Annex 14 ppt cheng


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Annex 14 ppt cheng

  1. 1. Annex 14 Aerodromes Volume 1 Aerodrome Design and Operations By:- Cheng Ling Perng
  2. 2. The Objectives <ul><li>Understanding the philosophy of ICAO’s Annex 14 SARP for Aerodromes </li></ul><ul><li>Identify, explain and discuss the more important Standard And Recommended Practices (SARPs) of Annex 14 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Methodology <ul><li>Classroom manual text review (referring to Annex 14 text & review accordingly) </li></ul><ul><li>Study of texts, tables, figures & charts </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions on important topics and how to resolve the issues </li></ul><ul><li>Technical visit to an aerodrome (if necessary) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Development of SARPs <ul><li>ICAO adopted Aerodrome SARPs in 1951 & designated it as Annex 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Many amendments since 1951 </li></ul><ul><li>1990, Annex 14 split into 2 volumes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vol. 1 - Aerodrome Design & Operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vol. 2 - Heliports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signatories agree to abide by or to exceed the standards </li></ul><ul><li>If signatories choose to differ, they must file a difference with ICAO </li></ul>
  5. 5. Annex 14 Amending Process <ul><li>A country submits an issue to ICAO </li></ul><ul><li>If pertinent, ICAO forms a Project Team </li></ul><ul><li>Research, risk analysis & impact assessments are done over a few years </li></ul><ul><li>Brought before the aerodrome ICAO main meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Draft and consultation </li></ul><ul><li>Final amendments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. International Runway Friction Index (IRFI) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Annex 14 – Table of Contents <ul><li>Abbreviations and Symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Manuals – related to this Annex </li></ul><ul><li>Foreword </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 1 - General </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 2 – Aerodrome Data </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 3 – Physical Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 4 – Obstacle Restriction & Removal </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 5 – Visual Aids for Navigation </li></ul>
  7. 7. Annex 14 – Table of Contents <ul><li>Chapter 6 – Visual Aids for Denoting Obstacles </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 7 – Visual Aids for Denoting Restricted Use Areas </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 8 – Electrical Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 9 – Aerodrome operational services </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 10 – Aerodrome maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Appendices 1 to 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment A – Suppl. Guidance Material </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment B – Obstacle Limitation Surface </li></ul><ul><li>Index </li></ul>
  8. 8. Editorial Practices <ul><li>Standards:- light face roman </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended practices:- light face italics </li></ul><ul><li>Status of RPs:- prefix as Recommendation </li></ul><ul><li>Notes:-light face italics </li></ul><ul><li>Status of Notes:- prefix as Notes </li></ul>
  9. 9. Standard <ul><li>Any specification, the uniform application of which is recognized as necessary for the safety or regularity of international air navigation and to which Contracting States will conform in accordance with the Convention </li></ul>
  10. 10. Recommended Practice <ul><li>Any specification, the uniform application of which is recognized as desirable in the interest of safety, regularity or efficiency of international air navigational, and to which Contracting states will endeavour to conform in accordance to the Convention </li></ul>
  11. 11. SARPs <ul><li>Standards are identified by the verb < shall > and are mandatory </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended practices are identified by the verb < should > and are only recommendations </li></ul>
  12. 12. Critical Aircraft <ul><li>The aeroplane identified from among the aeroplanes the aerodrome is intended to serve has having the most demanding operational requirements </li></ul>
