Edet 637 Dual Coding Theory


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  • Hopefully you all had a chance to read the instructions on how to access a port and view the port accessing video. I’m optimistic that after this presentation you will be able to see how that exercise related to dual coding. White board activity Take a moment to compare your thoughts after you read the instructions. -Type in your thoughts, emotion, reactions – if you had to go perform a port access after reading the direction. Exactly our brains haven’t absorbed the whole lesson when only the text channel is used. A visual channel can also be used to facilitate learning. -Now type in your thoughts, emotions, reactions – if you had to go perform a port access after watching the video. Still fearful, but perhaps better prepared. Obviously you still need to learn more – perhaps through another medium – such as lecture, ability to ask questions? The instructions were very detailed, but until you visualized and processed the information differently, you had a limited idea (and still might have confusion) on how to perform that skill. The dual coding theory can be used by instructors to simplify lessons and not short circuit their student’s brains, but (as you probably realized in our exercise) even a video instruction can miss important details.
  • For example: with this being your first exposure to this material you likely have never heard of some of the terms used in the video: Port – Also called a port-a-cath, Mediport, depending on the brand name. The port is the like round disc with a plastic center and is placed directly under the skin (usually on the chest). It has a long tube that runs to the edge of the heart, which is why it is so easy to remove blood for labs and safely give medication through it. QUESTIONS
  • EMLA cream - The kids call it numbing lotion, that can be placed on the skin to dull painful procedures.
  • Huber needle – is a hooked needle that enters the port, but lays flat against the skin, it also won’t damage or remove chunks of plastic from the port itself.
  • Vacutainer – is a handy medical device that hooks up to the end of the port needle tubing to draw blood. It is especially safe for employees, because you can’t stab yourself with the device and it prevents needle-stick injuries.
  • Big word alert! – Neutropenia means that you don’t have enough white blood cells (like the soldiers in your blood stream that attack germs) to fight an infection. It makes sense that these patients are neutropenic, because they have gotten chemotherapy to kill cancer cells, but it also kills the white blood cells, and hair cells, and most of their good cells too. Cancer patients don’t have much of an immune system, so common germs can be very deadly. A small fever may be the only sign that there is a lethal infection raging.
  • Which leads us to Septic shock – Imagine all the blood vessels in your body as a series of garden hoses that have a changing diameter. They can get bigger or smaller, to control your blood pressure. Just like your garden hose, if you hook up a skinny hose, it sprays a long way - that would be high blood pressure, or if you hook up a big hose and only a dribble comes out – that would be a low blood pressure. What does this have to do with our video? When certain bacteria invade the body, they rupture and spread and send messages to the blood vessels to get very big. Suddenly the patient’s blood pressure is low and they aren’t getting fresh blood to their brain, heart, and important organs. This is called septic shock. With no immune system and without immediate antibiotics, a patient could die within 30 minutes of having a fever.
  • Edet 637 Dual Coding Theory

    1. 1. EDET 637 Designing e-Learning University of Alaska Anchorage Spring 2010 Bethany Zimpelman, RN, BSN Sasha Lamoureux, RN, BS George Flores, RN, BS
    2. 2. <ul><li>Identify the basic principles of dual coding theory as they apply to adult learning </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast the effects of description and depiction on spatial and verbal working memory using text media and multimedia </li></ul>
    3. 3. Allan Urho Paivio, PhD Emeritus Professor Department of Psychology University of Western Ontario <ul><li>Unknown (2009) </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Functional framework for cognitive psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Equal emphasis on verbal and non verbal input </li></ul><ul><li>Two brain mediated processes of cognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imagens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logogens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Processes interconnected </li></ul><ul><li>Images facilitate recall and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Information input coded in two distinct ways due to different sites in brain for processing </li></ul><ul><li>(Brunyé, Taylor, & Rapp, 2007; Hartman, Biddle, & Fallacaro, 2008; Tempelman-Kluit, 2006) </li></ul>
    5. 6. <ul><li>“ distinct cognitive processes emerge from interactions between several regions… specific for particular inputs and outputs…” (DeLeon, Gottesman, Kleinman, Newhart, Davis, Heidler-Gary, Lee & Hillis, 2007, p. 1417). </li></ul>
    6. 11. Examples <ul><li>Stone & Glock (1981) </li></ul><ul><li>Levie & Lentz (1982) </li></ul>
    7. 12. Exercise <ul><li>Try to perform this physical gesture: Touch the tip of your right index finger to the tip of your left thumb, twist both wrists and repeat with opposite fingers continually twisting wrists and touching opposing index fingers and thumbs. </li></ul>
    8. 13. Exercise <ul><li>Touch the tip of your right index finger to the tip of your left thumb, twist both wrists and repeat with opposite fingers continually twisting wrists and touching opposing index fingers and thumbs. </li></ul>
    9. 14. Whiteboard Activity!
    10. 15. <ul><li>E-Learning is dual coding! </li></ul><ul><li>Absorb information </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases cognitive load </li></ul>Jereb & Smitek (2006)
    11. 16. Whiteboard Activity!
