EE Chapter 14 Feeding The World


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EE Chapter 14 Feeding The World

  1. 1. Feeding the World Chapter 14 Feeding the World Chapter 14
  2. 2. 14.1 Human Nutrition <ul><li>Macronutrients – provide energy to body. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Micronutrients – provide the body with small amounts of chemicals needed for biochemical reactions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kcal – kilocalorie – unit of measurement for macronutrients. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans are omnivores (plant and animal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human diets should include more vegetables than meats. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans need energy to carry out their life processes. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Nutrition <ul><li>There are 8 Essential Amino Acids that must be obtained by food. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates – provide the body with the quickest source of energy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EX. Bread, grain, or veggies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foods with complex carbohydrates are starches. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Malnutrition <ul><li>Caused by the lack of a specific nutrient . </li></ul><ul><li>A healthy vegetarian diet includes protein from a combination of grains and legumes (soy, bean, peanuts). </li></ul><ul><li>Foods that come from plants usually lack some essential amino acids. </li></ul>
  5. 6. 14.2 World Food Supply <ul><li>More food is available per person than at any point in history. </li></ul>
  6. 7. The Green Revolution <ul><li>Development of new strains of wheat and rice, the two main foods of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Faster growth, resistance to disease, climate diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Crop yields can increase as much as 4 times the normal yield. </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizers and Modern Machinery. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor farmers can’t afford these advances so they don’t make as much money for their product. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Cash Crops <ul><li>A crop grown for the purpose of sale. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing countries would rather export crops for livestock than provide food for their starving nation. </li></ul><ul><li>Money is used to support government (weapons and political leaders). </li></ul>
  8. 9. Food from the Water <ul><li>Increased harvesting of ocean fish has led to endangerment of fish species. </li></ul><ul><li>Aquaculture involves the controlled commercial production of fish and mollusks. </li></ul><ul><li>An alternative to fishing in the open oceans for food is to raise fish in confined pools. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Fish Farm Fish Farm
  10. 11.                                                     
  11. 13.                                                                                                                                                   
  12. 14. Lettuce Lettuce
  13. 15. Catfish Cages Catfish Cages
  14. 16. 14.3 Modern Farming Techniques <ul><li>Large pieces of farm equipment using fossil fuels replaced human powered tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialized Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly efficient and productive. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ex. Modern farming 1 farmer can feed 78 people, 1850 1 farmer could feed 5. </li></ul><ul><li>IA uses large amounts of energy, pesticides, and fertilizers. </li></ul><ul><li>Agribusinesses – Farms run by large corporations. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Modern Farming Techniques <ul><li>Agribusinesses have several stages of food production, packaging, and transport. </li></ul><ul><li>Monoculture – growing one or two crops instead of a variety. </li></ul><ul><li>Overusing pesticides has lead to insect resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems: Plants are </li></ul><ul><li>vulnerable to the same </li></ul><ul><li>diseases, mineral depletion </li></ul><ul><li>from the soil, soil ability is </li></ul><ul><li>reduced which decreases the crop yield. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Modern Farming Techniques
  17. 19. Modern Farming Techniques                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
  18. 20. Modern Farming Techniques                                                                                                                        
  19. 21. Farming Techniques
  20. 22. 14.4 Sustainable Agriculture <ul><li>Sustainable Argriculture – crop rotation, reduced soil erosion, integrated pest management, and a minimal use of soil addiditives. </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Problems: Soil Erosion, Deforestation, Desertification, Hunger, War, and Environmental Damage. </li></ul>
  21. 23. Sustainable Agriculture <ul><li>Crop rotation – changing crop on a regular cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>1 – 6 Years to prevent the minerals from becoming depleted from the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Cover Crops – nonfood plants grown between growing seasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Return nitrogen and prevent erosion. </li></ul>
  22. 24. Reducing Erosion <ul><li>Natural process by which valuable topsoil and nutrients are carried away. </li></ul><ul><li>Drip irrigation delivers small quantities of water at the root, reducing erosion by water. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced tilling can increase crop yields. </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive tilling is beneficial to the soil, but it increases erosion from water and wind. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Erosion
  24. 26. Pest Management <ul><li>IPM – Integrated Pest Management </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces pesticides by as much as 90%. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Predators – Wasps, ladybugs, and a variety of viruses and bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Insects were becoming immune to insecticides and crops were suffering. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers using IPM have higher crop yields. </li></ul>
  25. 27. Natural Predators