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  1. 1. Properties of matter
  2. 2. General Properties of Matter <ul><li>Matter is anything that has mass and volume </li></ul><ul><li>Everything is made of matter </li></ul>
  3. 3. What are properties? <ul><li>Characteristics used to describe an object </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: color, odor, shape, size, texture,hardness </li></ul><ul><li>video </li></ul>
  4. 4. General Properties of matter <ul><li>Mass, weight, volume, and density </li></ul><ul><li>Properties are used to identify a substance </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is mass? <ul><li>Mass is the amount of matter in an object </li></ul><ul><li>Mass is constant </li></ul><ul><li>Mass is also the measure of inertia </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is inertia? <ul><li>Inertia is the resistance of an object to changes in its motion </li></ul><ul><li>The more mass the greater the inertia </li></ul>
  7. 7. Questions <ul><li>How is mass related to inertia? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are properties of an object important? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Force and inertia <ul><li>When an object is at rest, a force is needed to overcome the inertia to make it move and to stop the object’s motion </li></ul>
  9. 9. Question <ul><li>Which object has more inertia, an empty wagon or one loaded with rocks? Why? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Question <ul><li>What does a seatbelt do for a passenger when a car stops suddenly? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Question <ul><li>Why would the passenger move forward without the restraining force of the belt? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Question <ul><li>What would stop a passenger if the seatbelt were not in place? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Question <ul><li>What other safety features are present in a car in response to a person’s inertia in a moving vehicle? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Weight <ul><li>The measure of the force of gravity on the mass of an object </li></ul><ul><li>Weight changes with gravity </li></ul><ul><li>The metric unit for weight is a Newton (N) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Weight formula <ul><li>1 kg = 2.2 pounds </li></ul><ul><li>Weight is mass times gravity (9.8 m/s 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>W= m x g </li></ul><ul><li>What is your mass? </li></ul><ul><li>What is your weight in Newtons? </li></ul>
  16. 16. What is gravity? <ul><li>The force of attraction between objects is gravity </li></ul><ul><li>All objects exert a gravitational force on each other </li></ul>
  17. 17. Question <ul><li>Why can’t you feel the attraction between you and other objects the same way you are pulled toward Earth? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Gravitational pull <ul><li>The greater the mass of an object the greater the gravitational force </li></ul>
  19. 19. Question <ul><li>Why can’t we feel the pull of gravity from Jupiter even though it is so massive? </li></ul>
  20. 20. What affects gravity? <ul><li>The pull of gravity weakens as the distance between objects increases </li></ul><ul><li>gravity depends on mass and distance </li></ul>
  21. 21. Gravity <ul><li>The further an object is from the center of the earth, the less the object will weigh </li></ul>
  22. 22. Question <ul><li>Would you weigh less, more, or the same on top of Mount Everest? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Question <ul><li>The moon is smaller than the earth. How would your weight be different on the moon? </li></ul>
  24. 24. Questions <ul><li>What are three properties of matter related to mass? </li></ul>
  25. 25. Question <ul><li>What is density and how is it calculated? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Density <ul><li>The density of water is 1.0 g/ml </li></ul><ul><li>Objects with densities greater than 1.0 will sink in water </li></ul>
  27. 27. Density <ul><li>Objects with densities less than 1.0 g/ml will float on water </li></ul>
  28. 28. Ice <ul><li>Ice floats therefore it is less dense than water </li></ul><ul><li>Ice mostly remains underwater with only a portion of it being exposed </li></ul>
  29. 29. Astronomy fact! <ul><li>The planet Saturn has a density of less than 1.0 g/ml. If there was an ocean big enough to hold it, it would float! </li></ul>
  30. 30. Calculations <ul><li>If 96.5 grams of gold has a volume of 5 cubic centimeters, what is the density of gold? </li></ul>
  31. 31. Calculation <ul><li>If 96.5 g of aluminum has a volume of 35 cm 3 , what is the density of aluminum? </li></ul>
  32. 32. Calculation <ul><li>If the density of a diamond is 3.5 g/cm 3 , what would be the mass of a diamond whose volume is 0.5 cm 3 ? </li></ul>
  33. 33. What is specific gravity? <ul><li>A comparison of the density of a substance and the density of water is specific gravity </li></ul>
  34. 34. Questions <ul><li>How is density different from specific gravity? </li></ul>
  35. 35. What is a physical property? <ul><li>Physical properties are those that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance </li></ul>
  36. 36. Phases of matter (video) <ul><li>Four phases of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma </li></ul><ul><li>solids have a definite shape and volume </li></ul>
  37. 37. Solid particle arrangement <ul><li>Solids are tightly packed and the particles vibrate </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of solids are crystalline and amorphous </li></ul>
  38. 38. Types of solids <ul><li>Crystalline solids are arranged in repeating patterns called crystals (salt, sugar) </li></ul><ul><li>Amorphous solids can lose their shape </li></ul>