    12. 17. Definitions <ul><li>Mediport®: Implanted vascular access device (surgically tunneled under the skin) used to withdraw blood samples or instill intravenous fluids </li></ul>
    13. 18. Definitions <ul><li>EMLA Cream: </li></ul><ul><li>Topical anesthetic cream used to decrease sensation of pain during invasive procedures (IV placement, needle sticks, etc.) </li></ul>
    14. 19. Definitions <ul><li>Huber Needle: angled needle designed to be inserted into an implanted vascular access device in the chest wall </li></ul>
    15. 20. Definitions <ul><li>Vacutainer®: commercial device to draw blood passively using needle/ butterfly (needle) vascular access device and blood tubes </li></ul>
    16. 21. <ul><li>Neutropenic: having very low counts of specialized white blood cells; usually found in early stages of infection (McCance & Huether, 2006). Significance is that having low counts lowers a patient’s defense mechanism against infective organisms. </li></ul>
    17. 22. <ul><li>Septic shock: massive blood stream infection that causes cellular leakage of fluids and compromises tissue perfusion (oxygenation). </li></ul>
    18. 24. <ul><li>Goal to compare student response to dual coded versus single coded media presentation (video/audio instruction versus written instruction) </li></ul>
    19. 25. <ul><li>Two different media were designed to teach the same </li></ul><ul><li>Developed simple survey using Survey Monkey ( http://www.surveymonkey.com ) </li></ul><ul><li>Eight question quiz distributed online, two versions </li></ul><ul><li>Five questions multiple choice, three narrative response/ short answer </li></ul><ul><li>Forced answers </li></ul><ul><li>Students were to explore each teaching method and answer quiz </li></ul>
    20. 26. <ul><li>How many sets of blood cultures are necessary for pediatric oncology patients? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the mediport® site prepped with before accessing the vascular device? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the first step in accessing a mediport®? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the two purposes of a mediport®? </li></ul><ul><li>How many milliliters (ml) of heparin are instilled into the mediport® before de-accessing the device? </li></ul><ul><li>When should antibiotic therapy be initiated? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you rate this instructional media chosen for “Accessing a Mediport®”? Poor, Fair, Good, Excellent? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the beverage of choice for Homer Simpson? </li></ul>
    21. 27. <ul><li>Number of completed surveys ( n = 5) </li></ul><ul><li>Total possible respondents </li></ul><ul><li>N = 12 (excludes one faculty) </li></ul><ul><li>Overall survey response rate 42% (excludes faculty) </li></ul>
    22. 28. Results <ul><li>Version 1 Question 7- Response to Single Coded Media </li></ul><ul><li>“ good…” (two responses) </li></ul><ul><li>“ fair…” (two responses) </li></ul><ul><li>“ knowing nothing of the subject… say fair to good… Homer doesn’t drink Alaskan Amber… he should…” </li></ul><ul><li>Version 2 Question 7- Response to Dual Coded Media </li></ul><ul><li>“ good…” </li></ul><ul><li>“ good… especially with written instruction for reference…” </li></ul><ul><li>“ excellent…” </li></ul><ul><li>“ good to excellent… with written portion…” </li></ul><ul><li>Subject emphasizes point that Mr. Simpson’s palate lacks refinement and therefore “should be… Alaskan Amber…” </li></ul>
    23. 29. <ul><li>Survey tool unable to capture whether respondents were the same for each survey </li></ul><ul><li>Questionable validity of the tool </li></ul>
    24. 30. <ul><li>Maintained respondent anonymity </li></ul><ul><li>Survey tool very user friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Easy design format </li></ul>
    25. 33. Acknowledgements: Carolyn Todd – filmographer and AV guru Future actress (with signed consent) Thanks for being awesome
    26. 34. <ul><li>Brunyé, T. T., Taylor, H. A., & Rapp, D. N. (2007). Repetition and dual coding in procedural multimedia presentations. Applied Cognitive Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1002/acp.1396. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapman, R. J. (2006). Dual coding diagram. Collaborative Work Systems, Inc. Retrieved February 3, 2010 from http:// </li></ul><ul><li>www.cws-i.com/multimodal_research.htm. </li></ul><ul><li>Chen, E. H. (2004). A review of learning theories from visual literacy [Electronic version]. Journal of Educational Computing, Design, & Online Learning, 5 . Retrieved from http://coe.ksu.edu/jecdol/Vol_5/ </li></ul><ul><li>html/VisualLiteracy.htm </li></ul><ul><li>DeLeon, J., Gottesman, R. F., Kleinman, J. T., Newhart, M., Davis, C., Heidler-Gary, J., Lee, A. & Hillis, A. E. (2007). Neural regions essential for distinct cognitive processes underlying picture naming. Brain: A Journal of Neurology, 130 (5), 1408-1422. doi: 10.1093/brain/awm011. </li></ul>
    27. 35. <ul><li>Hartman, W., Biddle, C. & Fallacaro, M. (2008). Audiovisual facilitation of clinical knowledge: A paradigm for dispersed student education based on Paivio’s Dual Coding Theory. American Association of Nurse Anesthetists Journal, 76 (3), 194-198. </li></ul><ul><li>Jereb, E. and Smitek, B. (2006). Applying multimedia instruction in e-learning [Electronic version].  Innovations in Education and Teaching International ,  43 (1), 15-27. </li></ul><ul><li>Levie, W. H. and Lentz, R. (1982). Effects of text illustrations: A review of research. Educational Technology Research and Development, 30 (4), 195-232. </li></ul><ul><li>McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2006). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (5 th ed.). Elsevier Mosby: St. Louis, MO. </li></ul>
    28. 36. <ul><li>Mitchel, O. (2008). The application of visual thinking to presentations. (adapted from Richard Mayer). [Electronic version]. Speaking about Presenting. Retrieved from: http://www.speakingaboutpresenting.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>visual-thinking/the-application-of-visual- thinking-to-presentations/ </li></ul><ul><li>Stone, D. E. and Glock, M. D. (1981). How do young adults read directions with or without pictures? Journal of Educational Psychology, 73 (3), 419-426. </li></ul><ul><li>Tempelman-Kluit, N. (2006). Multimedia learning theories and online instruction. College and Research Libraries, 67(4), 364-369 . </li></ul>
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