  13. 13. Aeroplane reference Field Length <ul><li>The minimum field length required for take-off at maximum certificated take-off mass, sea level, standard atmospheric conditions, still air an zero runway slope, as shown in the appropriate aeroplane field manual </li></ul>
  14. 14. The First Premise: The Aerodrome Reference Code <ul><li>The aerodromes are coded according to the physical requirements of the critical aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>The aerodrome facilities (or part of) must meet physical requirements of the critical aircraft </li></ul>
  15. 15. Motivation <ul><li>Understanding the rationale applied in the development of Annex 14 will help the aerodrome inspector/operator to be more consistent in their interpretation and application of SARPs </li></ul><ul><li>It will be helpful for them to have a thorough knowledge of SARPs that are more difficult to understand </li></ul>
  16. 16. Methodology <ul><li>Formal presentation and review of SARPs </li></ul><ul><li>Study of texts, tables, figures, graphs and charts </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions on topics, of problems and solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Technical visit of an aerodrome </li></ul>
  17. 17. Outline <ul><li>Part I Rationale </li></ul><ul><li>Part II Physical Characteristics & OLS </li></ul><ul><li>Part III Visual Aids and other SARPs </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Rationale </li></ul><ul><li>Part I </li></ul>
  19. 19. Part I Outline <ul><li>Development of SARPs </li></ul><ul><li>Amending Process </li></ul><ul><li>Annex 14 Table of Contents </li></ul><ul><li>Aerodrome Coding Concept </li></ul>
  20. 20. Status of Annex Components <ul><li>Material comprising the Annex proper: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SARPs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appendices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Definitions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tables and Figures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Material approved by the council for publication with the SARPs: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forewords, introductions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notes, attachments </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The Aerodrome Coding Concept <ul><li>Based on two premises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerodrome reference code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: 3C NP </li></ul><ul><li>Designed as a planning tool </li></ul><ul><li>Applied in reverse when aerodrome built </li></ul>
  22. 22. Aerodrome Reference Code Table 1-1. Aerodrome reference code (se 1.3.2 to 1.3.4) a. Distance between the outside edges of the main gear wheels. Up to but not including 4.5 m 4.5 m up to not including 6 m 6 m up to not including 9 m 9 m up to not including 14 m 9 m up to not including 14 m 14 m up to not Including 16 m Up to but not including 15 m 15 m up to but not including 24 m 24 m up to but not Including 36 m 36 m up to but not including 52 m 52 m up to but not including 65 m 65 m up to but not Including 80 m A B C D E F Less than 800 m 800 m up to but not including 1 200 m 1 200 m up to but not including 1 800 m 1 800 m and over 1 2 3 4 Outer main gear wheel span (5) Wing span (4) Code letter (3) Aeroplane reference field length (2) Code number (1) Code element 2 Code element 1
  23. 23. Non-Instrument Runway (NI) <ul><li>A runway intended for the operation of aircraft using visual approach procedures </li></ul>
  24. 24. Non-Precision Runway (NP) <ul><li>An instrument runway served by visual aids and a non-visual aid providing at least lateral guidance adequate for a straight-in approach </li></ul>
  25. 25. Precision Runway (P) Category I <ul><li>An instrument runway served by ILS and/or MLS and visual aids intended for operations with a decision height not lower than 60m (200 ft) and either a visibility not less than 800 m or a runway visual range (RVR) not less than 550 m </li></ul>
  26. 26. Precision Runway (P) Category I <ul><li>Lateral and vertical guidance </li></ul><ul><li>Down to 60 m (DH) </li></ul><ul><li>Operating visibility not less than 880 m or RVR 550 m </li></ul><ul><li>Most common of P runways </li></ul>