  39. 39. Examples of amorphous solids <ul><li>Tar, candle wax, glass </li></ul><ul><li>Shape changes under certain conditions (differences in temperature) </li></ul>
  40. 40. Liquid particle arrangement <ul><li>Liquids have particles that are close together, but are free to move </li></ul>
  41. 41. Question <ul><li>Describe the shape of a liquid. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Describe a liquid <ul><li>Liquids do not have a definite shape, but they have a definite volume </li></ul>
  43. 43. Question <ul><li>What happens when one-liter of soda is poured into a four-liter container? </li></ul>
  44. 44. Properties of liquids <ul><li>Liquids do not expand to fill the volume of a container </li></ul><ul><li>Liquids are characterized by their ability to flow </li></ul>
  45. 45. What is viscosity? <ul><li>The resistance of a liquid to flow </li></ul><ul><li>The difficulty of a liquid to flow easily </li></ul><ul><li>Honey, motor oil, corn syrup have a high viscosity </li></ul>
  46. 46. Behavior of liquids <ul><li>Cohesion is the force of attraction between LIKE particles </li></ul><ul><li>Adhesion is the force of attraction between UNLIKE particles </li></ul>
  47. 47. Surface tension (video) <ul><li>Tendency of particles to pull together at the surface of a liquid due to cohesion </li></ul>
  48. 48. Question <ul><li>Describe the viscosity of a liquid. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe a liquid’s shape. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Questions <ul><li>How is adhesion different from cohesion? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain surface tension. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Properties of gases <ul><li>Gases do not have a definite shape or volume (video) </li></ul><ul><li>They fill all the available space in a container </li></ul>
  51. 51. Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter <ul><li>Matter is made of tiny particles in constant motion </li></ul>
  52. 52. Question <ul><li>How are solids, liquids, and gases different from one another? </li></ul>
  53. 53. Gas laws <ul><li>Boyle’s and Charles’ law describe the behavior of gases with changes in temperature, pressure, and volume </li></ul>
  54. 54. Charles Law <ul><li>Charles’ law describes a relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas (constant pressure) </li></ul>
  55. 55. Charles’ Law <ul><li>As the temperature of a gas increases, the volume of a gas increases </li></ul><ul><li>Heating air causes it to expand </li></ul>
  56. 56. Question <ul><li>How can you explain the fact that gas particles expand to fill space? </li></ul>
  57. 57. Pressure <ul><li>The force that particles of a substance (gas/liquid) will apply over a certain area </li></ul>
  58. 58. Boyle’s Law <ul><li>Boyle’s law describes the relationship between the volume and pressure of gases (constant temperature) </li></ul>
  59. 59. Boyle’s law <ul><li>If the volume of a gas decreases, then the pressure of a gas increases (Boyle’s law) </li></ul><ul><li>The smaller the space a gas occupies, the more pressure </li></ul>
  60. 60. Plasma <ul><li>Plasma (phase) </li></ul><ul><li>most common phase in the universe, dangerous, very high energy (found in stars) </li></ul>
  61. 61. Question <ul><li>What are the four phases of matter? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the plasma phase of matter. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Phase changes (video) <ul><li>Phase changes in matter are melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation </li></ul>
  63. 63. What is a physical change? <ul><li>Physical changes involve the changing of physical properties </li></ul><ul><li>Type of matter remains the same </li></ul>
  64. 64. Questions <ul><li>Describe each of the five phase changes (melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation). </li></ul>
  65. 65. Physical changes <ul><li>Changing color, shape, phase, texture, hardness, odor would be a physical change </li></ul>
  66. 66. Melting video <ul><li>Phase change from a solid to a liquid </li></ul>
  67. 67. Melting point <ul><li>Temperature in which a solid changes to a liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Physical property </li></ul>
  68. 68. Questions <ul><li>How is melting different from freezing? </li></ul>
  69. 69. Phase changes (video) <ul><li>Involve a change in volume, but mass remains constant </li></ul><ul><li>Adding or removing energy from matter results in phase changes </li></ul>
  70. 70. Vaporization <ul><li>Phase change from a liquid to a gas </li></ul>
  71. 71. Boiling point (video) <ul><li>The temperature in which a liquid boils </li></ul><ul><li>Point at which a liquid changes to a gas </li></ul>
  72. 72. Freezing (video) <ul><li>Phase change of a liquid to a solid </li></ul><ul><li>The temperature in which this occurs is the freezing point </li></ul>
  73. 73. Condensation <ul><li>Condensation is the phase change from a gas to a liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Sublimation is a phase change from solid to a gas </li></ul>
  74. 74. Question <ul><li>Describe a difference between condensation and vaporization. </li></ul>
  75. 75. Sublimation examples <ul><li>Dry ice and iodine are examples solids that undergo sublimation </li></ul>
  76. 76. Chemical properties <ul><li>Describe how a substance changes into new substances are chemical properties </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: flammability </li></ul>
  77. 77. Chemical changes <ul><li>The change of a substance into a new and different substance </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as a chemical reaction </li></ul><ul><li>video </li></ul>
  78. 78. Questions <ul><li>What is another name for a chemical change? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe sublimation. </li></ul><ul><li>How is a chemical change different from a physical change? </li></ul>