1) Squall —n. 1 sudden or violent wind, esp. with rain, snow, or sleet. 2 discordant cry; scream (esp.
of a baby). —v. 1 utter a squall; scream. 2 utter with a squall. squally adj. [probably alteration of
*squeal after *bawl]
2)Flatter v. 1 compliment unduly, esp. for gain or advantage. 2 (usu. refl.; usu. foll. by that)
congratulate or delude (oneself etc.) (He flatters himself that he can sing). 3 (of colour, style,
portrait, painter etc.) enhance the appearance of (that blouse flatters you). 4 cause to feel honored.
3)Delude v. (-ding) deceive, mislead. [Latin ludo mock]
4)Deluge —n. 1 great flood. 2 (the Deluge) biblical Flood (Gen. 6-8). 3 overwhelming rush. 4 heavy
fall of rain. —v. (-ging) flood or inundate (deluged with complaints).
5)inundate v. (-ting) (often foll. by with) 1 flood. 2 overwhelm. inundation n.
6)Deceive v. (-ving) 1 make (a person) believe what is false; purposely mislead. 2 be unfaithful to,
esp. sexually. 3 use deceit. deceive oneself persist in a mistaken belief. deceiver n.
7)Overwhelming adj. 1 too great to resist or overcome (an overwhelming desire to laugh). 2 by a
great number (the overwhelming majority). overwhelmingly adv.
8)Palpable adj. 1 able to be touched or felt. 2 readily perceived. palpably adv. [Latin palpo caress]
9)hopping mad predic. adj. colloq. very angry.
10)melee n. (Brit. mêlée) 1 confused fight, skirmish, or scuffle. 2 muddle. [French: related to
11) skirmish —n. 1 minor battle. 2 short argument or contest of wit etc. —v. engage in a skirmish.
12)scuffle —n. confused struggle or fight at close quarters. —v. (-ling) engage in a scuffle.
13)guzzle v. (-ling) eat or drink greedily.
14)albeit .: though. [all be it]
15)pinnacle n. 1 culmination or climax. 2 natural peak.
14a) culminate v. (-ting) (usu. foll. by in) reach its highest or final point (culminate in war).
16)Venerable adj. 1 entitled to deep respect on account of character, age, associations, etc.
(venerable priest; venerable relics).
17)Relic n. 1 objects that is interesting because of its age or association. 2 part of a dead holy
person's body or belongings kept as an object of reverence. 3 surviving custom or belief etc. from a
past age. 4 memento or souvenir. 5 (in pl.) what has survived. 6 (in pl.) dead body or remains of a
18)Aghast: adj. filled with dismay or consternation. [past part. of obsolete
19)Consternation n. anxiety, dismay.
20)Dismay —n. intense disappointment or despair. —v. fill with dismay.
21)Despair —n. 1 complete loss or absence of hope. 2 cause of this. —v. (often foll. by of) lose or
be without hope (despaired of ever winning).
22)laudable adj. commendable. laudability n. laudably adv.
23)commendable adj. praiseworthy. commendably adv.
24)commensurable adj. 1 (often foll. by with, to) measurable by the same standard. 2 (foll. by to)
proportionate to. 3 Math. (of numbers) in a ratio equal to the ratio of integers.
25)commensurability n. [Latin: related to *measure]
26)muddle —v. (-ling) (often foll. by up) 1 bring into disorder. 2 bewilder, confuse. —n. 1 disorder.
2 confusion. muddle along (or on) progress in a haphazard way. muddle through succeed despite
27)deficit n. 1 amount by which a thing (esp. money) is too small. 2 excess of liabilities over assets.
[French from Latin: related to *defect]
28)bureaucracy n. (pl. -ies) 1 a government by central administration. b State etc. so governed. 2
government officials, esp. regarded as oppressive and inflexible. 3 conduct typical of these.
29)bureaucrat n. 1 official in a bureaucracy. 2 inflexible administrator. bureaucratic adj.
30)oppress : verb 1.LIMIT FREEDOM to treat a group of people in an unfair way, often by limiting
their freedom[often passive] Women were oppressed by a society which considered them inferior.
2.MAKE ANXIOUS to make someone feel anxious:The thought of tomorrow's interview
31)watershed n. 1 line of separation between waters flowing to different rivers, basins, etc. 2
turning-point in affairs.
32)Travail —n. 1 painful effort. 2 pangs of childbirth. —v. make a painful effort, esp. in childbirth.
34)compliment —n. 1 a polite expression of praise. b act implying praise. 2 (in pl.) a formal
greetings accompanying a present etc. b praise. —v. (often foll. by on) congratulate; praise. [Latin:
related to *complement]
35)complimentary adj. 1 expressing a compliment. 2 given free of charge.
36)voluntary —adj. 1 acting, done, or given willingly; not compulsory; intentional. 2 unpaid
(voluntary work). 3 (of an institution) supported by charity.. 4 brought about by voluntary action. 6
(of a movement, muscle, or limb) controlled by the will.
37)volunteer —n. person who voluntarily undertakes a task or enters military etc. service. —v. 1
(often foll. by to + infin.) undertake or offer (one's services, a remark, etc.) voluntarily. 2 (often foll.
by for) be a volunteer.
38)supplement —n. 1 thing or part added to improve or provide further information. 2 separate
section, esp. a colour magazine, of a newspaper etc. —v. provide a supplement for. supplemental
adj. supplementary adj. supplementation n. [Latin suppleo supply]
39)Depose v. (-sing) 1 remove from office, esp. dethrone. 2 Law (usu. foll. by to, or that + clause)
testify, esp. on oath. [French from Latin: related to *deposit]
40)Accomplice n. partner in a crime etc.
41)aid —n. 1 help. 2 person or thing that helps. —v. 1 help. 2 promote (sleep will aid recovery).
in aid of 1 in support of.
42)aide n. 1 aide-de-camp. 2 esp. US assistant. [French]
43)aide-de-camp n. (pl. aides-de-camp pronunc. same) officer assisting a senior officer. [French]
44)outskirts n.pl. outer area of a town etc.
45)tardy adj. (-ier, -iest) 1 slow to act, come, or happen. 2 delaying or delayed.
46)contrast —n. 1 a juxtaposition or comparison showing differences. b difference so revealed. 2
(often foll. by to) thing or person having different qualities.
47)Expedite v. (-ting) 1 check the progress of. 2 accomplish (business) quickly. [Latin expedio from
pes ped- foot]
48)expedition n. 1 journey or voyage for a particular purpose, esp. exploration. 2 people etc.
undertaking this. 3 speed.
49)expeditious adj. acting or done with speed and efficiency.
50)relive v. (-ving) live (an experience etc.) over again, esp. in the imagination.
51)bewilder v. perplex, confuse. bewildering adj. bewilderment n. [from *be-, obsolete wilder lose
52)bewitch v. 1 enchant. 2 cast a spell on. If someone or something bewitches you, you find them
extremely attractive and interesting.;a bewitching smile
53)enchant v. 1 charm, delight. 2 bewitch. enchantedly adv. enchanting adj. enchantingly adv.
54)charm —n. 1 power or quality of delighting, arousing admiration, or influencing; fascination,
55)prejudge v. (-ging) form a premature judgement on (a person, issue, etc.).
56)prejudice —n. 1 a preconceived opinion. b (foll. by against, in favour of) bias, partiality. 2 harm
that results or may result from some action or judgement (to the prejudice of). —v. (-cing) 1 impair
the validity or force of (a right, claim, statement, etc.). 2 (esp. as prejudiced adj.) cause (a person) to
have a prejudice. without prejudice (often foll. by to) without detriment (to an existing right or
claim). [Latin: related to *judge] when someone dislikes a group of people or treats them unfairly
because they are a different race, sex, religion, etc .racial prejudice
57)prejudicial adj. (often foll. by to) causing prejudice; detrimental.: It will be prejudicial to reach
58)conviction n. 1 convicting or being convicted. 1.CRIME [C] when someone is officially found
to be guilty of a particular crime;He already had two convictions for burglary.
59)deter v. (-rr-) (often foll. by from) discourage or prevent, esp. through fear. determent n
60)harsh adj. 1 unpleasantly rough or sharp, esp. to the senses. 2 severe, cruel. harshen v. harshly
adv. harshness n.
61)pleasant adj. (-er, -est) pleasing to the mind, feelings, or senses. pleasantly adv. [French:
related to *please]
62)swift —adj. 1 quick, rapid. 2 prompt. Brisk : adjective :quick and energetic
63)prompt —adj. acting, made, or done with alacrity; ready (prompt reply). —adv. Punctually
64)Alacrity n. briskness; cheerful readiness. [Latin alacer brisk] (formal) If you do something with
alacrity, you do it in a very quick and willing way.
65)facsimile n. exact copy, esp. of writing, printing, a picture, etc. [Latin, = make like]
66)Tacit adj. understood or implied without being stated (tacit consent). tacitly
67)Holograph —adj. wholly written by hand by the person named as the author. —n. holograph
68)realm n. 1 formal kingdom. 2 domain (realm of myth). (formal )an area of knowledge or activity
69)distraught adj. distracted with worry, fear, etc.; extremely agitated
70)distract v. 1 (often foll. by from) draw away the attention of. 2 bewilder, perplex. 3 (as distracted
adj.) confused, mad, or angry. 4 amuse, esp. to divert from pain etc.
71)Bewilder v. perplex, confuse. bewildering adj. bewilderment n.
72)perplex v. 1 puzzle, bewilder, or disconcert. 2 complicate or confuse (a matter). perplexedly
adv. perplexing adj. [Latin perplexus involved] perplexed confused;He seemed a little perplexed by
the question;.perplexing confusing,a perplexing problem
73)perplexity n. (pl. -ies) 1 state of being perplexed. 2 thing that perplexes.
74)ponder v. 1 think over; consider. 2 MUSE, be deep in thought.
75)Meticulous adj. 1 giving great attention to detail. 2 very careful and precise. meticulously adv.
76)conscience n. moral sense of right and wrong, esp. as affecting behaviour. in all conscience
colloq. by any reasonable standard. on one's conscience causing one feelings of guilt. prisoner of
conscience person imprisoned by the State for his or her political or religious views.
77)Taint —n. 1 spot or trace of decay, infection, corruption, etc. 2 corrupt condition or infection. —
v. 1 affect with a taint; become tainted. 2 (foll. by with) affect
78)Annul v. 1 declare invalid. 2 cancel, abolish. annulment n
79)verdict n. 1 decision of a jury in a civil or criminal case. 2 decision; judgement.
80)Censure —v. (-ring) criticize harshly; reprove. —n. hostile criticism; disapproval
81)Rebuke —v. (-king) express sharp disapproval to (a person) for a fault; censure. —n. rebuking or
being rebuked. Same as Reprove: To voice or convey disapproval of; rebuk
81b) admonish. To reprove gently but earnestly. 2. To counsel (another) against something to be
avoided; caution. 3. To remind of something forgotten or disregarded, as an obligation or a
responsibility., to gently tell someone that they have done something wrong
81c) Earnest adj. intensely serious. In earnest serious, seriously, with determination. earnestly
82)Jurisprudence n. science or philosophy of law. jurisprudential adj.
83)Juxtapose v. (-sing) 1 place (things) side by side. 2 (foll. by to, with) place (a thing) beside
another. juxtaposition n. juxtapositional adj.
84)Partisan (also partizan) —n. 1 strong, esp. unreasoning, supporter of a party, cause, etc. 2
guerrilla. —adj. 1 of partisans. 2 biased. partisanship
85)precedent —n. previous case etc. taken as a guide for subsequent cases or as a justification. —
adj. preceding in time, order, importance, etc.
