Im 1.1 Rev.5

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Im 1.1 Rev.5

  1. 1. UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA GEORGIA STATE UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI- UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIVERSITY SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI UNIVERSITY CLEMSON UNIVERSITY IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY UTAH STATE UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA VIRGINIA COMM.TH UNIVERSITY FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND VIRGINIA TECH UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY PORTLAND STATE UNIVERSITY WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY CIMBA Consortium Institute of Management and Business Analysis International Marketing Management Asolo January 12th and 13th , 2006 1
  2. 2. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING MANAGEMENT Day 1 : Session 1 & 2 Day 2 : Session 3 & 4 Introduction and Definitions of Marketing The process of Marketing Management Essential tools: Risk Anaysis, Montecarlo analysis, 900am Morning Class Basic tools and concepts: Sensitivity, Tornado Analysis and real Options. Marketing MIX (the 4 ‘P’ of Marketing) International Product Launches in Europe: a real 10:30 Break Product’s life cycle case. 11:30 Case Discussion Club Med Baxter 12:30 Lunch 14:00 Afternoon Class Process of Marketing Management in depth: Analysis of opportunities Entry Strategies: Agency, distribution, licensing, Joint Research of target market Ventures, direct sales. Development of strategies A framework for cooperative strategies and Joint 15:30 Break Planning, Venture design. Implementation and control Cultural issues: ethics and compliance How to write a solid Marketing plan 16:30 Case Discussion Euro Disney Ital Sedia 17:30 Closeout 2
  3. 3. Working Groups • GROUP 1 • GROUP 3 • Argentin Federica • Santato Donata • Farronato Nicola • Simonetto Enrico • Virago Roberta • Ronzani Roberto • Folle Ivo • Zago Valentina • Ceolin Angelo * • Pettenon Francesco* • • • GROUP 2 • GROUP 4 • Cagnin Moreno • Fiammengo Wallì • Fiumicetti Anna • De Marchi Giovanni • Negretto Luigi • Del Prete Enrico • Dal Bo Peter • Baldassar Stefano* • 3
  4. 4. What is marketing What is its role in the corporation and in the society? 4
  5. 5. 5 CIMBA Fondamenti di Marketing Management: Luigi Negri
  6. 6. What is marketing: its role in society and corporations • Stereotypes • Definitions of Marketing • Key concepts to remember when talking about marketing – Needs – Products – Value, cost and satisfaction – Exchange, transactions – Markets – Corporation – Marketing Management 6
  7. 7. What is marketing Stereotypes • “…Marketing is used by corporations to create needs by convincing consumers to buy products they do not need…..” • “… Marketing in a corporation is made of all that publicity that triggers automatic purchases of products for which there is no real need …” 7
  8. 8. What is marketing Marketing definitions • “ Marketing is the social and managerial process through which an individual or a group can obtain the object of their needs and desires by creating, offering and exchanging products and values.” • “Marketing is the managerial process through which a corporation maximizes its sales profits in the short, medium and long term by designing, offering and selling its products or services.” 8
  9. 9. Cos'e' il marketing 9
  10. 10. What is marketing Needs • Needs: – A need appears when a basic necessity for human life is not satisfied. • Desire: – Appears when an individual assesses a solution for the satisfaction of a need. • Demand: – Is made of desires for specific products enriched by the ability and willingness to purchase them. 10
  11. 11. What is marketing Demand origins, an example (Angel‟s Model) Information Process Central Control Unit Environmental Influences Information and Stimulus Exposition Experience Income Attention Evaluation Culture Criteria Family Comprehension Attitude Social Class Retention Physical Factors Problem Others Informative retroaction Recognition Wait External Internal research Research And evaluation of alternatives External research Wait and evaluation of alternatives Purchasing Wait Process Results Post-purchase evaluation Future behavior 11