  27. 27. Precision Runway (P) Cat II - III <ul><li>Same as Cat I except Cat II has DH down to 30 m (100 ft) with visibility not less than RVR 350 m </li></ul><ul><li>Same as Cat I except Cat III has DH and visibility from an RVR of 200 m (600 ft) down to no visual range limitations </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Second Premise: The Type of Approach <ul><li>The SARPs translate the combination of the Aerodrome Reference Code and the type of approach procedure available for the runway (Ex. 3C NP) into specific aerodrome physical requirements </li></ul><ul><li>The safety margin is increased as the approach minima is lowered </li></ul>
  29. 29. Review <ul><li>What differentiates a non-instrument runway from a non-precision runway? </li></ul><ul><li>What two factors establish the rationale behind the SARPs? </li></ul><ul><li>Aerodrome reference codes are based on two elements. What are they? </li></ul><ul><li>How do SARPs change with lower approach minima? </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Physical Characteristics and Obstacle Limitation Surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>(OLS) </li></ul><ul><li>Part II </li></ul>
  31. 31. Part II Outline <ul><li>Obstacle Limitation Surfaces (OLS) </li></ul><ul><li>Displaced Threshold </li></ul><ul><li>The strip and the inner edge </li></ul><ul><li>Stopway </li></ul><ul><li>Runway end safety area (RESA) </li></ul><ul><li>Clearway </li></ul><ul><li>Declared distances </li></ul>
  32. 32. Runway Characteristics <ul><li>Primary runway should be adequate to meet operational requirements of critical aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>Length of runway corrected for elevation, temperature, slope, humidity and surface </li></ul><ul><li>Length or runway need not be for maximum mass operations of critical aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>Similar rationale for secondary runway </li></ul>
  33. 33. Runway Strip <ul><li>Defined in Annex 14 </li></ul><ul><li>A defined area including the runway and stopway, if provided, intended: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To reduce the risk of damage to aircraft running off a runway ; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To protect aircraft flying over it during take-off or landing operations </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Graded Area <ul><li>Not defined in Annex 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Included in the strip </li></ul><ul><li>Intended to serve in the event of an aeroplane running off the runway </li></ul><ul><li>Obstacle free and free of ditches, holes </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive of vehicles and aircraft </li></ul>
  35. 35. Obstacle Limitation Surfaces (OLS) Purpose <ul><li>To define the airspace around aerodromes to be maintained free of obstacles so as to permit safe aerodrome operations and to prevent the growth of obstacles around aerodromes </li></ul>
  36. 36. Obstacles Limitation Surfaces (OLS) Requirements <ul><li>For NI, NP & P runways (4.2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner horizontal surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conical surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approach surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitional surfaces </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Figure 4-1 Obstacle Limitation Surfaces (1)
  38. 38. Figure 4-1 Obstacle Limitation Surfaces (2)
  39. 39. Obstacle… <ul><li>For Cat II-III runways (4.2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conical surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner horizontal surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approach surface & inner approach surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitional surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner transitional surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balked landing surface </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Figure 4-2 OLS for Cat II-III Runways
  41. 41. Dimensions of OLS-Approach Runways
  42. 42. Dimensions of OLS…
  43. 43. Dimensions of OLS for Runways Meant for Take-Off RUNWAYS MEANT FOR TAKE-OFF <ul><li>All dimensions are measured horizontally unless specified otherwise. </li></ul><ul><li>The take-off climb surface starts at the end of the clearway if the clearway length exceeds the specified distance. </li></ul><ul><li>1 800 m when the intended track includes changes of heading greater than 15 for operations conducted in IMC, VMC by night. </li></ul><ul><li>See 4.2.24 and 4.2.26. </li></ul>180 m 60 m 12.5% 1 200 m 1 800 m 15 000 m 2% 80 m 60 m 10% 580 m 2 500 m 4% 60 m 30 m 10% 380 m 1 600 m 5% TAKE-OFF CLIMB Length of inner edge Distance from runway end Divergence (each side) Final width Length Slope 3 or 4 (4) Code number 2 (3) 1 (2) Surface and dimensions (1)