86)persist v. 1 (often foll. by in) continue firmly or obstinately (in an opinion or action) esp. despite
obstacles, remonstrance, etc. 2 (of a phenomenon etc.) continue in existence; survive. persistence
n. persistent adj. persistently
87)Remonstrate v. (-ting) (foll. by with) make a protest; argue forcibly. remonstrance n.
remonstration n. Vs Demonstrate v. (-ting) 1 show (feelings etc.). 2 describe and explain by
experiment, practical use, etc. 3 logically prove or be proof of the truth or existence of. 4 take part in
a public demonstration.
88)Obstinate adj. 1 stubborn, intractable. 2 firmly continuing in one's action or opinion despite
advice. obstinacy n. obstinately adv. [Latin obstino persist]
89)Intractable adj. 1 hard to control or deal with. 2 difficult, stubborn. intractability n. intractably
90)calumny n. (pl. -ies) slander; malicious representation. calumnious ad
91)slander —n. 1 false and damaging utterance about a person. 2 uttering of this. —v. utter slander
about. slanderous adj. [French esclandre: related to *scandal
92)Malice n. 1 desire to harm or cause difficulty to others; ill-will. 2 Law harmful intent. [Latin
93)malice aforethought n. Law intention to commit a crime, esp. murder.
94)malicious adj. given to or arising from malice. maliciously adv.
95)Malign —adj. 1 (of a thing) injurious. 2 (of a disease) malignant. 3
96)utter1 attrib. adj. complete, absolute. utterly adv. [Old English, comparative of *out]
97)utter2 v. 1 emit audibly. 2 express in words. 3 Law put (esp. forged money) into circulation.
98)Consign v. (often foll. by to) 1 hand over; deliver. 2 assign; commit. 3 transmit or send (goods).
consignee n. consignor n.
99)assign —v. 1 (usu. foll. by to) a allot as a share or responsibility. b appoint to a position, task,
etc. 2 fix (a time, place, etc.).
100)Ludicrous adj. absurd, stupid, ridiculous, laughable. ludicrously adv. ludicrousness n. [Latin
ludicrum stage play],ludicrous idea or suggestion
101)absurd adj. wildly illogical or inappropriate; ridiculous.
102)exigency n. (pl. -ies) (also exigence) 1 urgent need or demand. 2 emergency. exigent
103)rectitude n. 1 morally right. 2 correctness. [Latin rectus right]
104)impasse n. deadlock. [French: related to *pass1]
105)passé adj. (fem. passée) 1 old-fashioned. 2 past its prime.
106)deadlock —n. 1 state of unresolved conflict.. —v. bring or come to a standstill.
107)defiance n. open disobedience; bold resistance.,dissent
108)dissent —v. (often foll. by from) 1 disagree, esp. openly. 2 differ, esp. from the established or
official opinion, defiance
109)omen —n. 1 event or object portending good or evil. 2 prophetic significance (of good omen).
—v. (usu. in passive) portend.
110)foreshadow v. be a warning or indication of (a future event).
111)portend v. 1 foreshadow as an omen. 2 give warning of
112)augur —v. portend, serve as an omen (augur well or ill)
113)steadfast adj. constant, firm, unwavering. steadfastly adv. Steadfastness
114)waver v. 1 be or become unsteady; begin to give way. 2 be irresolute.
115)Benign adj. 1 gentle, mild, kindly. 2 fortunate, salutary. 3 (of a tumour etc.) not malignant.
benignly adv. [Latin benignus]
116)benignant adj. 1 kindly, esp. to inferiors. 2 salutary, beneficial. benignancy n.
117)salutary adj. having a good effect. [Latin: related to *salute]
118)salutation n. formal sign or expression of greeting.
119)Humane adj. 1 benevolent, compassionate. 2 inflicting the minimum of pain. 3 (of learning)
tending to civilize. humanely adv. humaneness n.
120)Benevolent adj. 1 well-wishing; actively friendly and helpful. 2 charitable (benevolent fund).
121)compassionate adj. showing compassion, sympathetic. compassionately
122)divulge v. (-ging) disclose, reveal (a secret etc.). divulgence n. [Latin divulge
123)misdeed n. evil deed, wrongdoing, crime.
124)legitimate adj. 1 (of a child) born of parents married to each other. 2 lawful, proper, regular. 3
logically acceptable. legitimacy n. legitimately adv. [Latin legitimo legitimize, from lex legis law]
125)legitimatize v. (also -ise) (-zing or -sing) legitimize. serve as a justification for. legitimization
126)scrutiny n. (pl. -ies) 1 critical gaze. 2 close investigation. 3 official examination of ballot-
papers. [Latin scrutinium from scrutor examine]
127)gaze —v. (-zing) (foll. by at, into, on, etc.) look fixedly. —n. intent look.
128)exemplary adj. 1 fit to be imitated; outstandingly good. 2 serving as a warning. 3 illustrative.
[Latin: related to *example]
129)exemplify v. (-ies, -ied) 1 illustrate by example. 2 be an example of. exemplification n.
130)cloak —n. 1 outdoor . 2 covering (cloak of snow). —v. 1 cover with a cloak. 2 conceal,
disguise. something that is intended to cover or hide the truth of something else
131)conceal v. 1 keep secret. 2 hide. concealment n.
132)disguise —v. (-sing) 1 conceal the identity of; make unrecognizable. 2 conceal (disguised my
anger). —n. 1 a costume, make-up, etc., used to disguise. b action, manner, etc., used to deceive.
133)Allay v. 1 diminish (fear, suspicion, etc.). 2 alleviate (pain etc.).
134)alleviate v. (-ting) make (pain etc.) less severe. alleviation n.
135)appal v. (-ll-) 1 greatly dismay or horrify ,shock. 2 (as appalling adj.) colloq. very bad,
136)dismay —n. intense disappointment or despair. —v. fill with dismay.
137)antiquated adj. old-fashioned.
138)antique —n. old object, esp. a piece of furniture, of high value. —adj. 1 of or from an early
date. 2 old-fashioned. [Latin antiquus]
139)antiquity n. (pl. -ies) 1 ancient times,
140)Complacent adj. smugly self-satisfied or contented. complacence n. complacency n.
141)Smug adj. (smugger, smuggest) self-satisfied. smugly adv. smugness
142)shroud —n. thing that conceals.
143)awe —n. reverential fear or wonder. —v. (awing) inspire with awe.
144)awe-inspiring adj. awesome; magnificent.
145)awesome adj. inspiring awe; dreaded.
146)dread —v. fear greatly, esp. in advance. —n. great fear or apprehension. —adj. 1 dreaded. 2
archaic awe-inspiring, dreadful.
147)Apprehend v. 1 seize, arrest. 2 understand, perceive. [Latin prehendo grasp]
148)apprehension n. 1 uneasiness, dread. 2 understanding. 3 arrest, capture.
149)Apprehensive adj. uneasily fearful. apprehensively adv.
150)awful adj. 1 colloq. very bad or unpleasant (has awful writing; awful weather). 2 (attrib.) as
an intensifier (awful lot of money). 3 poet. inspiring awe.
151)awfully adv. 1 badly; unpleasantly (played awfully). 2 colloq. very (awfully pleased).
152)reverence —n. a strong feeling of respect and admiration
153)reverential n. of the nature of, due to, or characterized by reverence. reverentially adv.
154)Reverie n. fit of abstracted musing, day-dream.
155)admiration n. respect; warm approval or pleasure..
156)admire v. (-ring) 1 regard with approval, respect,
157)espousal n. 1 (foll. by of) espousing of (a cause etc.). 2 archaic marriage, betrothal.
158)Espouse v. (-sing) 1 adopt or support (a cause, doctrine, etc.). 2 archaic a (usu. of a man)
marry. b (usu. foll. by to) give (a woman) in marriage.
159)archaic adj. 1 a antiquated. b (of a word etc.) no longer in ordinary use. 2 of an early period of
160)betroth v. (usu. as betrothed adj.) engage to marry. engagement betrothal n. ,promise to marry
161)gambit n. 1 chess opening in which a player sacrifices a piece or pawn to secure an
advantage. 2 opening move in a discussion etc. 3 trick or device.
162)blaspheme v. (-ming) 1 use religious names irreverently; treat a religious or sacred subject
irreverently. 2 talk irreverently about; use blasphemy against.
163)Blasphemy n. (pl. -ies) 1 irreverent talk or treatment of a religious or sacred thing. 2 instance of
164)revisionism n. often derog. revision or modification of an orthodoxy, esp. of Marxism.
revisionist n. & adj.
165)cognition n. 1 knowing, perceiving, or conceiving as an act or faculty distinct from emotion and
volition. 2 result of this. cognitional adj. cognitive adj. [Latin cognitio: related to *cognizance]
166)Cognizance n. formal 1 knowledge or awareness; perception. 2 sphere of observation or
concern. 3 Heraldry distinctive device or mark. [Latin cognosco get to know]
167)Cognizant adj. (foll. by of) formal having knowledge or being aware of.
168)conceive v. (-ving) 1 become pregnant (with). 2 a (often foll. by of) imagine, think. b (usu. in
passive) formulate (a belief, plan, etc.); conceivable adj. capable of being grasped or imagined.
169)volition n. act or power of willing.the power to make your own decisions:He left the firm of his
own volition, will power of making decisions
170)faculty n. (pl. -ies) 1 aptitude for a particular activity. 2 inherent mental or physical
power. 3 a group of related university departments. b US teaching staff of a university or college. 4
171)Perpetual adj. 1 lasting for ever or indefinitely. 2 continuous, uninterrupted. 3 colloq. frequent
172)perpetuate v. (-ting) 1 make perpetual. 2 preserve from oblivion. perpetuation n. perpetuator
173)oblivion :1.NOT REMEMBERED when someone or something is not remembered ,to disappear
into oblivion 2.NOT AWARE when you are not aware of what is happening around you,He drank
himself into oblivion.
174)obvious :easy to understand or see
175)perpetuity n. (pl. -ies) 1 state or quality of being perpetual. 2 perpetual annuity. 3 perpetual
possession or position. in perpetuity for ever.
176)white elephant n. useless possession.
177)archive —n. (usu. in pl.) 1 collection of documents or records. 2 store for these. —v. (-ving) 1
place or store in an archive. 2 Computing: transfer (data) to a less frequently used file.
178)Anachronism n. 1 a attribution of a custom, event, etc., to the wrong period. b thing thus
attributed. 2 out-of-date person or thing. anachronistic adj. [Greek ana- against, khronos time] An
artifact that belongs to another time; A person who seems to be displaced in time; who belongs to
179)outlive v. (-ving) 1 live longer than (a person). 2 live beyond (a period or date).
180)outlook n. 1 prospect, view. 2 mental attitude. nature
181)legacy n. (pl. -ies) 1 gift left in a will. 2 thing handed down by a predecessor.; On the death of
his father, he received a small legacy.
182)Bequeath v. 1 leave to a person in a will. 2 hand down to posterity. to formally arrange to give
someone something after you die;He bequeathed his art collection to the city of Glasgow.
183)bequest n. 1 bequeathing; bestowal by will. 2 thing bequeathed. money or property that you
have arranged for someone to get after you die
184)bestowal :The act of conferring an honour or presenting a gift
185)posterity n. 1 succeeding generations. 2 person's descendants.
186)Bestow v. (foll. by on, upon) confer (a gift, right, etc.). bestowal n.
187)confer v. (-rr-) 1 (often foll. by on, upon) grant or bestow. 2 (often foll. by with) converse,
consult. verb conferring, past conferred :1.DISCUSS [I] to discuss something with other
people before making a decision; 2 GIVE [T] formal to give someone something, especially an
official title, an honour, or an advantage
188)liberty n. (pl. -ies) 1 freedom from captivity etc. 2 right or power to do as one pleases.
189)liberalize v. (also -ise) (-zing or -sing) make or become more liberal or less strict.
liberalization n. open mindedly
190)liberate v. (-ting) 1 (often foll. by from) set free. 2 free (a country etc.) from an oppressor or
enemy. 3 (often as liberated adj.) free (a person) from rigid social conventions. liberation n.
liberator n. [Latin liberare liberat- from liber free]
191)red tape n. excessive bureaucracy or formality, esp. in public business.