  12. 12. What is marketing Product • Definition: “Any thing that can be offered to somebody to satisfy a need or a desire”. • Product Vs. Service • Miopia of marketing: product Vs. need 12
  13. 13. What is marketing Value, Cost and Satisfaction N EED RATE P R O D .A S A T IS F A C T IO N A P R O D . A P R IC E P R OD . B V A LUE - P R IC E A S A T IS F A C T IO N B P R O D . B P R IC E V A LUE - P R IC E B OBJECTIVE 1 3 3 9 2 6 OBJECTIVE 2 5 4 20 2 10 OBJECTIVE 3 8 6 48 9 72 OBJECTIVE 4 2 3 6 2 4 83 50 33 92 80 12 • The value of a product /offer is tied up with its capacity of meeting the objectives relative to an attempt at satisfying a need • Each objective has got its level of priority • Each product may give a different reaction so as to meet single objectives • Satisfaction relative to a product is a function of the satisfactions relative to various objectives ranked according to their levels of priority • Theoretically, the product to be chosen is the one which maximizes the SATISFACTION - PRICE difference 13
  14. 14. What is marketing Trade and transactions • There are 4 fundamental ways to satisfy a need: – Self-production – Coercion – Begging – Exchange • Trade consists of an act of obtaining the product desired by a person to whom something is offered in exchange • In the case of transactions , values pass between two parties involved: actually, these are the basic units of trade. 14
  15. 15. What is marketing Markets A market consists of all potential buyers who, by sharing a particular need, might be interested in getting involved in an exchange/ trade so as to satisfy the said need or desire . ELEMENTARY SYSTEM OF MARKETING: COMMUNICATION GOODS AND SERVICES SECTOR MARKET (OF A SET OF SELLERS) (A SET OF BUYERSI) MONEY INFORMATION 15
  16. 16. What is marketing FLOWSHEET OF MODERN TRADE ECONOMY Resources Resources MARKET of Resources Money Money Levies Services goods Money Services, money levies MARKET MARKET Public of of Levies, money sector services Products Consumers Services Levies money goods money money MARKET Goods and services of Goods and servics Intermediaries 16
  17. 17. What is marketing Glossary • M.S. o Market Share : – {sales} revenue/ Total value – Units sold/ Total units consumed • Penetration – Units sold/Units of market • Gross Profit or G.P. – GP per Unit: Unit Price - Unit Cost – TGP: Total Net Sales – Total cost of sold units • G.P./P indicated with GP% – GP/Net sales • Net profit / Pre-Tax – G.P. – opex - overheads • Profitability 17
  18. 18. What is marketing Simple Exercise #1 Question 1 Total Market 2005 Units 300 M Units Value ? M$ ASP ? $ Company A Units Sold 180 M Units ASP 0,3 $ Cost 0,09 $ Net Sales ? M$ Gross Profit ? M$ GP% ? % MS% in Units ? % MS% in Value ? % Company B Units Sold 120 M Units ASP 0,25 $ Cost 0,09 $ Net Sales ? M$ Gross Profit ? M$ GP% ? % MS% in Units ? % 18 MS% in Value ? %
  19. 19. What is marketing Answers to Simple Exercise #1 Answer 1 Total Market 2005 Units 300 M Units Value 84 M$ ASP 0,28 $ Company A Units Sold 180 M Units ASP 0,3 $ Cost 0,09 $ Net Sales 54 M$ Gross Profit 37,8 M$ GP% 70% % MS% in Units 60% % MS% in Value 64% % Company B Units Sold 120 M Units ASP 0,25 $ Cost 0,09 $ Net Sales 30 M$ Gross Profit 19,2 M$ GP% 64% % MS% in Units 40% % 19 MS% in Value 36% % NoB
  20. 20. What is marketing Simple Exercise #2 Question 2 Total Market 2005 2006 Units 300 320 M Units Value 84 ? M$ ASP 0,28 ? $ Company A Units Sold 180 190 M Units ASP Cost 0,3 0,09 0,31 0,1 $ $ Which Company Net Sales Gross Profit 54 37,8 ? ? M$ M$ Did „better” GP% MS% in Units 70% 60% ? ? % % In 2006 ? MS% in Value 64% ? % Company B Units Sold 120 130 M Units ASP 0,25 0,28 $ Cost 0,09 0,09 $ Net Sales 30 ? M$ Gross Profit 19,2 ? M$ GP% 64% ? % MS% in Units 40% ? % MS% in Value 36% ? % 20
  21. 21. What is marketing Answers to Simple Exercise #2 Answer 2 Total Market 2005 2006 Var % Units 300 320 M Units 6,7% Value 84 95,3 M$ 13,5% ASP 0,28 0,30 $ 6,4% Company A Units Sold 180 190 M Units 5,6% ASP 0,3 0,31 $ 3,3% Cost 0,09 0,1 $ 11,1% Net Sales 54 58,9 M$ 9,1% Gross Profit 37,8 39,9 M$ 5,6% GP% 70% 68% % -2,3 MS% in Units 60% 59% % -0,6 MS% in Value 64% 62% % -2,5 Company B Units Sold 120 130 M Units 8,3% ASP 0,25 0,28 $ 12,0% Cost 0,09 0,09 $ 0,0% Net Sales 30 36,4 M$ 21,3% Gross Profit 19,2 24,7 M$ 28,6% GP% 64% 68% % 3,9 MS% in Units 40% 41% % 0,6 21 MS% in Value 36% 38% % 2,5 NoB
