses of Rome Jupiter Juno Venus Mars Diana Minerva Ceres Pluto Neptune Mercury Bacchus Vulcan Apollo Vesta Description Roman Greek King of the Gods Zeus Queen of the Gods Hera Goddess of Love and Beauty Aphrodite God of War Ares Goddess of the Hunt Artemis Goddess of Wisdom and War Athena Goddess of the harvest, grain Demeter God of the Underworld Hades God of the Sea Poseidon Messenger of the Gods, thieves Hermes God of Wine and Revelry Dionysus God of the Forge, craftsmen Hephaestus God of sunlight Apollo Goddess of the Hearth and Home Hestia
The Rise of Christianity Prelude – The Romans controlled __________, home of the Jews by 63 BC. The Romans maintained a Jewish King, __________ who had an allegiance to Rome. He eventually lost control and the Jews rebelled against the ___________. Rome then made Judea a province in AD ___. The __________ fought to end Roman rule, while other Jews sought the ______________ or “anointed one” to free the Jews from Roman rule politically and spiritually. ____________ was born around 6 to 4 BC in and was raised in Nazareth. At the age of _____ he began his ministry where he claimed to be the son of God and stressed love for God, neighbors, and even your enemies. Unlike __________ mythology, Jesus promised a life after death. 12 pupils or ___________ followed Jesus and wrote the _____ ___________ of the Christian Bible. Later, as they taught; they became known as ____________ as they were “sent with a message”. Jesus was a threat to Roman rule as he was praised _________, which in Greek translates to “Christos” giving us _______ ___________ Judea Herod Romans 6 Zealots Messiah Jesus 30 Roman/Greek Disciples New Testament Apostles Messiah Jesus Christos (Christ)
The Death of Jesus Jesus entered ___________ around AD 29. The Roman governor (prefect) ________ _________ accused Jesus of ____________. It is unclear as to whether the ____________ or Jewish priests really persecuted Jesus or not. In the end, Jesus was found guilty and killed by ___________ (a Roman punishment) The apostles of Christ, set forth to spread Jesus’ teachings. ________ inherited the church, but the later apostle, _________ did the most to spread Christianity as he claimed Jesus was a savior for _____ people – Jews and _______ alike. He was beheaded in Rome around AD 67. Thanks to Paul, Christian ___________ appeared in Rome, Antioch, Nicaea, ________, and Alexandria. blasphemy Pontius Pilate Jerusalem Sanhedrin crucifixion Peter Paul ALL Gentiles Congregations Corinth
Developing a New Religion Following the death of Christ, the Zealots rose against Roman rule. This resulted in the massacre at ________ and the destruction of the ______ _______. The Jews were then cast out (______) and their religion was spread throughout the world called the _________. The _____________ was financed with the loot taken from Jerusalem. Christianity also spread out and went against Roman mythology. As a result, __________ were persecuted and killed. Some viewed them as ___________. _____ blamed Christians of the great Rome fire in 64 AD. Soon the church gained structure: _____ were in charge of multiple priests, and the first Bishop of Rome, _______; took the title ______ (papa) as Jesus left Peter the “keys” of the church. Masada Second Temple exile Diaspora Colosseum Christians cannibals Nero Bishops Peter Pope
<ul><li>Early Christian Symbols: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chi-Rho – PX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Fish and Anchor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paul and Peter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good Shepherd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ship (Church) </li></ul></ul>
Cana’s miraculous wine? According to the Bible, Jesus once turned water to wine. The miracle, said to be his first, happened at a Jewish wedding in the Galilee village of Cana where the celebratory drink had run dry. In 2004, archaeologists working in modern-day Cana found pieces of stone jars, including the one pictured here, that are thought to have contained wine. The site could well represent the biblical Cana. However, other researchers have found pieces of stone jars at a site several miles to the north that could also date back to the time of Jesus and is thus also a candidate for the biblical Cana.
Important Dates in Early Christianity <ul><li>AD 30 – approximate, Jesus is crucified </li></ul><ul><li>AD 64 – approximate, Peter/Paul martyred </li></ul><ul><li>AD 313 – Emperor Constantine issues the Edict of Milan (making Christianity legal) </li></ul><ul><li>AD 325 – Nicene Creed lays down Christian beliefs (Apocrypha is created) </li></ul><ul><li>AD 380 – Emperor Theodosius makes Christianity the official religion of Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>AD 390 – St. Augustine publishes City of God </li></ul><ul><li>AD 1054 – Church splits… </li></ul>
Nicene Creed <ul><li>We believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, of all that is, seen and unseen. We believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only Son of God, eternally begotten of the Father, God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God, begotten, not made, of one Being with the Father. </li></ul>
Nicene Creed (cont.) <ul><li>Through him all things were made. For us and for our salvation he came down from heaven: by the power of the Holy Spirit he became incarnate from the Virgin Mary, and was made man. For our sake he was crucified under Pontius Pilate; he suffered death and was buried. On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures; he ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead, and his kingdom will have no end. </li></ul>
Nicene Creed (continued) <ul><li>We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son. With the Father and the Son he is worshiped and glorified. He has spoken through the Prophets. We believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church. We acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. We look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen. </li></ul>