192)sole adj. one and only; single, exclusive. [French from Latin solus]
193)archaic adj. 1 a antiquated. b (of a word etc.) no longer in ordinary use. 2 of an early period of
culture. archaically adv
194)Stymie (also stimy) —n. (pl. -ies) difficult situation. —v. (-mies, -mied, -mying or -mieing) ,
obstruct; thwart., causes frustration
195)thwart —v. frustrate or foil (a person, plan, etc.). —n.
196)foil v. frustrate, baffle, defeat.
197)frustrate v. (-ting) 1 make (efforts) ineffective. 2 prevent (a person) from achieving a purpose. 3
(as frustrated adj.) a discontented because unable to achieve one's aims. b sexually unfulfilled.
frustrating adj. frustratingly adv. frustration n.
198)baffle —v. (-ling) 1 perplex. 2 frustrate, hinder. —n.
199)Placate v. (-ting) pacify; conciliate. placatory adj. [Latin placo appease]
200)pacify v. (-ies, -ied) 1 appease (a person, anger, etc.). 2 bring (a country etc.) to a state of peace.
pacification n. pacificatory adj.
201)appease v. (-sing) 1 make calm or quiet, esp. conciliate (a potential aggressor) by making
concessions. 2 satisfy (an appetite, scruples). appeasement n.
202)conciliate v. (-ting) make calm and amenable; pacify; gain the goodwill of. 2 reconcile.
conciliation n. conciliator n. conciliatory
203)Amenable adj. 1 responsive, docile. 2 (often foll. by to) answerable to law etc.
204)responsive adj. 1 (often foll. by to) responding readily (to some influence). 2 sympathetic. 3 a
answering. b by way of answer. responsiveness n
205)Docile adj. submissive, easily managed. docilely adv. docility n. A docile person or animal is
quiet and easily controlled.
206)submissive adj. humble, obedient. submissively adv. submissiveness n.
207)humble —adj. 1 having or showing low self-esteem. 2 of low social or political rank. 3 modest
in size, pretensions, etc. —v. (-ling) 1 make humble = abase. 2 lower the rank or status of.
208)Abase v. (-sing) (also refl.) humiliate, degrade. abasement n.
209)eat humble pie- apologize humbly; accept humiliation. humbleness n. humbly adv.
210)humiliate v. (-ting) injure the dignity or self-respect of. humiliating adj. humiliation n. [Latin:
related to *humble]
211)humility n. 1 humbleness, meekness. 2 humble condition. [French: related to *humiliate]
212)meek adj. humble and submissive or gentle. meekly adv. meekness n.
213)patchy adj. (-ier, -iest) 1 uneven in quality. 2 having or existing in patches. patchily adv.
214)patch —n. 1 material used to mend a hole or as reinforcement. 2 shield protecting an injured
eye. 3 large or irregular distinguishable area. 4 colloq. period of a specified, esp. unpleasant, kind
(went through a bad patch). 5 piece of ground. 6 colloq. area assigned to, or patrolled by, esp. a
police officer. 7 plants growing in one place (cabbage patch). 8 scrap, remnant. —v. 1 (often foll. by
up) repair with a patch or patches. 2 (of material) serve as a patch to. 3 (often foll. by up) put
together, esp. hastily. 4 (foll. by up) settle (a quarrel etc.), esp. hastily or temporarily. not a
patch on colloq. greatly inferior to. [perhaps French, var. of *piece]
215)adverse adj. unfavourable; harmful. adversely adv. [Latin: related to *ad-, verto vers- turn]
216)adversity n. misfortune, distress.
217)advert n. colloq. advertisement.
218)distress —n. 1 anguish or suffering caused by pain, sorrow, worry, etc. 2 poverty. 3 Law =
*distraint. —v. cause distress to, make unhappy. in distress suffering or in danger. distressful adj.
219)Anguish n. 1 severe mental suffering. 2 pain, agony. anguished adj.
220)agony n. (pl. -ies) 1 extreme mental or physical suffering. 2 severe struggle. [Greek agon
221)agony aunt n. colloq. person (esp. a woman) who answers letters in an agony column. someone
who gives advice on personal problems, in a newspaper or magazine
222)agony column n. colloq. 1 column in a magazine etc. offering personal advice to
correspondents. 2 = *personal column.
223)fiat n. 1 authorization. 2 decree. [Latin, = let it be done]
224)decree —n. 1 official legal order. 2 legal judgement or decision, esp. in divorce cases. —v. (-
ees, -eed, -eeing) ordain by decree.
225)Ordain v. 1 confer holy orders on. 2 decree, order. [Latin ordino: related to *order]
226)meddle v. (-ling) (often foll. by with, in) interfere in others' concerns. meddler n.
;meddlesome adj. interfering.
227)fiscal —adj. of public revenue. —n. 1 legal official in some countries. fiscal year n. =
228)savvy slang —v. (-ies, -ied) know. —n. awareness, knowingness; understanding. —adj. (-ier,
-iest) US knowing; wise.
229)Peddle v. (-ling) 1 a sell (goods) as a pedlar. b advocate or promote. 2 sell (drugs) illegally. 3
engage in selling, esp. as a pedlar. [back-formation from *pedlar]
230)peddler n. 1 person who sells drugs illegally. 2 US var. of *pedlar.: pedlar n. (US peddler) 1
travelling seller of small items. 2 (usu. foll. by of) retailer (of gossip etc.).
231)honour (US honor) —n. 1 high respect, public regard. 2 adherence to what is right or an
accepted standard of conduct. 3 nobleness of mind, magnanimity (honour among thieves). 4 thing
conferred as a distinction, esp. an official award for bravery or achievement. 5 privilege, special
right (had the honour of being invited). 6 a exalted position. b (Honour) (prec. by your, his, etc.) title
of a circuit judge etc. 7 (foll. by to) person or thing that brings honour (an honour to her profession).
8 a chastity (of a woman). b reputation for this.
232)magnanimous adj. nobly generous; not petty in feelings or conduct. magnanimity n.
233)magnate n. wealthy and influential person, usu. in business.
234)generous adj. 1 giving or given freely. 2 magnanimous, unprejudiced. 3 abundant, copious.
generosity n. generously adv
235)Genesis n. 1 origin; mode of formation.
236)copious adj. 1 abundant. 2 producing much. copiously adv.
237) petty adj. (-ier, -iest) 1 unimportant; trivial. 2 small-minded. 3 minor, inferior, on a small
scale. 4 Law (of a crime) of lesser importance. pettily adv. pettiness n. [French petit small]
238)petty cash n. money from or for small items of receipt or expenditure.
239)privilege —n. 1 right, advantage, or immunity, belonging to a person, class, or office. 2 special
benefit or honour (a privilege to meet you). —v. (-ging) invest with a privilege. privileged adj.
240)pity —n. 1 sorrow and compassion for another's suffering. 2 cause for regret (what a pity!). —
v. (-ies, -ied) feel (often contemptuous) pity for. take pity on help out of pity for. pitying adj.
241)Disdain —n. SCORN, contempt. —v. 1 regard with disdain. 2 refrain or refuse out of disdain.
disdainful adj. disdainfully adv. Lack of respect accompanied by a feeling of intense dislike A
communication that indicates lack of respect by patronizing the recipient
242)contempt n. 1 feeling that a person or thing deserves scorn or extreme reproach. 2
condition of being held in contempt. 3 (in full contempt of court) disobedience to or disrespect for
a court of law.
243)contemptuous adj. (often foll. by of) feeling or showing contempt. contemptuously adv.
244)Scorn —n. disdain, contempt, derision. —v. 1 hold in contempt. 2 reject or refuse to do as
245)refrain1 v. (foll. by from) avoid doing (an action) (refrain from smoking). n. 1 recurring phrase
or lines, esp. at the ends of stanzas.
246)reproach —v. express disapproval to (a person or oneself) for a fault. —n. 1 rebuke or
censure. 2 (often foll. by to) thing that brings disgrace or discredit. 3 state of disgrace or discredit.
above (or beyond) reproach perfect, blameless
247)ail v. 1 archaic (only in 3rd person interrog. or indefinite constructions) trouble or afflict
(what ails him?). 2 (usu. be ailing) be ill.
248)ailing adj. 1 ill. 2 in poor condition.
249)ailment n. minor illness or disorder.
250)Afflict: v. distress physically or mentally.
251)conceal v. 1 keep secret. 2 hide. concealment n. [Latin celo hide]
252)concede v. (-ding) 1 admit to be true. 2 admit defeat in. 3 grant (a right, privilege, etc.)
253)conceit n. 1 personal vanity; pride. 2 literary a far-fetched comparison. b fanciful notion.
254)conceited adj. vain. conceitedly adv.
255)conceivable adj. capable of being grasped or imagined. conceivably adv.
256)conceive v. (-ving) 1 become pregnant (with). 2 a (often foll. by of) imagine, think. b (usu. in
passive) formulate (a belief, plan, etc.).
257)Grandiose adj. 1 producing or meant to produce an imposing effect. 2 planned on an ambitious
scale. grandiosity n. [Italian: related to *grand] large or detailed and made to appear important,
often in an unnecessary and annoying way ,grandiose plans
258)Abdicate v. (-ting) 1 (usu. absol.) give up or renounce (the throne). 2 renounce (a duty, right,
etc.). abdication n
259)renounce v. (-cing) 1 consent formally to abandon (a claim, right, etc.). 2 repudiate; refuse to
recognize any longer. 3 decline further association or disclaim relationship with. [Latin nuntio
260)Repudiate v. (-ting) 1 a disown, disavow, reject. b refuse dealings with. c deny. 2 refuse to
recognize or obey (authority or a treaty). 3 refuse to discharge (an obligation or debt). repudiation
n. [Latin repudium divorce]
261) Derision n. when you talk about someone or something as if they are ridiculous and do not
deserve respect:The novel was greeted with derision in the UK, but praised in the US. Disdain,
262)vain adj. 1 having too high an opinion of one's looks, abilities, etc. 2 empty, trivial (vain
triumphs). 3 useless; futile (in the vain hope of finding it). in vain 1 without success. 2 lightly or
profanely (take his name in vain). vainly adv
263)treachery n. (pl. -ies) violation of faith or trust; betrayal.
264)treacherous adj. 1 guilty of or involving treachery. 2 (of the weather, ice, the memory, etc.)
likely to fail or give way. treacherously adv. [French from trichier cheat: related to *trick]
265)Avow v. formal declare, confess. avowal n. avowedly adv
266)condescend v. 1 be gracious enough (to do a thing) esp. while showing one's sense of dignity or
superiority (condescended to attend). 2 (foll. by to) pretend to be on equal terms with (an inferior). 3
(as condescending adj.) patronizing. condescendingly adv. condescension n.
267)patronize v. (also -ise) (-zing or -sing) 1 treat condescendingly. 2 be a patron or customer of.
patronizing adj. patronizingly adv.
268)repress v. 1 a keep under; quell. b suppress; prevent from sounding, rioting, or bursting out. 2
Psychol. actively exclude (an unwelcome thought) from conscious awareness. 3 (usu. as repressed
adj.) subject (a person) to the suppression of his or her thoughts or impulses. repression n.
269) Quell: formal to stop something that you do not want to happen to quell a riot; to quell
270)consul n. 1 official appointed by a State to protect its citizens and interests in a foreign city
271)consulate n. 1 official building of a consul. 2 position of consul.
272)condemn v. 1 express utter disapproval of( rebuke ,censure, reprove, reproach). 2 a find
guilty; convict. b (usu. foll. by to) sentence to (a punishment). 3 pronounce (a building etc.) unfit for
use. 4 (usu. foll. by to) doom or assign (to something unpleasant). condemnation n. condemnatory
273)exterminate v. (-ting) destroy utterly (esp. a living thing). extermination n. exterminator n.