  22. 22. What is marketing Marketing Management • Marketing Management is a process of planning and realization of the project, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services in order to make trade/ exchanges which may allow to reach the objectives of individuals and corporations 22
  23. 23. What is marketing Marketing vs. Sales Starting Focus of Means Targets point attention Concept Production Products Sale and Profits through promotion sales volume of Sale Concept Market Customer’s Coordination Profits through needs Activities customer’s of marketing satisfaction Marketing 23
  24. 24. What is the process of marketing management and how does it work 24
  25. 25. What is the process of marketing management and how does it work • Definition of the process of Marketing Management • Dynamics of the process of Marketing Management – Analysis of opportunities – Research into target market – Development of strategies – Planning, – Implementation and control • Basic tools and concepts: – Marketing MIX (the 4 „P‟ of Marketing) – Product‟s life cycle – Marketing plan – Signs of International Marketing Management 25
  26. 26. Process of Marketing Management Definition of the process of Marketing Management Analysis The process of marketing management consists of analyzing market opportunities, researching and Research selecting target markets, developing marketing Strategies strategies and planning marketing actions which Control eventually will have to be realized and controlled Plans Actions 26
  27. 27. Process of Marketing Management Analysis of •Opportunities • 1.1 ENVIRONMENT 1.3 COMPETITORS – 1.1.1 TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS 1.3.1 INDUSTRY COMPETITION – 1.1.2 POLITICAL FACTORS ENVIRONMENT (PORTER – 1.1.3 ECONOMIC FACTORS MODEL) – 1.1.4 REGULATORY FACTORS 1.3.1.1 POTENTIAL – 1.1.5 SOCIAL FACTORS ENTRANTS Analysis 1.3.1.2 BUYERS POWER • 1.2 MARKET 1.3.1.3 SUPPLIERS POWER research – 1.2.1 CONSUMER MARKET AND BUYERS 1.3.1.4 PRESSURE FROM BEHAVIOR SUBSTITUTES strategies – 1.2.2 BUSINESS MARKET AND BUYERS 1.3.1.5 INDUSTRY RIVALRY control BEHAVIOR 1.3.1.6 INDUSTRY Plansi – 1.2.3 AGGREGATE MARKET FACTORS CAPACITY – 1.2.4 MARKET SIZE actions – 1.2.5 MARKET GROWT – 1.2.6 PROD.LIFE CYCLE 1.3.2 IDENTIFYING – 1.2.7 SALES CYCLICITY COMPETITORS – 1.2.8 SEASONALITY – 1.2.9 PROFIT VARIABILITY 1.4 ORGANIZATION • 27 •
  28. 28. Process of Marketing Management Research of target market • Market segmentation • Research criteria for target market • Selection of target market analysis research strategies controls plans actions 28
  29. 29. Process of Marketing Management Development of strategies • The marketing strategy defines the logic through which a corporation hopes to reach its objectives on the market Analysis • A marketing strategy consists in making decisions on marketing expenses, marketing-mix Research and allotment of marketing efforts in relation to the Strategies forecast environmental and competition conditions control Plans • “Positioning” Actions • “Differentiation” • “Marketing MIX” 29
  30. 30. Process of Marketing Management Planning, implementation and control • Marketing Plan • Project Management – Priorities Analysis – Milestones – Research Critical paths – Resources Strategies – Risk management Control Plans • Periodic feedback and updating of: – plans, Actions – strategies. 30
  31. 31. Process of Marketing Management Marketing-MIX Marketing Mix • Marketing MIX consists of marketing variables which can be managed with in order to reach the objective pre-defined in the field of the target market. • The four “P”s of marketing: – Product – Price – Place – Promotion P roduct Price MKTG MIX Place Promotion 31
  32. 32. Process of Marketing Management Marketing-MIX PRICE • The role of Price • How to decide on the price 32
  33. 33. Process of Marketing Management IMarketing-MIX The Role of Price – Coverage of costs - • P>C always ? >profit • What is positioning ? – Variable of positioning • Sellers, agents, resellers, – Incentive for distribution single agencies channels • multiple agencies. – Barrier/Entrance door • Who can enter ? Q – Demand manager Q = f(P) 33 P
