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  1. 1. Chapter 10 Photosynthesis
  2. 2. <ul><li>Overview: The Process That Feeds the Biosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the process that converts solar energy into chemical energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plants and other autotrophs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are the producers of the biosphere </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Plants are photoautotrophs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They use the energy of sunlight to make organic molecules from water and carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul>Figure 10.1
  4. 4. <ul><li>Photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in plants, algae, certain other protists, and some prokaryotes </li></ul></ul>These organisms use light energy to drive the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and (in most cases) water. They feed not only themselves, but the entire living world. (a) On land, plants are the predominant producers of food. In aquatic environments, photosynthetic organisms include (b) multicellular algae, such as this kelp; (c) some unicellular protists, such as Euglena; (d) the prokaryotes called cyanobacteria; and (e) other photosynthetic prokaryotes, such as these purple sulfur bacteria, which produce sulfur (spherical globules) (c, d, e: LMs). (a) Plants (b) Multicellular algae (c) Unicellular protist 10  m 40  m (d) Cyanobacteria 1.5  m (e) Pruple sulfur bacteria Figure 10.2
  5. 5. <ul><li>Heterotrophs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain their organic material from other organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are the consumers of the biosphere </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Chloroplasts: The Sites of Photosynthesis in Plants <ul><li>The leaves of plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are the major sites of photosynthesis </li></ul></ul>Vein Leaf cross section Figure 10.3 Mesophyll CO 2 O 2 Stomata
  7. 7. <ul><li>Chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are the organelles in which photosynthesis occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain thylakoids and grana </li></ul></ul>Chloroplast Mesophyll 5 µm Outer membrane Intermembrane space Inner membrane Thylakoid space Thylakoid Granum Stroma 1 µm
  8. 8. Tracking Atoms Through Photosynthesis: Scientific Inquiry <ul><li>Photosynthesis is summarized as </li></ul>6 CO 2 + 12 H 2 O + Light energy  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 + 6 H 2 O
  9. 9. The Splitting of Water <ul><li>Chloroplasts split water into </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen and oxygen, incorporating the electrons of hydrogen into sugar molecules </li></ul></ul>6 CO 2 12 H 2 O Reactants: Products: C 6 H 12 O 6 6 H 2 O 6 O 2 Figure 10.4
  10. 10. The Two Stages of Photosynthesis: A Preview <ul><li>Photosynthesis consists of two processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The light reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Calvin cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis is a redox process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water is oxidized, carbon dioxide is reduced </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The light reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occur in the grana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Split water, release oxygen, produce ATP, and form NADPH </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Calvin cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in the stroma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms sugar from carbon dioxide, using ATP for energy and NADPH for reducing power </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>An overview of photosynthesis </li></ul>H 2 O CO 2 Light LIGHT REACTIONS CALVIN CYCLE Chloroplast [CH 2 O] (sugar) NADPH NADP  ADP + P O 2 Figure 10.5 ATP
  13. 13. <ul><li>Concept 10.2: The light reactions convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Nature of Sunlight <ul><li>Light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a form of electromagnetic energy, which travels in waves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wavelength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the distance between the crests of waves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines the type of electromagnetic energy </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>The electromagnetic spectrum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the entire range of electromagnetic energy, or radiation </li></ul></ul>Gamma rays X-rays UV Infrared Micro- waves Radio waves 10 –5 nm 10 –3 nm 1 nm 10 3 nm 10 6 nm 1 m 10 6 nm 10 3 m 380 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 nm Visible light Shorter wavelength Higher energy Longer wavelength Lower energy Figure 10.6
  16. 16. <ul><li>The visible light spectrum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes the colors of light we can see </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes the wavelengths that drive photosynthesis </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Photosynthetic Pigments: The Light Receptors <ul><li>Pigments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are substances that absorb visible light </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><ul><li>Reflect light, which include the colors we see </li></ul></ul>Light Reflected Light Chloroplast Absorbed light Granum Transmitted light Figure 10.7