[Latin: related to *terminal]
274)Genocide n. deliberate extermination of a people or nation. genocidal
275)Homicide n. 1 killing of a human being by another. 2 person who kills a human being.
homicidal adj. [Latin homo man],
276) foul play n. 1 unfair play in games. 2 treacherous or violent act, esp. murder.
277)carnage n. great slaughter, esp. in battle.
278)accord —v. 1 (often foll. by with) be consistent or in harmony. 2 grant (permission, a
request, etc.); give (a welcome etc.). —n. 1 agreement, consent. of one's own accord on one's own
initiative; voluntarily. with one accord unanimously.
279)prong n. each of two or more projecting pointed parts at the end of a fork etc
280)intimidate v. (-ting) frighten or overawe, esp. to subdue or influence. intimidation n.
[medieval Latin: related to *timid]
281)timid adj. (timider, timidest) easily frightened; apprehensive. timidity n. timidly adv. [Latin
282)subdue v. (-dues, -dued, -duing) 1 conquer, subjugate, or tame. 2 (as subdued adj.) softened;
lacking in intensity; toned down
283)détente n. easing of strained, esp. international, relations. [French, = relaxation]
284)detention n. 1 detaining or being detained. 2 being kept late in school as a punishment. [Latin:
related to *detain when someone is officially kept somewhere and not allowed to leave
285)futile adj. 1 useless, ineffectual. 2 frivolous. futility n. [Latin futilis leaky, futile]
286)frivolous adj. 1 not serious, silly, shallow. 2 paltry, trifling. frivolity n. (pl. -ies). frivolously
adv. frivolousness n. [Latin]
287)shallow —adj. 1 of little depth. 2 superficial, trivial. —n. (often in pl.) shallow place.
shallowness n. [Old
288)paltry adj. (-ier, -iest) worthless, contemptible, trifling. paltriness n. [from palt rubbish]
289)trifling adj. 1 unimportant, petty. 2 frivolous.
290)superficial adj. 1 of or on the surface; lacking depth. 2 swift or cursory (superficial
examination). 3 apparent but not real (superficial resemblance). 4 (esp. of a person) shallow.
superficiality n. superficially adv. [Latin: related to *face]
291)jeopardize v. (also -ise) (-zing or -sing) endanger.
292)jeopardy n. danger, esp. severe If the factory closes, local jobs will be in jeopardy.
293)menace —n. 1 threat. 2 dangerous thing or person. 3 joc. pest, nuisance. —v. (-cing) threaten.
menacingly adv. nuisance n. person, thing, or circumstance causing trouble or annoyance. [French,
= hurt, from nuire nuis- injure, from Latin noceo to hurt]
294)Fray n. 1 conflict, fight. 2 brawl..
295)pre-eminent adj. 1 excelling others. 2 outstanding. pre-eminence n. pre-eminently adv.
296)goodwill n. 1 kindly feeling. 2 established reputation of a business etc. as enhancing its value. 3
willingness to undertake unpaid duties. good will n. intention that good will result
297)liaise :to speak to people in other organizations in order to exchange information with them:
Our head office will liaise with the suppliers to ensure delivery.
298)ubiquitous [ adjective formal or humorous seeming to be in all places:
Leather is very much in fashion this season, as of course is the ubiquitous denim.
The Swedes are not alone in finding their language under pressure from the ubiquitous spread of
The radio, that most ubiquitous of consumer-electronic appliances, is about to enter a new age.
299)chivalrous adj. 1 gallant, honourable. 2 of or showing chivalry. chivalrously adv. [Latin:
related to *chevalier]
300)chivalry n. 1 medieval knightly system with its religious, moral, and social code. 2 honour,
courtesy, and readiness to help the weak. chivalric adj. polite behaviour towards women
301)gentleman's agreement n. (also gentlemen's agreement) agreement binding in honour but not
302)gentrification n. upgrading of a working-class urban area by the arrival of more affluent
residents. gentrify v. (-ies, -ied).
303)privilege —n. 1 right, advantage, or immunity, belonging to a person, class, or office. 2 special
benefit or honour (a privilege to meet you). —v. (-ging) invest with a privilege. privileged adj.
[Latin: related to *privy, lex leg- law]
304)chaste adj. 1 abstaining from extramarital, or from all, sexual intercourse. 2 pure, virtuous. 3
simple, unadorned. chastely adv. chasteness n.
305)chasten v. 1 (esp. as chastening, chastened adjs.) subdue, restrain. 2 discipline, punish.
306)chastise v. (-sing) 1 rebuke severely. 2 punish, esp. by beating. chastisement n.
307)chastity n. being chaste. when someone does not have sex
308)virtuous adj. 1 morally good. 2 archaic chaste. virtuously adv. [Latin: related to *virtue]
309)unadorned adj. plain. Adorn verb [T] to add something decorative to a person or thing: The
bride's hair was adorned with pearls and white flowers. adornment noun something decorative, or
the act of decorating something or someone
310)exalt v. 1 raise in rank or power etc. 2 praise highly. 3 (usu. as exalted adj.) make lofty or noble
(exalted aims; exalted style). exaltation n.
311)lofty adj. (-ier, -iest) 1 (of things) of imposing height. 2 haughty, aloof. 3 exalted, noble (lofty
ideals). loftily adv. loftiness n. The boss used lofty remarks on Pooja
312)haughty adj. (-ier, -iest) arrogant and disdainful. haughtily adv. haughtiness n. [haught, haut
from French, = high]
313)pervasive adj. formal: moving into or through everywhere or everything; a pervasive smell; the
pervasive influence of television, Ubiquity
314)avert verb: 1 avert a crisis/disaster/war, etc to prevent something bad from
happening;2 avert your eyes/face/gaze to turn you head away so that you do not see something
315)atrocity n. (pl. -ies) 1 wicked or cruel act. 2 extreme wickedness. [Latin: related to *atrocious]
when someone does something extremely violent and shocking; Soldiers have been committing
atrocities against civilians
316)wicked adj. (-er, -est) 1 sinful, iniquitous, immoral. 2 spiteful. 3 playfully malicious. 4 colloq.
very bad. 5 slang excellent. wickedly adv. wickedness n. [
317)iniquity n. (pl. -ies) 1 wickedness. 2 gross injustice. iniquitous adj. [French from Latin aequus
318)spiteful adj. malicious. spitefully adv.
319)blister —n. 1 small bubble on the skin filled with watery fluid and caused by heat or friction. 2
similar swelling on plastic, wood, etc. —v. 1 come up in blisters. 2 raise a blister on. 3 attack sharply
320)blithering attrib. adj. colloq. hopeless; contemptible (esp. in blithering idiot).
321)venture —n. 1 risky undertaking. 2 commercial speculation. —v. (-ring) 1 dare; not be afraid.
2 dare to go, make, or put forward (venture out; venture an opinion). 3 a expose to risk; stake. b
take risks. [from *adventure]
322)commotion noun a sudden short period of noise, confusion or excited movement:
His arrival caused quite a commotion. He looked up to see what all the commotion was about.
323)ruckus n. esp. US informal row, commotion. [perhaps from *ruction or *rumpus]
324)wake n. 1 track left on the water's surface by a moving ship. 2 turbulent air left behind a
moving aircraft etc. in the wake of following, as a result of. [Low German from Old Norse]
325)chunk n. 1 thick piece cut or broken off. 2 substantial amount. [var. of *chuck2]
326)chunky adj. (-ier, -iest) 1 consisting of or resembling chunks; thick, substantial. 2 small and
sturdy. chunkiness n..
327)insurgent —adj. in active revolt. —n. rebel. insurgence n. [
328)posthumous adj. 1 occurring after death. 2 (of a book etc.) published after the author's death. 3
(of a child) born after the death of its father. posthumously adv.
329)penchant n. (followed by for) inclination or liking.
330)). Tool (foll. by along, around, etc.) slang drive or ride, esp. in a casual or leisurely
manner. [Old English]
331)prelude —n. (often foll. by to) 1 action, event, or situation serving as an introduction. 2
introductory part of a poem etc. —v. (-ding) 1 serve as a prelude to. 2 introduce with a prelude.
332)vehicle n. thing or person as a medium for expression or action vehicular adj.
333)bête noire n. (pl. bêtes noires pronunc. same) person or thing one hates or fears. [French,
literally = ‘black beast’]
334)infusion n. Cannot be melted; infuse verb [T + object + preposition] to fill someone or
something with an emotion or quality:
The pulling down of the Berlin Wall infused the world with optimism.
335)catapult —.fling forcibly. leap or be hurled forcibly.
336)afoot adv. & predic.adj. in operation; progressing.
337)afore prep. & adv. archaic before; previously; in front (of). afore- comb. form before,
previously (aforementioned; aforesaid).
338)aforethought adj. premeditated (following a noun: malice aforethought).
339)encompass v. 1 contain; include. 2 surround.
340)confidant n. (fem. confidante pronunc. same) person trusted with knowledge of one's private
affairs. [related to *confide]
341)confide v. (-ding) 1 (foll. by in) talk confidentially to. 2 (usu. foll. by to) tell (a secret etc.) in
confidence. 3 (foll. by to) entrust (an object of care, a task, etc.) to. [Latin confido trust]
342)confidence n. 1 firm trust. 2 a feeling of reliance or certainty. b sense of self-reliance; boldness.
3 something told as a secret. in confidence as a secret. in a person's confidence trusted with a
person's secrets. take into one's confidence confide in. [Latin: related to *confide]
343)confidence trick n. swindle in which the victim is persuaded to trust the swindler. confidence
344)swindle verb [T]
to obtain money dishonestly from someone by deceiving or cheating them:
They swindled local businesses out of thousands of pounds.
swindle noun [C]
Fraud-squad officers are investigating a £5.6 million swindle.
swindler noun [C]
345)confine —v. (-ning) 1 keep or restrict (within certain limits). 2 imprison. —n. (usu. in pl.) limit,
boundary. [Latin finis limit]
346)confiscate v. (-ting) take or seize by authority. confiscation n. [Latin: related to *fiscal]
347)conflagration n. great and destructive fire. [Latin: related to *flagrant] a large and violent
event, such as a war, involving a lot of people:
They may succeed in turning a little local difficulty into a full-blown regional conflagration
Root CONFL… Blend, Together ,Mixing, Forming Group etc
348)conflate v. (-ting) blend or fuse together (esp. two variant texts into one). conflation n.
[Latin flo flat- blow] She succeeded in conflating the three plays to produce a fresh new work.
conflation noun [C or U
349)confluence n. 1 place where two rivers meet. 2 a coming together. b crowd of people. [Latin
fluo flow] confluent —adj. flowing together, uniting. —n. stream joining another.
350)conform v. 1 comply with rules or general custom. 2 (foll. by to, with) comply with; be in
accordance with. 3 (often foll. by to) be or make suitable. [Latin: related to *form] conformable .
351)rapprochement n. resumption of harmonious relations, esp. between States. [French: related to
*approach]. agreement reached by opposing groups or people: There are signs of (a)
rapprochement between the warring factions.
352)confound —v. 1 perplex, baffle. 2 confuse (in one's mind). 3 archaic defeat, overthrow. —int.
expressing annoyance (confound you!). [Latin confundo -fus- mix up]
353)confounded attrib. adj. colloq. damned.
354)confront v. 1 a face in hostility or defiance. b face up to and deal with. 2 (of a difficulty etc.)
present itself to. 3 (foll. by with) bring (a person) face to face with (an accusation etc.). 4 meet or
stand facing. confrontation n. confrontational adj. [French from medieval Latin]
355)sigh —v. 1 emit an audible breath in sadness, weariness, relief, etc. 2 (foll. by for) yearn for.
3 express with sighs. 4 make a sighing sound. —n. 1 act of sighing. 2 sound made in sighing.