  34. 34. Process of Marketing Management Marketing-MIX How to decide on the Price • COST BASED • P=C+D • Break-even: Revenue = Q*(P-Var.Cost)- Fixed Costs • Target Return: P = Target / Q • COMPETITOR BASED • Market structure • Price leadership 34
  35. 35. Process of Marketing Management Marketing-MIX How to decide on the Price (cont.) • DEMAND BASED Demand Backward Marginal Cost=Marginal Revenue Elasticity Estimation Test Marketing Consumer Survey Awareness Market Structure Product Importance • NEW PRODUCT – Penetration – Skimming • PRODUCT LINE STRATEGY – Consistency – Cross-elasticity 35
  36. 36. Il Processo di Marketing Management Il Marketing-MIX How to choose the price (cont.) 36
  37. 37. Il Processo di Marketing Management Il Marketing-MIX How to choose the price (cont.) 37
  38. 38. Il Processo di Marketing Management Il Marketing-MIX Penetration and Pricing Fenwal Penetration MS% Penetration Vs. Pricing 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 0 4 8 -20% ASP in US$ 38
  39. 39. Il Processo di Marketing Management Il Marketing-MIX Pricing Sensitivity Milestones Penetration P1 -> From Customer Interviews Rate % P2-> Price of Cheapest Substitute P3-> Price of Expens. Substitute P4-> Price of Competition P1 P2 P4 P3 39
  40. 40. Process of Marketing Management Marketing-MIX Price Setting and Key Compromises N = number of Units Sold S = Sales = P*N GP = P- C GP% = (P-C)/P TGP= GP * N GP% C N P N P N C TGP S 40 NoB
  41. 41. Il Processo di Marketing Management Il Marketing-MIX Total Profit: Price or M.Share ? MS% GP/Unit 120% 8 100% 6 80% 4 60% MS% 2 GP/Unit 40% 0 20% -2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 -4 Price Price Total GP 1,5 1 0,5 0 -0,5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total GP -1 -1,5 -2 -2,5 41
  42. 42. Process of Marketing Management IMarketing-MIX Lessons Learned on Price Setting 1. There is always time to decrease prices, while price increases are difficult. 2. Never agree on a price without agreeing on the payments terms. 3. Never agree on price without agreeing on the exchange rate. 4. Never be light while discounting: 1. a 5% Price decrease on a 50% GP Product causes a 10% Profit decrease 2. while on a 30% GP Product causes a 16% profit decrease!! 5. Keep Price as LAST item to be negotiated always!. 42 NoB
  43. 43. Process of Marketing Management IMarketing-MIX Exercise on Price Setting – Calculate the cost-based price of a bottle of water that cost (COGS) 0,2$ in order to obtain 32% GP. – Perform a decision analysis for price setting of an highly innovative product balancing the needs of high profit, fast MS% penetration and the maintenence of high quality product. Q 43 0.294 P
  44. 44. Il Processo di Marketing Management Il Marketing-MIX PROMOTION 44
  45. 45. Il Processo di Marketing Management Il Marketing-MIX PROMOTION • MAIN GOALS: – INFORM – PERSUADE – REMIND • • MAIN METHODS: – ADVERTISING – PERSONAL SELLING – SALES PROMOTION – Other PUBLICITY 45
  46. 46. Process of Marketing Management Marketing-MIX PROMOTION • PROMOTIONAL BLEND • Depends on: – Product type – Corporate and market size – Maturity stage in the life cycle of a product – INTRODUCTION: Inform, stimulate primary demand – GROWTH: Persuade, Stimulate Selective demand. – MATURITY: Positioning, Persuade, Remind, Inform, New users – DECLINE: Withdraw support not necessarily from channel 46
  47. 47. Process of Marketing Management Marketing-MIX How to develop an advertising campaign: Fundamental parts • Marketing targets • Creative strategy: what to say in relation to research and • Increase in consumption targets. – Increase in MS • Creative execution: – Development of “brand loyalty” – How to say it – Generate „trials‟ – How to draw attention – Improve relations with distributors – Maintain attention • Advertising targets – Reach the targets – Definition of audience – Be „legal‟ – Definition of timelines – Be „moral‟ – Specific targets – Be „ethical‟ – Level of penetration • Pretext • Advertising Budget • Strategy of the mass media – Report with sales fcst – ROI approach • Measure the effectiveness – Marginal benefit – “all you can afford” – Target-tailored 47