  44. 44. Displaced Threshold <ul><li>Defined in Annex 14: A threshold not located at the extremity of a runway </li></ul><ul><li>Provides obstacle free approach slope </li></ul><ul><li>May be used for take-off </li></ul><ul><li>Affects LDA </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary or permanent </li></ul><ul><li>Specific markings </li></ul>
  45. 45. Diagram of Displaced Threshold Markings
  46. 46. Relocation of a Threshold <ul><li>Not defined in Annex 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-threshold usually not suitable for a/c </li></ul><ul><li>Affects all declared distances </li></ul><ul><li>Specific markings: chevrons (7.2), closed runway markings (7.1) </li></ul>
  47. 47. The Strip & the Inner Edge <ul><li>Strip provides protection for a/c on the ground & in flight </li></ul><ul><li>Usually slope of OLS starts at outer edge of strip </li></ul><ul><li>In a displaced threshold, the inner edge of OLS is at the point of displacement </li></ul><ul><li>The inner edge is the point at which the approach surface commences </li></ul><ul><li>So, strip end & inner edge are not always co-located </li></ul>
  48. 48. Questions <ul><li>If a runway is 1000 m long, how long is the strip? </li></ul><ul><li>Runway 06/24 is 2500 m long. Threshold of 06 is displaces 300 m and the threshold of runway 24 is displaced 250 m. How long is the strip? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is the inner edge on runway 06? </li></ul>
  49. 49. Stopway <ul><li>Defined in annex 14 & explained (3.6) </li></ul><ul><li>A defined rectangular area on the ground at the end of the take-off run available (TORA) prepared as a suitable area in which an a/c can be stopped in the case of an abandoned take-off </li></ul><ul><li>Within the strip & has the width of the runway </li></ul><ul><li>Included in ASDA </li></ul><ul><li>Width equal to runway </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul>
  50. 50. Runway End Safety Area (RESA) <ul><li>Defined in Annex 14 & Explained (3.4) </li></ul><ul><li>At each end of runway strip </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: to reduce the risk of damage to an aeroplane undershooting or overrunning the runway </li></ul><ul><li>Not included in declared distances </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum length: 90 m </li></ul><ul><li>Width: twice that of runway </li></ul>
  51. 51. Clearway <ul><li>Defined in Annex 14 & explained (3.5) </li></ul><ul><li>A defined area on the ground or water under the control of the appropriate authority, selected or prepared as a suitable area over which an aeroplane may make a portion of its initial climb to a specified height </li></ul><ul><li>Commences at the end of TORA, may extend beyond the strip </li></ul><ul><li>Included in TODA </li></ul><ul><li>Length: not more than 50% of TORA </li></ul><ul><li>Width: 75 m on each side of extended centre line </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive & common </li></ul>
  52. 52. `Declared Dstances TORA & TODA <ul><li>TORA: Take-off run available. The length of runway declared available and suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane taking-off </li></ul><ul><li>TODA: Take-off distance available. The length of the take-off run available (TORA) plus the length of the clearway, if provided </li></ul>
  53. 53. ASDA & LDA <ul><li>ASDA: Accelerate-stop distance available. The length of the take-off available (TODA) plus the length of the stopway, if provided </li></ul><ul><li>LDA: Landing distance available. The length of runway which is declared available and suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane landing. LDA is TORA less any displacement of the threshold </li></ul>
  54. 54. Diagrams of Declared Distances
  55. 55. <ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li><<ABC International Airport>> </li></ul><ul><li>Declared Distances </li></ul>
  56. 56. Declared Distances of <<ABC International Airport>> <ul><li>Runway 09/27 is 200 m long </li></ul><ul><li>Rwy 09: clearway 580 m, stopway 300m, displaced threshold 150 m </li></ul><ul><li>Rwy 27: stopway 350 m, clearway 350 m </li></ul><ul><li>What are the declared distances for this airport? </li></ul>
  57. 57. Runway Diagram of <<ABC International Airport>>
  58. 58. Declared distances 2000 2350 2350 2000 27 1850 2580 2300 2000 09 m m m m LDA TODA ASDA TORA RWY