356)speculate v. (-ting) 1 (usu. foll. by on, upon, about) theorize, conjecture. 2 deal in a commodity
or asset in the hope of profiting from fluctuating prices. speculation n. speculative adj. speculator n
357)lacklustre adj. (US lackluster) 1 lacking in vitality etc. 2 dull. lacking energy and effort:
Britain's number-one tennis player gave a disappointingly lacklustre performance.
358)correction n. 1 correcting or being corrected. 2 thing substituted for what is wrong. 3 archaic
punishment. correctional adj. [Latin: related to *correct]
359)correctitude n. consciously correct behaviour. [from *correct, *rectitude]
360)laggard n. person who lags behind.
361)hard-nosed adj. colloq. realistic, uncompromising. practical and determined:
His hard-nosed business approach is combined with a very real concern for the less fortunate in
362)hard of hearing adj. somewhat deaf.
363)hard palate n. front part of the palate. palate n. 1 structure closing the upper part of the mouth
cavity in vertebrates. 2 sense of taste. 3 mental taste; liking
364)hard-pressed adj. 1 closely pursued. 2 burdened with urgent busine
365)hardship n. 1 severe suffering or privation. 2 circumstance causing this..
366)privation noun [C or U] FORMAL
a lack of the basic things that are necessary for an acceptable standard of living:
Economic privation is pushing the poor towards crime.
Several villages suffered serious privations during their long isolation during the war.
367)psychological block or barrier: n. mental inhibition caused by emotional factors.
368)prominent adj. 1 jutting out, projecting. 2 conspicuous. 3 distinguished, important
369)conspicuous adj. 1 clearly visible; attracting notice. 2 noteworthy. conspicuously adv. [Latin
370)haze n. 1 thin atmospheric vapour. 2 mental obscurity or confusion.
371)obscure (UNCLEAR) adjective unclear and difficult to understand or see:
Official policy has changed, for reasons that remain obscure.
His answers were obscure and confusing. obscure verb [T] 1 to prevent something from being seen
Two new skyscrapers had sprung up, obscuring the view from her window.
The sun was obscured by clouds.
2 to make something difficult to discover and understand:
Managers deliberately obscured the real situation from federal investigators.
obscurely adverb The minister's statement was obscurely worded Related to Obstruction
372)scorch —v. 1 burn or discolour the surface of with dry heat. 2 become so discoloured etc. 3 (as
scorching adj.) colloq. a (of the weather) very hot. b (of criticism etc.) stringent; harsh. —n. mark
made by scorching.,scorcher n. colloq. very hot day.
373)stringent (SEVERE) adjective
having a very severe effect, or being extremely limiting:
The most stringent laws in the world are useless unless there is the will to enforce them.
We need to introduce more stringent security measures such as identity cards.
Stringent safety regulations were introduced after the accident.
Fire regulations are stringently enforced in all our factories.
374)corroborate v. (-ting) confirm or give support to (a statement or belief etc.). corroboration n.
corroborative adj. corroborator n. corroborate verb [T] FORMAL
to add proof or certainty to an account, statement, idea, etc. with new information:
Recent research seems to corroborate his theory.
corroboration noun [U] FORMAL
Without corroboration from forensic tests, it will be difficult to prove that the suspect is guilty.
375)lambaste v. (-ting) (also lambast) colloq. thrash, beat. to criticize someone or something
severely:rebuke , censure ,reprove reproach
His first novel was well and truly lambasted by the critics.
376)pounce —v. (-cing) 1 spring or swoop, esp. as in capturing prey. 2 (often foll. by on, upon) a
make a sudden attack. b seize eagerly upon a remark etc. —n. act of pouncing.
377)loggerhead n. at loggerheads (often foll. by with) disagreeing or disputing
If you are at loggerheads with someone, you strongly disagree with them:
The company's two divisions were said to have been at loggerheads frequently.
378)vehement adj. showing or caused by strong feeling; ardent (vehement protest). vehemence n.
vehemently adv. expressing very strong feelings, or characterized by great energy or force
They are killing some of the birds, to the vehement protests of animal-rights groups.
adjective showing strong feelings; eager They were ardent pacifists.
380)savour UK, US savor verb [T] to enjoy food or an experience slowly, in order to appreciate it as
much as possible: It was the first chocolate he'd tasted for over a year, so he savoured every
mouthful. savour 1 UK (US savor) pleasure and interest:
She felt that life had lost most of its savour.
2 a smell or taste, especially a pleasant one
381)unsavoury adj. (US unsavory) 1 disgusting, unpleasant. 2 morally offensive.
382)incommunicado adj. 1 without means of communication. 2 (of a prisoner) in solitary
confinement. [Spanish incomunicado]
383)reticence n. 1 avoidance of saying all one knows or feels, or more than is necessary. 2
disposition to silence; taciturnity. reticent adj. [Latin reticeo keep silent] unwilling to speak about
your thoughts or feelings:He is very reticent about his past.Most of the students were reticent about
answering questions. reticence His reticence about his past made them very suspicious.
384)taciturn habitually silent;(introvert) talking a little New Englanders are reputedly taciturn
385)reticulate —v. (-ting) divide or be divided in fact or appearance into a network. —adj.
reticulated. reticulation n. [Latin reticulum diminutive of rete net] NET like structure
386)actuary n. (pl. -ies) statistician, esp. one calculating insurance risks and premiums. actuarial
387)hegemony noun [U] FORMAL
(especially of countries) the position of being the strongest and most powerful and therefore able to
The three nations competed for regional hegemony.
388)permeate verb [I usually + adverb or preposition; T] FORMAL
to spread through something and be present in every part of it:
Dissatisfaction with the government seems to have permeated every section of society.
A foul smell of stale beer permeated the whole building.
The table has a plastic coating which prevents liquids from permeating into the wood beneath.
permeable adjective FORMAL
389)flush1 —v. 1 blush, redden, glow warmly (he flushed with embarrassment). 2 (usu. as flushed
adj.) cause to glow or blush (often foll. by with: he was flushed with pride). 3 a cleanse (a drain,
lavatory, etc.) by a flow of water. b (often foll. by away, down) dispose of in this way. 4 rush out,
spurt. —n. 1 blush or glow. 2 a rush of water. b cleansing of a drain, lavatory, etc. thus. 3 rush of
esp. elation or triumph. 4 freshness; vigour. 5 a (also hot flush) sudden feeling of heat during
menopause. b feverish redness or temperature etc. —adj. 1 level, in the same plane. 2 colloq. having
plenty of money. [perhaps = *flush3]
flush3 v. 1 cause (esp. a game-bird) to fly up. 2 (of a bird) fly up and away. flush out 1 reveal. 2
390)tousle v. (-ling) 1 make (esp. the hair) untidy. 2 handle roughly
391)torment —n. 1 severe physical or mental suffering. 2 cause of this. —v. 1 subject to torment. 2
tease or worry excessively. tormentor n.
392)concede v. (-ding) 1 admit to be true. 2 admit defeat in. 3 grant (a right, privilege, etc.). [Latin:
related to *cede]
393)conceit n. 1 personal vanity; pride. 2 literary a far-fetched comparison. b fanciful notion.
394)inept adj. 1 unskilful. 2 absurd, silly. 3 out of place. ineptitude n. ineptly adv.
395)incorrigible adj. (of a person or habit) that cannot be corrected or improved. incorrigibility n.
396)humdrum adj. commonplace, dull, monotonous.
397)entice v. (-cing) attract by the offer of pleasure or reward. enticement n. enticing adj.
398)swagger —v. walk or behave arrogantly. —n. swaggering gait or manner.
399)gait noun [C]
1 FORMAL a particular way of walking:
He walked with a slow stiff gait.
400)strut —n. 1 bar in a framework, designed to resist compression. 2 strutting gait. —v. (-tt-) 1
walk stiffly and pompously. 2 brace with struts.
401)pomp noun [U]
splendid and colourful ceremony, especially traditional ceremony on public occasions:
The Prime Minister was received with all the traditional pomp and ceremony that is laid on for
visiting heads of government.
Despite all the pomp of his office/position, he has only limited powers.
402)pompous adjective DISAPPROVING too serious and full of importance:
He's a pompous old prig who's totally incapable of taking a joke.
He can sometimes sound a bit pompous when he talks about acting.
403)rakish adj. 1 dashing; jaunty. 2 dissolute. rakishly dashing adjective
attractive in a confident, exciting and stylish way:
a dashing young soldier rakish
adjective confidently careless and informal:
He wore his hat at a rakish angle.
showing that you are happy and confident:
a jaunty grin/step.
When he came back his hat was at a jaunty angle and he was smiling.
405)sober —adj. (soberer, soberest) 1 not drunk. 2 not given to drink. 3 moderate, tranquil, sedate,
serious. 4 not exaggerated. 5 (of a colour etc.) quiet; dull. —v. (often foll. by down, up) make or
become sober. soberly adv. sober (sb) up -phrasal verb
to become less drunk, or to make someone become less drunk:
I went for a walk to try to sober up.
Have a black coffee - that should sober you up!
406)sedate (CALM) adjective tending to avoid excitement or great activity and to be calm and
The fight against a chemical storage site has transformed a normally sedate village into a
The speed limit in many areas is a sedate 55 mph.
407)tranquil adjective calm and peaceful and without noise, violence, anxiety, etc:
She stared at the tranquil surface of the water.
The hotel is in a tranquil rural setting.
A spasm of pain crossed his normally tranquil features.
408)coy adj. 1 affectedly shy. 2 irritatingly reticent. coyly adv. coyness n. [French: related to
*quiet] MODEST (especially of women) being or pretending to be shy, modest, childish or lacking
in confidence: coy (SECRETIVE) adjective intentionally secretive:
She's very coy about her age.
She gave me a coy look from under her schoolgirl's fringe.
409)endeavour (US endeavor) —v. (foll. by to + infin.) try earnestly. —n. earnest attempt.
410)discern verb [T] FORMAL
to see, recognize or understand something that is not clear:
I could just discern a figure in the darkness.
It is difficult to discern any pattern in these figures.
discernible, US ALSO discernable adjective FORMAL
The influence of Rodin is discernible (= can be seen) in the younger artist.
There is no discernible reason (= one that can be understood) why this should be the case.
411)promiscuous adj. 1 having frequent, esp. casual, sexual relationships. 2 mixed and
indiscriminate. promiscuity n. promiscuously adv. I suppose I was quite promiscuous in my
It's an often repeated fallacy that homosexual men have more promiscuous lifestyles than
412)flit —v. (-tt-) 1 move lightly, softly, or rapidly. 2 make short flights. 3 colloq. disappear
secretly to escape creditors etc. —n. act of flitting. to fly or move quickly and lightly:
In the fading light we saw bats flitting around/about in the garden.
FIGURATIVE Sara finds it very difficult to settle - she's always flitting from one thing to another (=
changing to appear or exist suddenly and briefly in someone's mind or on their face:
A ghost of a smile flitted across his face. Do A Moonlight Flit UK INFORMAL
to leave secretly, especially to avoid paying money that you owe:
When he discovered the police were after him, he did a moonlight flit
413)servile adj. 1 of or like a slave. 2 fawning; subservient. servility n. [Latin servus slave]
414)fawn2 v. 1 (often foll. by on, upon) behave servilely, cringe. 2 (of esp. a dog) show extreme
affection. [Old English
415)obsequious adj. servile, fawning. obsequiously adv. obsequiousness n. [Latin obsequor
416)gullible adj. easily persuaded or deceived.
417)vanquish v. literary conquer, overcome
418)succumb v. (usu. foll. by to) 1 surrender (succumbed to temptation). 2 die (from) (succumbed
to his injuries).
419)tremble —v. (-ling) 1 shake involuntarily from emotion, weakness, etc. 2 be in a state of
extreme apprehension. 3 quiver (leaves trembled in the breeze). —n. trembling; quiver (tremble in
420)quiver —v. tremble or vibrate with a slight rapid motion. —n. quivering motion or sound.