  48. 48. Process of Marketing Management Marketing-MIX Evaluation of communication agencies and relations with the media • Understanding of the targets • Make use of agencies for • Capacity of critical consolidating personal ties interpretation of the targets with the journalists of interest and of making valid • Cherish relations with proposals journalists on a regular base • Orientation towards the result - Increase in MS – Development of “brand loyalty” – Generate „trials‟ – Improve relations with distributors • Capacity of transparent estimation • Historical reports with the media • Capacity of lobbing 48
  49. 49. Process of Marketing Management IMarketing-MIX Exercise on Promotion: How much should we spend in Promotion? – Choose (O1,O2 or O3) the maximum amount of promotional expenses for the below two cases of a product with a MS%/Opex curve as following: – Make and Justify your choice using Decision Analysis MS% MS% O1 O2 O3 Promotional O1 O2 O3 Promotional Expenses (Opex) Expenses (Opex) 49
  50. 50. Process of Marketing Management Marketing-MIX PLACE • Options for sale: – Direct sellers • Incentive schedules • Formation • Training – Resellers • Negotiations on “transfer prices” • Sharing of strategies • Contractual Size/Power – Agencies • Reference strategy for the commissions (sales Vs. profit) • Coherence on the territory – Others • E-business • Mailing 50
  51. 51. Process of Marketing Management Marketing-MIX Channels for Consumer Products Direct Retailer Wholesaler Agent/Broker Channel Channel Channel Channel Producer Producer Producer Producer Agents or Brokers Wholesalers Wholesalers Retailers Retailers Retailers Consumers Consumers Consumers Consumers 51
  52. 52. Process of Marketing Management Marketing-MIX Channels for Business-to-Business Products Direct Industrial Agent/Broker Agent/Broker Direct Channel Distributor Channel Industrial Channel Channel Producer Producer Producer Producer Producer Agents or Agents or Brokers Brokers Industrial Industrial Distributor Distributor Industrial Industrial Industrial Industrial Government User User User User Buyer 52
  53. 53. Process of Marketing Management Marketing-MIX Lessons Learned on Distributor management 1. Make sure you understand the cost structure of your distributors in order to: 1. Let them enjoy an actual margin that make your product attractive compared to other opportunities. 2. Make sure that they do not take too much of your margin. 2. Have clear exit clauses in the contract. 3. Ensure that you have access to customer and to sensitive marketing information during the execution of the contract. 4. Never let your distributor be your only choice in a Country: keep good relationship with other distributors and maintain your negotiation power. 5. Never give to distributors to control exclusively the Price to end-customers. NoB 53
  54. 54. Process of Marketing Management Marketing-MIX PRODUCT • The role of the products •Importance of the products • CASH FLOW • SKU (Inventory) • COMPANY IMAGE • OVERHEAD CONTRIBUTION • MANAGEMENT TIME • SHARED ECONOMIES • MARKETING SUPPORT • PERSONNEL SUPPORT • ADMINISTRATIVE • LINE COMPLETENESS • TEMPORAL DEMAND ADJUSTMENT• EXPOSURE / RISK • DIVERSIFY RISK • INVESTMENT • DEFENSIVE POSTURE • BARRIERS TO EXIT • DEALERS SUPPORT • FLEXIBILITY • SHELF SPACE • PROFIT • BARRIER TO ENTRY • COMPETITIVE MESSAGE • FLEXIBILITY 54
  55. 55. Process of Marketing Management Marketing-MIX Why new PRODUCTs fail? 1. An high level executive might push a favorite idea in spite of negative market research findings. 2. The idea is good , but the market size is overestimated. 3. The actual product is not well designed. 4. The new product is not correctly positioned in the market, not advertised effectively, or overpriced. 5. Development costs are higher than expected. 6. Competitiors fight back harder than expected. NoB 55
  56. 56. Process of Marketing Management Marketing-MIX Factors Influencing Adoption Process 1. People differ it their rediness to try new Products 2. Personal – Reciprocal Influence 3. The type of Innovation: 1. Relative Advantage over existing products % of 2. Compatibility Customers 34% 34% 3. Complexity Early Majority Late Majority 4. Divisibility 13,5% Early Adopters 16% 1,5% Laggards Innovators Time 56 NoB