  59. 59. <ul><li>End of Parts 1 and 2 </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>Visual Aids and Other SARPs </li></ul><ul><li>Part III </li></ul>
  61. 61. Outline of Part 3 <ul><li>Markings </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Signs </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary power supply </li></ul><ul><li>Fencing </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Appendices and attachments </li></ul>
  62. 62. Visual Aids
  63. 63. Foreword <ul><li>The longest chapter in Annex 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Visual aids increase in number and complexity as aerodrome code number increases and approach minima decreases </li></ul><ul><li>The presentation will be centered on markings, lights and signs </li></ul><ul><li>Visual aids require daily inspections and proper maintenance by specialized personnel </li></ul>
  64. 64. Markings <ul><li>Order of importance: P, NP, NI </li></ul><ul><li>Colour of runway: white </li></ul><ul><li>Colour of taxiway and a/c stands: yellow </li></ul><ul><li>Outlining in black of white markings </li></ul><ul><li>For night operations: reflective materials </li></ul><ul><li>Markings: solid areas or series of longitudinal stripes </li></ul>
  65. 65. Runway Markings <ul><li>Rwy designation: two-digit, magnetic, letter for parallel rwys (L,C,R) </li></ul><ul><li>Runway Centre line </li></ul><ul><li>Threshold markings </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse stripe </li></ul><ul><li>Arrows </li></ul><ul><li>Aiming point </li></ul><ul><li>Touchdown zone </li></ul><ul><li>Side stripe </li></ul>
  66. 66. Diagram of runway markings
  67. 67. Other markings <ul><li>Taxiway centre line, (de-icing, apron) </li></ul><ul><li>Runway holding position </li></ul><ul><li>Aircraft stand </li></ul><ul><li>Apron safety lines and passenger safety lines </li></ul><ul><li>Road holding position </li></ul><ul><li>Mandatory instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul>
  68. 68. Apron Safety Lines and Passenger Path Lines
  69. 69. Lights: General Comments <ul><li>Lights which may cause confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Frangibility </li></ul><ul><li>Surface lights </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity and control </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Aerodrome beacon </li></ul><ul><li>Identification beacon </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul>
  70. 70. Approach Lighting Systems <ul><li>Simple approach lighting system </li></ul><ul><li>Precision approach lighting system </li></ul><ul><li>Precision approach category I-II lighting system </li></ul>
  71. 71. Visual Approach Slope Indicators <ul><li>When: turbojet service, inadequate visual guidance, misleading ground information, obstacles, slope of runway or terrain </li></ul><ul><li>Suitability for day and night operations </li></ul><ul><li>Obstacle protection surface & slope of rwy </li></ul><ul><li>T-V ASIS, AT-VASIS </li></ul><ul><li>PAPI, APAPI </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance and calibration </li></ul>
  72. 72. Diagram of Visual Approach Slope Indicator Systems
  73. 73. Runway Lights <ul><li>Runway Threshold Lights (RIL) </li></ul><ul><li>Runway edge lights: white, 60m spacing for instrument rwy and 100m for NI rwy </li></ul><ul><li>Runway threshold lights: min. of 6, green </li></ul><ul><li>Runway end lights: min. of 6, red </li></ul><ul><li>Runway centre lights: Cat.II-III, for take-off </li></ul><ul><li>Rwy tdz lights: Cat.II-III </li></ul><ul><li>Stopway lights: red </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 5-19, p.79 </li></ul>
  74. 74. Other Lights <ul><li>Taxiway centre line ( on taxiway, on exit) </li></ul><ul><li>Taxiway edge lights: blue </li></ul><ul><li>Taxiway stop bars: red </li></ul><ul><li>Runway guard lights: yellow, fig.5-23 p.86 </li></ul><ul><li>Apron floodlighting </li></ul><ul><li>Visual docking system </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 5-20 p.80 </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection and maintenance </li></ul>
  75. 75. Signs <ul><li>Purpose: to convey mandatory instructions, information on a specific location or destination and other information </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frangible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear of props & engine pods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rectangular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red for mandatory instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illuminated: instrument rwy/ cat. 3-4 NI rwy </li></ul></ul>