  19. 19. <ul><li>The spectrophotometer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a machine that sends light through pigments and measures the fraction of light transmitted at each wavelength </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>An absorption spectrum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a graph plotting light absorption versus wavelength </li></ul></ul>Figure 10.8 White light Refracting prism Chlorophyll solution Photoelectric tube Galvanometer Slit moves to pass light of selected wavelength Green light The high transmittance (low absorption) reading indicates that chlorophyll absorbs very little green light. The low transmittance (high absorption) reading chlorophyll absorbs most blue light. Blue light 1 2 3 4 0 100 0 100
  21. 21. <ul><li>The absorption spectra of chloroplast pigments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide clues to the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths for driving photosynthesis </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>The absorption spectra of three types of pigments in chloroplasts </li></ul>Three different experiments helped reveal which wavelengths of light are photosynthetically important. The results are shown below. EXPERIMENT RESULTS Absorption of light by chloroplast pigments Chlorophyll a (a) Absorption spectra. The three curves show the wavelengths of light best absorbed by three types of chloroplast pigments. Wavelength of light (nm) Chlorophyll b Carotenoids Figure 10.9
  23. 23. <ul><li>The action spectrum of a pigment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profiles the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of radiation in driving photosynthesis </li></ul></ul>Rate of photosynthesis (measured by O 2 release) Action spectrum. This graph plots the rate of photosynthesis versus wavelength. The resulting action spectrum resembles the absorption spectrum for chlorophyll a but does not match exactly (see part a). This is partly due to the absorption of light by accessory pigments such as chlorophyll b and carotenoids. (b)
  24. 24. <ul><li>Chlorophyll a </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the main photosynthetic pigment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll b </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is an accessory pigment </li></ul></ul>C CH CH 2 C C C C C C N N C H 3 C C C C C C C C C N C C C C N Mg H H 3 C H C CH 2 CH 3 H CH 3 C H H CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 H CH 3 C O O O O O CH 3 CH 3 CHO in chlorophyll a in chlorophyll b Porphyrin ring: Light-absorbing “ head” of molecule note magnesium atom at center Hydrocarbon tail: interacts with hydrophobic regions of proteins inside thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts: H atoms not shown Figure 10.10
  25. 25. <ul><li>Other accessory pigments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorb different wavelengths of light and pass the energy to chlorophyll a </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Excitation of Chlorophyll by Light <ul><li>When a pigment absorbs light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It goes from a ground state to an excited state, which is unstable </li></ul></ul>Excited state Energy of election Heat Photon (fluorescence) Chlorophyll molecule Ground state Photon e – Figure 10.11 A
  27. 27. <ul><li>If an isolated solution of chlorophyll is illuminated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It will fluoresce, giving off light and heat </li></ul></ul>Figure 10.11 B
  28. 28. <ul><li>A photosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is composed of a reaction center surrounded by a number of light-harvesting complexes </li></ul></ul>Primary election acceptor Photon Thylakoid Light-harvesting complexes Reaction center Photosystem STROMA Thylakoid membrane Transfer of energy Special chlorophyll a molecules Pigment molecules THYLAKOID SPACE (INTERIOR OF THYLAKOID) Figure 10.12 e –
  29. 29. <ul><li>The light-harvesting complexes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consist of pigment molecules bound to particular proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funnel the energy of photons of light to the reaction center </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When a reaction-center chlorophyll molecule absorbs energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of its electrons gets bumped up to a primary electron acceptor </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>The thylakoid membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is populated by two types of photosystems, I and II </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Noncyclic electron flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the primary pathway of energy transformation in the light reactions </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Produces NADPH, ATP, and oxygen </li></ul>Figure 10.13 Photosystem II (PS II) Photosystem-I (PS I) ATP NADPH NADP + ADP CALVIN CYCLE CO 2 H 2 O O 2 [CH 2 O] (sugar) LIGHT REACTIONS Light Primary acceptor Pq Cytochrome complex PC e P680 e – e – O 2 + H 2 O 2 H + Light ATP Primary acceptor Fd e e – NADP + reductase Electron Transport chain Electron transport chain P700 Light NADPH NADP + + 2 H + + H + 1 5 7 2 3 4 6 8
  32. 32. Cyclic Electron Flow <ul><li>Under certain conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photoexcited electrons take an alternative path </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>In cyclic electron flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only photosystem I is used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only ATP is produced </li></ul></ul>Primary acceptor Pq Fd Cytochrome complex Pc Primary acceptor Fd NADP + reductase NADPH ATP Figure 10.15 Photosystem II Photosystem I NADP +