  57. 57. Process of Marketing Management PRODUCT Marketing-MIX Key to roof / correlation matrix symbols + - - Rock Climbing Harness + Positive / Supporting - - Negative / Tradeoff + + - • The House of Quality: DIRECTION OF IMPROVEMENT • Allows the definition of TECHNICAL Performance measures Size of range Technical details PLANNING MATRIX characteristics of a REQUIREMENTS product by putting all Our (existing) Product Delta Rating X Weigh the critical variables into the decision- Delta Rating making process: CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS – Technical requirements Easy to put on 2 3 3 4 4 1.2 2.6 7 – Customer‟s Comfortable when hanging 5 4 4 2 5 1.2 8.4 22 requirements Fits over different clothes 1 1 1 5 2 1.2 1.2 3 – Differentiating Accessible gear loops 3 3 4 1 3 1.0 3.0 8 requirements Does not restrict movement 5 2 2 3 5 1.6 11.2 29 – Characteristics of Lightweight 3 3 2 5 3 1.0 3.0 8 competing products Safe 5 4 3 3 4 1.0 6.0 16 Attractive 2 2 2 5 3 1.2 2.6 7 Tech. Priority % of TOTAL 54 81.2 63 23.4 70.2 191.6 98.6 30 612 Total (100%) 38 PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL 9 13 10 4 12 31 16 5 Our product Y 174g 250 5 4 4mm 1 4 Key to interrelationship matrix symbols Competitor A's product Y 193g 321 3 5 8mm 4 5 Strong interrelationship Competitor B's product Y 157g 198 6 4 3mm 1 3 Medium interreltionship DESIGN TARGETS Y 160g 250 8 6 4mm 2 4 Weak interrelationship 57
  58. 58. Process of Marketing Management EXERCISE Webbing Strength = Resistenze della tessitura Marketing-MIX Key to roof / correlation matrix symbols Webbing Strength = Spessore del riempimento The House of Quality: + Positive / Supporting Padding thickness = Spessore del riempimento Exercise: Rock Climbing Harness - Negative / Tradeoff A climbing harness is a piece of equipment used in certain types Buckles = Elementi in plastica ricurvi of rock-climbing, abseiling or other activities requiring the use of ropes to provide access and/or safety (eg industrial rope access, working at heights, etc.). A harness is used to secure a person Gear loops = numero di giri sul gancio to a piece of rope or an anchor point of some kind. DIRECTION OF IMPROVEMENT Performance Size of Technical In its simplest form a harness can be fashioned from a length of TECHNICAL PLANNING MATRIX rope or a nylon tape sling tied round the waist and attached to measures range details the rope, usually by means of a carabiner. More sophisticated REQUIREMENTS Meets European Standards harnesses exist in many different patterns, designed to give greater comfort and security, and to provide more options for Our (existing) Product Delta Rating X Weigh carrying equipment. There are three main kinds of harnesses. Delta Rating Sit Harness A sit harness comprises of a waist belt and two leg loops which CUSTOMER are normally connected in the front of the hips either through a REQUIREMENTS permanent webbing loop (sometimes called a belay loop) or through the use of a carabiner. These harness are the most commonly used for recreational activities such as abseiling or rock-climbing as a wide range of Easy to put on 2 3 3 4 movement is afforded whilst still maintaining a good level of safety. Comfortable when hanging 5 4 4 2 Chest Harness A chest harness is worn around the shoulders. These harness Fits over different clothes 1 1 1 5 are not used on their own, but normally in conjunction with a sit harness so as to provide an additional attachment point further Accessible gear loops 3 3 4 1 up the body. This additional attachment point can prove valuable in some circumstances as it allows for better balance 5 2 2 3 when carrying a heavy pack (as the centre of mass is well below Does not restrict movement the connection to the rope) or where the person in the harness may be unable to maintain an upright position (due to injury or Lightweight 3 3 2 5 other influences). Full-body Harness Safe 5 4 3 3 A full-body harness is most commonly used in industrial/rescue situations. In essence is it the combination of a sit harness and a Attractive 2 2 2 5 chest harness which are permanently or semi-permanently connected to each other. These harnesses normally offer a very TECHNICAL PRIORITIES 54 81.2 63 23.4 70.2 191.6 98.6 30 612 extensive range of attachment points allowing for safe Total (100%) positioning in a number of positions. Whilst these harnesses can be improvised as mentioned earlier, Tech. Priority % of TOTAL 9 13 10 4 12 31 16 5 it is recommended that a commercially produced harness be used wherever possible. This is because there are stringent Our product Y 174g 250 5 4 4mm 1 4 Key to interrelationship matrix symbols guidelines surrounding the manufacture of harnesses, and as such a store-bought harness is safer and often more Competitor A's product Y 193g 321 3 5 8mm 4 5 Strong interrelationship comfortable than an improvised one. Competitor B's product Y 157g 198 6 4 3mm 1 3 Medium interrelationship DESIGN TARGETS Weak interrelationship 58