  76. 76. Mandatory Signs <ul><li>White on red background </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies a position not to proceed beyond unless authorized or cleared </li></ul><ul><li>Runway designation </li></ul><ul><li>Co-location with holding position markings </li></ul><ul><li>No entry </li></ul>
  77. 77. Information Signs <ul><li>Black on yellow </li></ul><ul><li>Includes direction, destination and runway exit signs </li></ul><ul><li>Provided where there is an operational need </li></ul>
  78. 78. Location Signs <ul><li>Yellow on black </li></ul><ul><li>Indicates location on an aerodrome </li></ul><ul><li>Only sign which may be located with a mandatory instruction sign </li></ul><ul><li>Outboard of a runway designation sign </li></ul><ul><li>Where signs are combined to form an array, the individual signs are delineated by a black stripe </li></ul>
  79. 79. Diagram of Mandatory Instruction Signs
  80. 80. Information and Location Signs
  81. 82. Visual Aids for Denoting Obstacles <ul><li>Aim: reduce hazards to a/c by indicating the presence of obstacles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(lights &/or markings) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responsibility: CAA, airport authority </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitive areas: approach surfaces, climb surfaces, obstacle protection surfaces, airport vicinity </li></ul><ul><li>Obstacles reported in Aerodrome Manual </li></ul><ul><li>Colours: checkered pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orange & white or red & white </li></ul></ul>
  82. 83. Examples of Marking & Lighting of Tall Structures
  83. 84. Lighting of Buildings
  84. 85. Closed Runway and Taxiway Markings <ul><li>Markings displayed for permanently closed and temporarily closed (RP) rwy & twy: X </li></ul><ul><li>Location: at each end or portion and interval between markings <300m </li></ul><ul><li>Colour: white for rwy, yellow for twy </li></ul><ul><li>Permanently closed rwy & twy: markings to be obliterated </li></ul><ul><li>Closed rwy & twy: lighting off </li></ul>
  85. 86. Closed Runway and Taxiway Markings
  86. 87. Unsuitable Pre-Threshold Area <ul><li>Condition: paved & > 60m </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-threshold area: chevron markings </li></ul>
  87. 88. Unserviceable Areas <ul><li>Condition: any portion of rwy, twy, apron unfit for a/c movement but still possible for a/c to bypass area safely </li></ul><ul><li>Markers: flags, cones, marker boards and red lights for night operations </li></ul>
  88. 89. Secondary Power Supply <ul><li>For medium & major aerodromes </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities: signaling lamps, obstacle lights, approach, rwy, twy lighting, essential equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Source of supply: same source but different substation and routing, or standby power units. Testing of generators </li></ul><ul><li>Switch-over time: 1 second to 2 minutes depending on runway category (NI, NP, P) </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring of visual aids </li></ul>
  89. 90. Fencing <ul><li>Aim: to prevent the entrance to the movement area of large animals and unauthorized persons </li></ul><ul><li>Includes ducts, tunnels, sewers, overpass </li></ul><ul><li>Patrols on perimeter road inside of fences </li></ul><ul><li>Security lighting of fencing area </li></ul>
  90. 91. Maintenance <ul><li>A maintenance plan should be prepared: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preventive maintenance is less costly </li></ul><ul><li>Pavements: daily inspections, special attention to cracks and friction </li></ul><ul><li>Visual aids: daily inspections, maintenance often by specialized personnel, many SARPs aimed at lighting systems </li></ul>
  91. 92. Appendices and Attachments <ul><li>Appendices 1 to 6 : Mostly for engineers, land surveyors and technical personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment A Guidance material: very informative texts on 18 topics such as stopways, clearways, declared distances, strips, AFF, vehicle operations… </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment B obstacle limitation surfaces diagram: an overall view </li></ul><ul><li>Index: where to look for information </li></ul>
  92. 93. Conclusion <ul><li>What have we learned? </li></ul>