  34. 34. A Comparison of Chemiosmosis in Chloroplasts and Mitochondria <ul><li>Chloroplasts and mitochondria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate ATP by the same basic mechanism: chemiosmosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But use different sources of energy to accomplish this </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>The spatial organization of chemiosmosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differs in chloroplasts and mitochondria </li></ul></ul>Key Higher [H + ] Lower [H + ] Mitochondrion Chloroplast MITOCHONDRION STRUCTURE Intermembrance space Membrance Matrix Electron transport chain H + Diffusion Thylakoid space Stroma ATP H + P ADP+ ATP Synthase CHLOROPLAST STRUCTURE Figure 10.16
  36. 36. <ul><li>In both organelles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Redox reactions of electron transport chains generate a H + gradient across a membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ATP synthase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses this proton-motive force to make ATP </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>The light reactions and chemiosmosis: the organization of the thylakoid membrane </li></ul>LIGHT REACTOR NADP + ADP ATP NADPH CALVIN CYCLE [CH 2 O] (sugar) STROMA (Low H + concentration) Photosystem II LIGHT H 2 O CO 2 Cytochrome complex O 2 H 2 O O 2 1 1 ⁄ 2 2 Photosystem I Light THYLAKOID SPACE (High H + concentration) STROMA (Low H + concentration) Thylakoid membrane ATP synthase Pq Pc Fd NADP + reductase NADPH + H + NADP + + 2H + To Calvin cycle ADP P ATP 3 H + 2 H + +2 H + 2 H + Figure 10.17
  38. 38. Concept 10.3: The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH to convert CO 2 to sugar <ul><li>The Calvin cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is similar to the citric acid cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in the stroma </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Calvin cycle has three phases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon fixation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regeneration of the CO 2 acceptor </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>The Calvin cycle </li></ul>Phase 1: Carbon fixation Phase 2: Reduction Phase 3: Regeneration of the CO 2 acceptor (RuBP) (G3P) Input (Entering one at a time) CO 2 3 Rubisco Short-lived intermediate 3 P P 3 P P Ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) P 3-Phosphoglycerate P 6 P 6 1,3-Bisphoglycerate 6 NADPH 6 NADPH + 6 P P 6 Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) 6 ATP 3 ATP 3 ADP CALVIN CYCLE P 5 P 1 G3P (a sugar) Output Light H 2 O CO 2 LIGHT REACTION ATP NADPH NADP + ADP [CH 2 O] (sugar) CALVIN CYCLE Figure 10.18 O 2 6 ADP Glucose and other organic compounds
  40. 40. <ul><li>Concept 10.4: Alternative mechanisms of carbon fixation have evolved in hot, arid climates </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>On hot, dry days, plants close their stomata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conserving water but limiting access to CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causing oxygen to build up </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Photorespiration: An Evolutionary Relic? <ul><li>In photorespiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>O 2 substitutes for CO 2 in the active site of the enzyme rubisco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The photosynthetic rate is reduced </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. C 4 Plants <ul><li>C 4 plants minimize the cost of photorespiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By incorporating CO 2 into four carbon compounds in mesophyll cells </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>These four carbon compounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are exported to bundle sheath cells, where they release CO 2 used in the Calvin cycle </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>C 4 leaf anatomy and the C 4 pathway </li></ul>CO 2 Mesophyll cell Bundle- sheath cell Vein (vascular tissue) Photosynthetic cells of C 4 plant leaf Stoma Mesophyll cell C 4 leaf anatomy PEP carboxylase Oxaloacetate (4 C) PEP (3 C) Malate (4 C) ADP ATP Bundle- Sheath cell CO 2 Pyruate (3 C) CALVIN CYCLE Sugar Vascular tissue Figure 10.19 CO 2
  46. 46. CAM Plants <ul><li>CAM plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open their stomata at night, incorporating CO 2 into organic acids </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>During the day, the stomata close </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And the CO 2 is released from the organic acids for use in the Calvin cycle </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>The CAM pathway is similar to the C 4 pathway </li></ul>Spatial separation of steps. In C 4 plants, carbon fixation and the Calvin cycle occur in different types of cells. (a) Temporal separation of steps. In CAM plants, carbon fixation and the Calvin cycle occur in the same cells at different times. (b) Pineapple Sugarcane Bundle- sheath cell Mesophyll Cell Organic acid CALVIN CYCLE Sugar CO 2 CO 2 Organic acid CALVIN CYCLE Sugar C 4 CAM CO 2 incorporated into four-carbon organic acids (carbon fixation) Night Day 1 2 Organic acids release CO 2 to Calvin cycle Figure 10.20
  49. 49. The Importance of Photosynthesis: A Review <ul><li>A review of photosynthesis </li></ul>Light reactions: • Are carried out by molecules in the thylakoid membranes • Convert light energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH • Split H 2 O and release O 2 to the atmosphere Calvin cycle reactions: • Take place in the stroma • Use ATP and NADPH to convert CO 2 to the sugar G3P • Return ADP, inorganic phosphate, and NADP+ to the light reactions O 2 CO 2 H 2 O Light Light reaction Calvin cycle NADP + ADP ATP NADPH + P 1 RuBP 3-Phosphoglycerate Amino acids Fatty acids Starch (storage) Sucrose (export) G3P Photosystem II Electron transport chain Photosystem I Chloroplast Figure 10.21
  50. 50. <ul><li>Organic compounds produced by photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide the energy and building material for ecosystems </li></ul></ul>