  59. 59. Process of Marketing Management EXERCISE Marketing-MIX Key to roof / correlation matrix symbols + Positive / Supporting - Negative / Tradeoff • The House of Quality: DIRECTION OF IMPROVEMENT • Exercise TECHNICAL Performance measures Size of range Technical details PLANNING MATRIX REQUIREMENTS Delta Rating X Weigh Delta Rating CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS Tech. Priority % of TOTAL Total (100%) PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL Our product Key to interrelationship matrix symbols Competitor A's product Strong interrelationship Competitor B's product Medium interrelationship DESIGN TARGETS Weak interrelationship 59
  60. 60. Process of Marketing Management Life Cycle Product Life Cycle Introductory Growth Maturity Decline Stage Stage Stage Stage Product Category Sales Dollars Product Category Profits 0 Time 60
  61. 61. Process of Marketing Management Marketing Strategies for PLC Life Cycle INTRODUCTION GROWTH MATURITY DECLINE Product Limited models More models Large number Eliminate Strategy Frequent Frequent of models. unprofitable changes changes. models Distribution Limited Expanded Extensive. Phase out Strategy Wholesale/ dealers. Long- Margins drop. unprofitable retail distributors term relations Shelf space outlets Awareness. Aggressive ads. Advertise. Phase out Promotion Stimulate Stimulate Promote heavily promotion Strategy demand.Sampling demand Higher/recoup Fall as result of Prices fall Prices Pricing development competition & (usually). stabilize at Strategy costs efficient produc- low level. tion. 61
  62. 62. Il Processo di Marketing Management Life Cycle 62
  63. 63. Il Processo di Marketing Management Life Cycle 63
  64. 64. Marketing Management Process Resources Allocation Managin Product Portfolio: Resources Allocation Issues - 4Ps are four investment forms - How do I decide in which product/product group/SBU to invest ? - There are several method of resources allocation: - Graphical Portfolio Methods - Mathematical Portfolio Methods - Analytic Hierarchy Process 64 NoB
  65. 65. Marketing Management Process Resources Allocation Growth–Share Matrix Stars: Maintain share by investing earnings in High STARTS QUESTION MARKS Price reductions, priduct refinement, advertising and personal selling to Market Growth Rate discourage competitive entry. Cash Cows: Milk the cash and invest in marketing only enough to maintain share. Question Marks: Investing in market segmentation strategies, thereby reducing competition and increasing share. Or Low CASH COWS DOGS Reduce investment and let the product drop in DOGS. High Low Relative Market Share Dogs: Move to Cash Cow by increasing the market share if returns exceed the cost of segmentation strategy. Or Drop the product. 65 NoB
  66. 66. Marketing Management Process Resources Allocation Directional–Policy Matrix Weak Business Sector Prospects:: Company’s Competitive Capability Phased Withrdawal Disinvest Or Double or Quit Market Growth rate Keep Market Quality Keep Supply of raw material Phased Or Try Harder Average Withdrawal Grow Environmental (regulatory) aspects Competitive Capabilities:: Growth Cash Or Leader Market Position (MS%) Generation Leader Strong Product Capability Unattractive Average Attractive Product research and Business Sector Prospects development 66 NoB
  67. 67. Case Discussion Case Discussion Club Med 67
  68. 68. Case Discussion Club Med - Divide in 4 groups - Read againg the Club Med. Case - Perform Situation Appraisal for Club Med. American Challenge within the frame of the four „P”s of the Marketing Mix - Perform a Decision Analysis for Club Med. American challenge with specific reference to Product and Promotion. - Answer few Additional Questions: - Are all the 4-Ps taken in consideration by Martin? - What id the Stage of Product Life Cycle in U.S. ? - Preare your presentation on a flip-chart 68

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