421)nimble adj. (-bler, -blest) quick and light in movement or function; agile. nimbly adv.] quick
and exact either in movement or thoughts:
His nimble mind calculated the answer before I could key the numbers into my computer.
422)concubine n. 1 literary or joc. mistress. 2 (among polygamous peoples) secondary wife.
423)cringe verb [I]
1 to suddenly move away from someone or something because you are frightened
2 INFORMAL to feel very embarrassed:
I cringed at the sight of my dad dancing
424)ineluctable in-ih-LUCK-tuh-buhl, adjective:Impossible to avoid or evade; inevitable....
ineluctable as gravity.
425)reconcile v. (-ling) 1 make friendly again after an estrangement. 2 (usu. in refl. or passive;
foll. by to) make acquiescent or contentedly submissive to (something disagreeable). 3 settle (a
quarrel etc.). 4 a harmonize, make compatible. b show the compatibility of by argument or in
showing a willingness to take risks or offend people:
He described the plan as ambitious and audacious.
an audacious remark/suggestion
audacity noun [U]
[+ to infinitive] It took a lot of audacity (= bravery) to stand up and criticize the chairman.
DISAPPROVING He had the audacity (= rudeness) to blame me for his mistake.
427)gerund n. verbal noun, in English ending in -ing (e.g. do you mind my asking you?)
428)courtesy :noun 1 behaviour that is polite and shows respect, or a polite action or remark The
hotel treats all guests with courtesy.[+ to do sth] He didn't even have the courtesy to thank me.2
(by) courtesy of sb/sth If you have something courtesy of someone, they have allowed you to
have it .The photograph is courtesy of the Natural History Museum.
429)etiquette n. conventional rules of social behaviour or professional conduct.
430)digress verb [I] to start talking about something that is not related to what you were talking
about before /digression The lecturer temporarily digressed from her subject to deal with a related
theory. Talking about money now would be a digression from the main purpose of this meeting.
431)pseud colloq. —adj. (esp. intellectually) pretentious; not genuine. —n. such a person; poseur.
pseudo- comb. form (also pseud- before a vowel) 1 false; not genuine (pseudo-intellectual). 2
resembling or imitating (pseudo-acid).
432)pseudonym n. fictitious name, esp. of an author
433)fart coarse slang —v. 1 emit wind from the anus. 2 (foll. by about, around) behave foolishly.
—n. 1 an emission of wind from the anus. 2 unpleasant or foolish person.
434)fag1 —n. 1 colloq. tedious task. 2 slang cigarette. 3 (at public schools) junior boy who runs
errands for a senior. —v. (-gg-) 1 (often foll. by out) colloq. exhaust. 2 (at public schools) act as a
fag. [origin unknown]
435)fag2 n. US slang offens. male homosexual.
436)veracious adj. formal 1 truthful by nature. 2 (of a statement etc.) true. veracity n
437)studious adj. 1 assiduous in study. 2 painstaking. studiously adv. [Latin: related to *study]
438)bandied Discuss lightly, Exchange blows, Exchange blows, We bandied around these difficult
439)regard —v. 1 gaze on steadily (usu. in a specified way) (regarded them suspiciously). 2
heed; take into account. 3 look upon or think of in a specified way (regard it as an insult). —n. 1
gaze; steady or significant look. 2 (foll. by to, for) attention or care. 3 (foll. by for) esteem; kindly
feeling; respectful opinion. 4 respect; point attended to (in this regard). 5 (in pl.) expression of
friendliness in a letter etc.; compliments. as regards about, concerning; in respect of. in (or with)
regard to as concerns; in respect of.
440)hunky-dory adj. esp. US colloq. excellent. Being satisfactory or in satisfactory condition
hunky dory adjective [after verb] describes events or situations that are very satisfactory and
You can't lose your temper with everyone like that one minute, and then expect everything to be
hunky dory again the next.
441)glory —n. (pl. -ies) 1 renown, fame; honour. 2 adoring praise. 3 resplendent majesty, beauty,
etc. 4 thing that brings renown, distinction, or pride. 5 heavenly bliss and splendour. 6 colloq. state
of exaltation, prosperity, etc. 7 halo of a saint etc. —v. (-ies, -ied) (often foll. by in) pride oneself.
442)resplendent adjective LITERARY having a very bright or splendid appearance:
the queen's resplendent purple robes ;I saw Anna at the other end of the room, resplendent in a red
sequined cocktail dress.
443)deceit n. 1 deception, esp. by concealing the truth. 2 dishonest trick. [Latin capio take] also
when people hide the truth, especially to get an advantage:
He was found guilty of obtaining money by deception.
See also deceive.
444)commination kom-uh-NAY-shuhn, noun: 1. denunciation. 2. A threat of punishment. n.
literary threatening of divine vengeance. comminatory adj. [Latin: related to *menace] Prayers
proclaiming God's anger against sinners; A threat of divine punishment or vengeance
445)denounce (CRITICIZE) verb [T]
to criticize something or someone strongly and publicly: rebuke censure
The government's economic policy has been denounced on all sides.
We must denounce injustice and oppression.
denunciation noun [C or U] public criticism of something or someone Announce the termination
of, as of treaties Give away information about somebody
446)voluble VOL-yuh-buhl, adjective: 1. Characterized by a ready flow of speech. 2. Easily rolling
or turning; rotating. 3. (Botany) Having the power or habit of turning or twining. voluble
1 speaking a lot, with confidence and enthusiasm:
Many see Parker as the obvious leader, whose voluble style works well on TV.
2 expressed in many words:
It's not often that one hears such voluble praise for this government.
volubly adverb FORMAL
447)Miniscule: very small
448)oncology n. the study of tumours.
449)slumber v. & n. poet. or joc. sleep. slumber noun [C or U] LITERARY
sleep:I fell into a gentle slumber.
I didn't want to rouse you from your slumbers.
FIGURATIVE Sharp cuts in interest rates have failed to bring the economy out of its slumber.
slumber verb [I] LITERARY to sleep
450)slump —n. sudden severe or prolonged fall in prices and trade, usu. bringing widespread
unemployment. —v. 1 undergo a slump. 2 sit or fall heavily or limply
451)shrug —v. (-gg-) (often absol.) slightly and momentarily raise (the shoulders) to express
indifference, doubt, etc. —n. act of shrugging. shrug off dismiss as unimportant. Raise one's
shoulders to indicate indifference or resignation shrug
to raise your shoulders and then lower them in order to express a lack of knowledge or interest:
"Where's Dad?" "How should I know?" replied my brother, shrugging.
He shrugged his shoulders as if to say that there was nothing he could do about it.
FIGURATIVE Thousands of people are starving to death while the world shrugs its shoulders (=
shows no interest or care).
when you shrug your shoulders to express something:
"I'm afraid there's nothing I can do about your problem, " she said with a shrug.
"Well, I suppose we'll just have to do what he says, " said Kim with a shrug of resignation.
shrug sth off (NOT KEEP) phrasal verb [M]
to get rid of something unpleasant that you do not want:
I hope I can shrug off this cold before I go on holiday.
The city is trying to shrug off its industrial image and promote itself as a tourist centre.
See also shake off (GET RID OF). shrug sth off (NOT WORRY) phrasal verb [M]
to treat something as if it is not important or not a problem:
The stock market shrugged off the economic gloom and rose by 1.5%.
You're a father and you can't simply shrug off your responsibility for your children.
452)carp v. find fault; complain pettily. carper n; Raise trivial objections to complain continually
about unimportant matters:
I can't stand the way he's always carping.
453)propaganda n. 1 organized propagation of a doctrine by use of publicity, selected
information, etc. 2 usu. derog. ideas etc. so propagated. propagandist n. & adj. propagandize v.
(also -ise) (-zing or -sing).
454)relent v. relax severity, abandon a harsh intention, yield to compassion. [medieval Latin
lentus flexible] relent
to act in a less severe way towards someone and allow something that you had refused to allow
Her parents eventually relented and let her go to the party.
The security guard relented and let them through.
continuing in a severe or extreme way:
She has campaigned relentlessly for her husband's release from prison.
455)thrive v. (-ving; past throve or thrived; past part. thriven or thrived) 1 prosper, flourish. 2 grow
rich. 3 (of a child, animal, or plant) grow vigorously.
456)Arbitrage A kind of hedged investment meant to capture slight differences in price; when
there is a difference in the price of something on two different markets the arbitrageur
simultaneously buys at the lower price and sells at the higher price
457)forfeit —n. 1 penalty. 2 thing surrendered as a penalty. —adj. lost or surrendered as a penalty.
—v. (-t-) lose the right to, surrender as a penalty. forfeiture n. A penalty for a fault or mistake that
involves losing or giving up something, the contract specified forfeits if the work was not completed
458)fortify v. (-ies, -ied) 1 provide with fortifications. 2 strengthen physically, mentally, or morally.
3 strengthen (wine) with alcohol. 4 increase the nutritive value of (food, esp. with vitamins).
459)reluctant adj. (often foll. by to + infin.) unwilling or disinclined. reluctance n. reluctantly adv.
460)throe n. (usu. in pl.) violent pang, esp. of childbirth or death. in the throes of struggling with
the task of. [Old English, alteration of original throwe, perhaps by association with woe] Travail,
painful effort ;pang n. (often in pl.) sudden sharp pain or painful emotion.
461)spurn v. reject with scorn, disdain or contempt. [Old English]
462)vow —n. solemn, esp. religious, promise (monastic vows; marriage vows). —v. 1 promise
solemnly. 2 archaic declare solemnly. [French vou(er): related to *vote]
463)shrive---Confess to a punishable or reprehensible deed, usually under
pressure,shrove,shriven shrift ---The act of being shriven
464)reprehensible adj. blameworthy.
465)Tounge. (-guing) use the tongue to articulate (notes) in playing a wind instrument. find (or
lose) one's tongue be able (or unable) to express oneself after a shock etc. hold one's tongue see
*hold1. with one's tongue in one's cheek: insincerely or ironically.
466)persecute v. (-ting) 1 subject (a person etc.) to hostility or ill-treatment, esp. on grounds of
political or religious belief. 2 harass, worry. persecution n. persecutor n.
467)profound adj. (-er, -est) 1 having or demanding great knowledge, study, or insight
(profound treatise; profound doctrines). 2 INTENSE, unqualified, thorough (a profound sleep;
profound indifference). 3 deep (profound crevasses). profoundly adv. profoundness n.
profundity n. (pl. -ies). [Latin profundus] profound (EXTREME) adjective
felt or experienced very strongly or in an extreme way:
His mother's death when he was aged six had a very profound effect on him.
The invention of the contraceptive pill brought about profound changes in the lives of women.
Society has changed so profoundly over the last fifty years.
We are all profoundly grateful for your help and encouragement.
profound (SHOWING UNDERSTANDING,Meaningful) adjective showing a clear and deep
understanding of serious matters: profound truths/wisdom
The review that I read said that it was 'a thoughtful and profound film'.
"Dying is easy - it's living that's the problem." "That was very profound of you, Steven."
468)profuse adj. 1 (often foll. by in, of) lavish; extravagant. 2 exuberantly plentiful; copious
(profuse variety). profusely adv. profusion n. [Latin fundo fus- pour]
469)exuberant adj. 1 lively, high-spirited. 2 (of a plant etc.) prolific. 3 (of feelings etc.)
abounding. exuberance n. exuberantly adv. [Latin uber fertile]
producing a great number or amount of something:
He was probably the most prolific songwriter of his generation.
Rabbits and other rodents are prolific (= have a lot of babies). proliferate v. (-ting) 1 reproduce;
produce (cells etc.) rapidly. 2 increase rapidly in numbers. proliferation n. [Latin proles offspring]
471)abound verb [I]
to exist in large numbers: Theories abound about how the earth began.
472)consonance n. agreement, harmony. ,accord[Latin sono *sound1]
473)euphemism n. 1. euphemistic adj. euphemistically adv. [Greek pheme speaking]noun [C or U]
a word or phrase used to avoid saying an unpleasant or offensive word:
'Senior citizen' is a euphemism for 'old person'.
The article made so much use of euphemism that often its meaning was unclear.
474)consensus n. (often foll. by of; often attrib.) general agreement or opinion. [Latin: related
to *consent] same as unanimous
475)consent —v. (often foll. by to) express willingness, give permission, agree. —n. voluntary
agreement, permission. [Latin sentio feel]
476)mandate —n. 1 official command or instruction. 2 authority given by electors to a
government, trade union, etc. 3 authority to act for another. —v. (-ting) instruct (a delegate)
how to act or vote. [Latin mandatum, past part. of mando command]
477)mandatory adj. 1 compulsory. 2 of or conveying a command. mandatorily adv. [Latin: related
478)counsel —n. 1 advice, esp. formally given. 2 consultation for advice. 3 (pl. same) legal adviser,
esp. a barrister; body of these. —v. (-ll-; US -l-) 1 advise (a person). 2 give esp. professional advice
to (a person) on personal problems. 3 recommend (a course of action). keep one's own counsel not
confide in others. take counsel (usu. foll. by with) consult. counselling n. [Latin consilium]counsel
of perfection n. ideal but impracticable advice.
479)sentiment n. 1 mental feeling. 2 (often in pl.) what one feels, opinion. 3 opinion or feeling, as
distinct from its expression (the sentiment is good). 4 emotional or irrational view. 5 such views
collectively, esp. as an influence. 6 tendency to be swayed by feeling. 7 a mawkish or exaggerated
emotion. b display of this.
480)cipher (also cypher) —n. 1 a secret or disguised writing. b thing so written. c key to it. 2
arithmetical symbol (0) used to occupy a vacant place in decimal etc. numeration. 3 person or thing
of no importance. —v. write in cipher. [Arabic sifr]
481)circa prep. (preceding a date) about. [Latin]
482)alchemy n. medieval chemistry, esp. seeking to turn base metals into gold. alchemist n.
483)hedonism n. 1 belief in pleasure as mankind's proper aim. 2 behaviour based on this. hedonist
n. hedonistic adj. [Greek hedone pleasure]
484)Exalt : Praise, glorify, or honor, Of high moral or intellectual value; elevated in nature or
style, High or exalted in style or character
485)cull —v. 1 select or gather (knowledge culled from books). 2 gather (flowers etc.). 3 a select
(animals), esp. for killing. b reduce the population of (an animal) by selective slaughter. —n. 1
culling or being culled. 2 animal(s) culled. [French: related to *COLLECT
486)harried :Troubled persistently especially with petty annoyances "He is known to harry his staff
when he is overworked"
487)sloth n. 1 laziness, indolence. 2 slow-moving
488)indolent adjective LITERARY lazy; showing no real interest or effort:
an indolent wave of the hand
an indolent reply
489)plummet fall sharply
Stock prices plummeted as Wall Street reacted to the rise in interest rates.
490)rampant adj. 1 unchecked, flourishing excessively. 2 rank, luxuriant. 3 (placed after the noun)
4 violent, fanatical. rampancy n. [French: related to *ramp]
491)slog —v. (-gg-) slog (WORK HARD) sdverb -gg-
1 [I usually + adverb or preposition] MAINLY UK INFORMAL to work hard over a long period,
especially doing work that is difficult or boring:
I've been slogging away for days on this essay and I'm still not finished.
2 [I + adverb or preposition] to travel or move with difficulty, for example through wet, sticky soil
or snow, or when you are very tired:
Despite the rain, they slogged on for another six miles.
492)philomath FIL-uh-math, noun:A lover of learning; a scholar.
493)Cognizable Capable of being known(recognizable)
494)recluse n. person given to or living in seclusion or isolation; hermit. reclusive adj. [Latin
recludo -clus- shut away]
495)secluded adjective quiet and private by being situated away from people, roads or
a secluded beach
a secluded house in the forest
496)bemuse v. (-sing) puzzle, bewilder. [from *be-, *muse1]
497)tutelage n. 1 guardianship. 2 being under this. 3 tuition. [Latin tutela: related to *tutor]
498)disavow v. disclaim knowledge of or responsibility for. disavowal n.
499)profane —adj. 1 a irreverent, blasphemous. b (of language) obscene. 2 not sacred or
biblical; secular. —v. (-ning) 1 treat (esp. a sacred thing) irreverently; disregard. 2 violate or
pollute. profanation n. [Latin fanum temple]
500)espionage n. spying or use of spies. [French: related to *spy]
501)exorcism : Freeing from evil spirits; exorcist: someone who practices exorcism
502) fantasy n. (pl. -ies) 1 imagination, esp. when unrelated to reality (lives in the realm of fantasy).
2 mental image, day-dream. 3 fantastic invention or composition. [Greek phantasia appearance]
503)phantom —n. 1 ghost, apparition, SPECTRE. 2 mental illusion. —attrib. adj. illusory. [Greek
phantasma] spectral ghostly
We were frightened by the spectral glow that filled the room.
504)apparition ghost; phantom
Hamlet was uncertain about the identity of the apparition that had appeared and spoken to him.
505)pant —v. 1 breathe with short quick breaths. 2 (often foll. by out) utter breathlessly.
506) (a) vindication of their tactics. vindicate verb [T]
1 to prove that what someone said or did was right or true, after other people thought it was wrong:
The decision to include Morris in the team was completely vindicated when he scored three goals.
The investigation vindicated her complaint about the newspaper.
2 to prove that someone is free from guilt or blame, after other people blamed them:
[R] They said they welcomed the trial as a chance to vindicate themselves.
vindication noun [S or U]
The army's victory is being seen as(a) vindication of their tactics.
507)pronounce v. (-cing) 1 (also absol.) utter or speak (words, sounds, etc.) in a certain, or esp. in
the approved, way. 2 utter or proclaim (a judgement, sentence, etc.) officially, formally, or
solemnly (I pronounce you man and wife). 3 state as one's opinion (pronounced the beef
excellent). 4 (usu. foll. by on, for, against, in favour of) pass judgement (pronounced for the
defendant). pronounceable adj. pronouncement n. [Latin nuntio announce] pronounced adj.
strongly marked; noticeable (pronounced limp).
508)fiddle —. 2 colloq. cheat or fraud. 3. as fit as a fiddle in very good health. play second (or
first) fiddle take a subordinate (or leading) role.
509)tizzy n. (pl. -ies) colloq. state of agitation (in a tizzy). disturb or excite (a person or feelings).
510)Citing: Make reference to, ;praise, Commend :he was cited for his outstanding achievements"
511)appreciate v. (-ting) 1 a esteem highly; value. b be grateful for. 2 understand, recognize
(appreciate the danger). 3 rise or raise in value. appreciative adj. appreciatory adj. [Latin pretium
price]appreciation n. 1 favourable or grateful recognition. 2 sensitive estimation or judgement. 3 rise
in value. [French: related to *appreciate]
512)comrade n. 1 associate or companion in some activity. 2 fellow socialist or Communist.
comradely adj. comradeship n. [Spanish: related to *chamber]
513)howl —n. 1 long loud doleful cry of a dog etc. 2 prolonged wailing noise. 3 loud cry of pain,
rage, derision, or laughter. —v. 1 make a howl. 2 weep loudly. 3 utter with a howl. howl down
prevent (a speaker) from being heard by howls of derision. [imitative]
514)tame —adj. 1 (of an animal) domesticated; not wild or shy. 2 insipid; dull (tame entertainment).
3 (of a person) amenable. —v. (-ming) 1 make tame; domesticate. 2 subdue, curb.
515)coo —n. soft murmuring sound as of a dove. —v. (coos, cooed) 1 emit a coo. 2 talk or say in a
soft or amorous voice. —int. slang expressing surprise or disbelief. [imitative] bill and coo
exchange caresses. caress —v. touch or stroke gently or lovingly. —n. loving or gentle touch.
[Latin carus dear]
516)obfuscate verb [T] FORMAL
to make something less clear and harder to understand, especially intentionally:
She was criticized for using arguments that obfuscated the main issue.
obfuscation noun [U] FORMAL
They accused the White House of obstruction and obfuscation. obfuscate v. (-ting) 1 obscure or
confuse (a mind, topic, etc.). 2 stupefy, bewilder. obfuscation n. [Latin fuscus dark]
517)sanctimonious adj. ostentatiously pious. sanctimoniously adv. sanctimoniousness n.
sanctimony n. [Latin sanctimonia sanctity] adj. Formal Disapproving acting as if morally better
than others: sanctimonious religious leaders preaching about morality sanctimoniously;
sanctimoniousness sanctimonious displaying ostentatious or hypocritical devoutness
You do not have to be so sanctimonious to prove that you are devout.
518)hypocrisy noun [U] when someone pretends to believe something that they do not really
believe or that is the opposite of what they do or say at another time: There's one rule for her
and another rule for everyone else and it's sheer hypocrisy. hypocrite
noun [C] He's a hypocrite - he's always lecturing other people on the environment but he drives
around in a huge great car.
hypocritical adjective Their accusations of corruption are hypocritical - they have been just as
519)credence n. belief. give credence to believe. [medieval Latin: related to *credo]
credence noun [U] FORMAL acceptance, support or belief that something is true: I'm not
prepared to give credence to anonymous complaints. Something to corroborate, that gives
His bruises added/lent credence to his statement that he had been beaten.
520)envisage v. (-ging) 1 have a mental picture of (a thing not yet existing). 2 imagine as possible
or desirable. [French: related to *visage] to imagine or expect as a likely or desirable possibility in
Train fare increases of 5% are envisaged for the next year.
[+ that] It's envisaged that the building will start at the end of this year.
[+ ing form of verb] When do you envisage finishing the project?
[+ question word] It's hard to envisage how it could have happened.To form a mental picture of
something or someone you have never seen: He wasn't what I'd expected - I'd envisaged someone
521)grotesque, quaint. fantastically adv. [Greek: related to *fantasy]
522)drench —v. 1 wet thoroughly. 2 force (an animal) to take medicine.
523)morph to change one image into another, or combine them, using a computer program: The
video showed a man morphing into a tiger.
524)Singe verb [T] to burn (something) slightly, or to be burned slightly The candle singed his arm
525)stigma n. (pl. -s or, esp. in sense 3, stigmata) 1 shame, disgrace.
526)affliction n. 1 distress, suffering. 2 cause of this.
527)rite n. 1 religious or solemn observance, act, or procedure (burial rites). 2 body of customary
observances characteristic of a Church etc. (Latin rite). [Latin ritus]
528)whammy noun [C] US OLD-FASHIONED INFORMAL a magical spell or power that causes
someone to have a difficult or unpleasant time: He put the whammy on me.
529)double whammy noun [C usually singular] INFORMAL a situation when two unpleasant
things happen at almost the same time: Britain's farmers have faced the double whammy of a rising
pound and falling agricultural prices.
530)slur (PRONOUNCE BADLY)
verb [T] -rr- to pronounce the sounds of a word in a way which is unclear, uncontrolled or
wrong: Her speech was slurred but she still denied she was drunk.
531)cocky adj. (-ier, -iest) colloq. conceited, arrogant. cockily adv. cockiness n.
532)referendum (plural referendums or FORMAL referenda) noun [C] (FORMAL PLEBISCITE)a
vote in which all the people in a country or an area are asked to give their opinion about or decide an
important political or social question:Is it more democratic to hold a referendum, rather than let the
government alone decide?
533)imbroglio noun [C] plural imbroglios FORMAL an unwanted, difficult and confusing
situation, full of trouble and problems: The Soviet Union became anxious to withdraw its soldiers
from the Afghan imbroglio.
534)aloof —adj. distant, unsympathetic. —adv. away, apart (he kept aloof). [originally Naut.,
from *a2 + *luff]
535)weird adj. 1 uncanny, supernatural. 2 colloq., incomprehensible. weirdly adv. weirdness n.
536)uncanny adj. (-ier, -iest) seemingly supernatural; mysterious. uncannily adv. uncanniness n.
537)rift —n. 1 crack, split; break (in cloud etc.). 2 disagreement; breach. 3 cleft in earth or rock. —
v. tear or burst apart ,sift
538)stalwart (LOYAL) adjective loyal, especially for a long time; able to be trusted:
She has been a stalwart supporter of the party for many years. stalwart (STRONG) adjective
FORMAL(especially of a person) physically strong, brawny, steadfast
539)proponent a person who speaks publicly in support of a particular idea or plan of action:
He is one of the leading proponents of capital punishment.Compare opponent.
540)fend sth off phrasal verb [M]
to avoid dealing with something that is unpleasant or difficult to deal with:Somehow she managed to
fend off the awkward questions.
541)thrift (AVOIDING WASTEnoun [U]the careful use of money, especially by avoiding waste
thrifty adjective They have plenty of money now, but they still tend to be thrifty. THRIFTILY
adverb thriftiness noun [U]
542)conservative (AGAINST CHANGE)
1 tending not to like or trust change, especially sudden change:
a conservative society/outlook
Older people tend to be quite conservative and a bit suspicious of any supposed advances.
Compare ) 2 If you are conservative in your appearance, you tend not to like fashionable or modern
clothes or hairstyles:
He's a very conservative dresser - he always looks like he's wearing his father's clothes!
543)Stance- opinion; a particular way of standing:
Jenny took up a stance with her feet slightly apart, ready to catch the ball.
544)furious adj. 1 very angry. 2 raging, frantic. furiously adv. [Latin: related to *fury])
545)FRANTIC (EMOTIONAL) adjective
almost out of control because of extreme emotion, such as anxiety:
Where on earth have you been? We've been frantic with worry.
As the helicopter flew overhead, they waved frantically, trying to attract its attention.
546)hapless adj. unlucky.
547)destitute adjective without money, food, a home or possessions:The floods left thousands of
548)perpetrate v. (-ting) commit (a crime, blunder, or anything outrageous). perpetration n.
perpetrator n. [Latin perpetro perform] doer of misdeed
549)plight (CONDITION) noun [S]
an unpleasant condition, especially a serious, sad or difficult one: the plight of the poor/homeless
Few of us can be unmoved by the plight of the Romanian orphans. plight (MARRY)
verb OLD USE OR HUMOROUS plight your troth to (promise to) marry
550)ostracize, UK USUALLY ostracise verb [T] to avoid someone intentionally or to prevent them
from taking part in the activities of a group:His colleagues ostracized him after he criticized the
company in public.
ostracism noun [U] AIDS victims often experience social ostracism and discrimination.
ostracize exclude from public favor; ban
As soon as the newspapers carried the story of his connection with the criminals, his friends began
to ostracize him.
551)sordid (IMMORAL) adjective immoral and shocking:He told me he'd had an affair but he
spared me the sordid details.sordidly adverb sordidness noun [U]
552)atavistic adjective FORMAL
(of behaviour) happening because of a very old natural and basic habit from the distant past, not
because of a conscious decision or present need or usefulness:
an atavistic fear of the dark atavism noun [U] FORMAL atavism resemblance to remote
ancestors rather than to parents; reversion to an earlier type; throwback
Martin seemed an atavism to his Tuscan ancestors who lavished great care on their small plots of
553)contention (DISAGREEMENT) noun [U]
the disagreement that results from opposing arguments:
There's a lot of contention about that issue - for every person firmly in favour, there's someone
fiercely against it.
The matter has been settled - it's no longer in contention.
See also contention at contend (COMPETE).
contentious [Show phonetics]
adjective causing or likely to cause disagreement:a contentious decision/policy/issue/subject
She has some rather contentious views on education.
uncertain and afraid to take risks; unwilling to take action:
I'm a bit chary of using a travel agency that doesn't have official registration.
555)intransigent adjective FORMAL
refusing to be persuaded, especially refusing to change opinions that are strongly believed in:Unions
claim that the management continues to maintain an intransigent position.intransigently adverb
FORMAL intransigence noun [U] FORMAL
556)satire noun [C or U]
a way of criticizing people or ideas in a humorous way, or a piece of writing or play which uses
this style: political satire Her play was a biting/cruel satire on life in the 80s. satirical adjective
satirical cartoons/magazines satirist noun [C]a person who writes satire satirize, UK USUALLY
satirise verb [T] to use satire to show that people or ideas have bad qualities or are wrong
557)mercantile adjective FORMAL related to trade or business
558)institution (CUSTOM) noun [C]
a custom or tradition that has existed for a long time and is accepted as an important part of a
particular society: the venerable institution of marriage
FIGURATIVE Mrs Daly is an institution - she's been with the company 40 years and knows
institutionalize, UK USUALLY institutionalise
What was once an informal event has now become institutionalized.
See also institutionalize at institution (PLACE).
559)sift (SEPARATE) or examine
to put flour, sugar, etc. through a sieve (= wire net shaped like a bowl) to break up large pieces:
When the cake is cooked, sift some icing sugar over the top of it. rift
560)goggle —v. (-ling) 1 a (often foll. by at) look with wide-open eyes. b (of the eyes) be rolled
about; protrude. 2 roll (the eyes). —adj. (usu. attrib.) (of the eyes) protuberant or rolling. —n. (in pl.)
spectacles for protecting the eyes. [probably imitative]
561)flea market noun [C]
a market, which usually takes place outside, where old or used goods are sold cheaply
562)vengeance /"vendZ@ns/[U] when you do something bad to someone who has done something
bad to you, or the feeling of wanting to do thisan act of vengeance 2 with a vengeance If something
happens with a vengeance, it happens a lot or in a very strong way.The disease swept across the
country with a vengeance.
563)lock horns to begin to argue or fight:
The mayor and her deputy locked horns over plans for the new road.
564)Demarcate verb [T] (US ALSO demark)
to show the limits of something:,outline
Parking spaces are demarcated by white lines.
Responsibilities within the department are clearly demarcated.
noun [C or U] (US ALSO demarkation)
The river serves as the line of demarcation (= the line showing the separation) between the two
In some schools, there is little demarcation between subjects (= subjects are not taught separately).
On this map, demarcations between regions are shown with dotted lines.
1 A solitary person or thing is the only person or thing in a place:
On the hill, a solitary figure was busy chopping down trees.
In the distance was a solitary building.
He was a solitary child (= He enjoyed being alone).
2 done alone:
solitary walks by the river
fishing and other solitary pastimes
566)frenzy noun [C or U]
(an example of) uncontrolled and excited behaviour or emotion, which is sometimes violent:almost
same as frantic
In a frenzy of rage she hit him.
the media frenzy over the Princess's death
The audience worked/whipped themselves up into a frenzy as they waited for her to come on stage.
There was a frenzy of activity on the financial markets yesterday.
In a moment of jealous frenzy, she cut the sleeves off all his shirts.
The office was a scene of frenzied activity this morning.
As the evening wore on the dancing got more and more frenzied.
567)detour noun [C]
a different or indirect route to a place, that is used to avoid a problem or to visit somewhere or do
You'd be wise to make/US ALSO take a detour to avoid the roadworks.
568)shriek noun [C]
a short, loud, high cry, especially one produced suddenly as an expression of a powerful
emotion: We shrieked with laughter when we realized how stupid we'd been.
I tried to apologize, but he just shrieked abuse at me.
[+ speech] "Don't you dare do that ever again!" she shrieked.
“What a hell?” I shrieked at Sapna.
569)invoke verb [T] FORMAL
1 to request or use a power outside yourself, especially a law or a god, to help you when you
want to improve a situation:
Police can invoke the law of trespass to regulate access to these places.
Their sacred dance is performed to invoke ancient gods.
2 to make someone have a particular feeling or remember something: invoke jenny’s sister to
570)atone for sth phrasal verb FORMAL making apology,
to do something that shows that you are sorry for something bad that you did:
The country's leader has expressed a wish to atone for his actions in the past. He said that young
hooligans should do community service as atonement for their crimes.
571)contemplate verb [I or T]
to spend time considering a possible future action, or to consider one particular thing for a
long time in a serious and quiet way:
[+ ing form of verb] I'm contemplating going abroad for a year. contemplation
She was staring out over the lake, lost in contemplation.
572)protégé noun [C]
a young person who is helped and taught by an older and usually famous person:
Shapur's restaurant is full every night as trendy Londoners enjoy the wonders of his young protégé,
chef Glyn Fussell.
573)unedifying adjective FORMAL
unpleasant and causing people to feel no respect: disdainful
We were treated to the unedifying spectacle of two cabinet ministers fighting over a seat.
574)Amass verb [T]
to get a large amount of something, especially money or information, by collecting it over a long
She has amassed a huge fortune from her novels.
575)obtrusive adjective too noticeable:elaborate (sth.)
The logo was still visible but less obtrusive this time in beige.
The soldiers were in civilian clothes, to make their presence less obtrusive.
NOTE: The opposite is unobtrusive.
obtrusively adverb obtrusiveness
culminate in/with sth If an event or series of events culminates in something, it ends with it, having
developed until it reaches this point:
My arguments with the boss got worse and worse, and it all culminated in my deciding to change
Their many years of research have finally culminated in a cure for the disease.
1 FORMAL intended as a punishment:
punitive action The UN has imposed punitive sanctions on the invading country.
LEGAL She is suing the newspaper for $5 million punitive damages claiming they knew the article
about her was untrue.
578)the ONUS noun [S] FORMAL
the responsibility or duty to do something:
[+ to infinitive] The onus is on the landlord to ensure that the property is habitable.
We are trying to shift the onus for passenger safety onto the government
579)obverse noun [U] FORMAL the other side of something; opposite:
False humility and its obverse, arrogance, are equally unpleasant.
Of course, the obverse of the theory may also be true..
580)procreate verb [I] FORMAL
to produce young:
While priests were denied the right to marry and procreate, he said, their situation would remain
procreation noun [U] FORMAL Some people believe that sex should only be for the purpose of
procreative adjective FORMAL Sex of course has a procreative function.
581)faction noun [C] MAINLY DISAPPROVING
a group within a larger group, especially one with slightly different ideas from the main group:
the left-wing faction of the party factionalism
Factionalism was tearing the party and the country apart.
582)warring adjective [before noun]
describes countries or groups of people that are at war with each other or who are arguing fiercely
with each other:
The Labour Party, he said, had disintegrated into warring factions.
583)conjecture —n. 1 formation of an opinion on incomplete information; guessing. 2 guess. —
v. (-ring) guess. [Latin conjectura from jacio throw] to guess, based on the appearance of a situation
and not on proof:
We'll never know exactly how she died; we can only conjecture.
[+ that] He conjectured that the company would soon be in financial difficulties.
584)at sb's disposal FORMAL
available to be used by someone:
I would take you if I could, but I don't have a car at my disposal this week.
Having sold the house she had a large sum of money at her disposal (= to spend as she wanted).
585)veracity [Show phonetics] noun [U] FORMAL
the quality of being true, honest or accurate, correctness:
Doubts were cast on the veracity of her alibi after three people claimed to have seen her at the scene
of the robbery.
586)shove (PUSH)verb [I or T]
to push someone or something forcefully:
She was jostled and shoved by an angry crowd as she left the court.
Just wait your turn - there's no need to shove. when you shove someone or something:
Would you help me give the piano a shove?
shove sb around/about phrasal verb
1 to push someone forcefully, in an unpleasant and threatening way:
The older boys at school are always shoving him around.
2 INFORMAL to tell someone what to do, in a rude or threatening way: