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  1. 1. Tissues Epithelial, Connective , Nervous , Muscle , Credits <ul><li>Group of cells that are similar in structure and function. </li></ul><ul><li>Study of tissues is known as Histology </li></ul><ul><li>There are four basic types of tissues: Epithelial, Nervous, Connective, and Muscle </li></ul>
  2. 2. Epithelium <ul><li>Sheet of cells that cover body surface or lines body cavities </li></ul><ul><li>Forms boundary between inner and outer environment </li></ul><ul><li>Protects, absorbs, filtrates, and excretes </li></ul>Home , Simple , Stratified
  3. 3. Simple Epithelia <ul><li>Composed of a single layer of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Functions include: absorption, secretion, and filtration </li></ul><ul><li>Classified by shape: Squamous, Cuboidal, and Columnar </li></ul>Home , Stratified , Squamous Cuboidal , Columnar
  4. 4. Simple Squamous Epithelium <ul><li>Single thin layer of laterally flattened cells </li></ul><ul><li>Simplest of the epithelial </li></ul><ul><li>Found where filtration and exchange of substances is a priority </li></ul>Home , Simple , Cuboidal , Columnar
  5. 5. Endothelium <ul><li>inner covering of simple epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Located in capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Helps exchange nutrients and waste </li></ul>Home , Epithelium , Simple Squamous
  6. 6. Simple Cuboidal <ul><li>Consists of cube shaped single layer of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Important for secretion and absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Large spherical central nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Found in kidneys, ducts of small glands, and ovary surface </li></ul><ul><li>Epithelium , Home , Simple , </li></ul>
  7. 7. Simple Columnar Epithelium <ul><li>Single layer of column shaped cells with oval nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Function is to absorb and secrete </li></ul><ul><li>Some have cilia which enables movement of particles </li></ul><ul><li>Found in bronchi, uterine tubes, and uterus </li></ul><ul><li>Home , Squamous , Cuboidal </li></ul>
  8. 8. Pseudostratified columnar <ul><li>Single layer of cells varying in height </li></ul><ul><li>May give false impression of several layers </li></ul><ul><li>Secretes and absorbs </li></ul><ul><li>Lines the trachea of the respiratory tract </li></ul><ul><li>Home , Simple , Stratified </li></ul>
  9. 9. Stratified Squamous Epithelium <ul><li>Several layers of flattened cells </li></ul><ul><li>Thick and well-suited for protection </li></ul><ul><li>Subjected to much abrasion </li></ul><ul><li>Forms the epidermis of the skin </li></ul><ul><li>Home , Simple , Cuboidal Columnar </li></ul>
  10. 10. Stratified Squamous Epithelium <ul><li>Several layers of flattened cells </li></ul><ul><li>Thick and well-suited for protection </li></ul><ul><li>Subjected to much abrasion </li></ul><ul><li>Forms the epidermis of the skin </li></ul><ul><li>Home , Simple , Cuboidal Columnar </li></ul>
  11. 11. Stratified Cuboidal <ul><li>Consists of two layers of cube shaped cells </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely found in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Found sometimes in glands </li></ul>
  12. 12. Stratified columnar epithelium <ul><li>Several layers of column shaped cells </li></ul><ul><li>Limited distribtution throughout the body </li></ul><ul><li>Found in some sweat and mammary glands </li></ul><ul><li>Typically two cell layers thick </li></ul><ul><li>Home , Cuboidal , Squamous </li></ul>
  13. 13. Transitional Epithelium <ul><li>Resembles stratified squamous </li></ul><ul><li>Stretches with the organ it lines </li></ul><ul><li>Found in urinary bladder, urethra, and uterus </li></ul><ul><li>Home , Simple , Stratified </li></ul>
  14. 14. Glandular Epithelium <ul><li>One or more cells that secrete and make certain products </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly classified by the site of release </li></ul><ul><li>Either exocrine or endocrine </li></ul><ul><li>Home, epithelial, </li></ul>
  15. 15. Endocrine <ul><li>Often called ductless glands </li></ul><ul><li>Produce hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Secretion produces amino acids, proteins and steroids </li></ul><ul><li>Home, epithelium, glandular, exocrine </li></ul>
  16. 16. Exocrine <ul><li>Secretes their products onto body surface or into body cavities </li></ul><ul><li>Transports secretion to epithelial surface </li></ul><ul><li>Includes mucous, sweat, oil, and salivary glands </li></ul><ul><li>Home, epithelium, glandular, endocrine </li></ul>
  17. 17. Unicellular and multicellular exocrine glands <ul><li>Produces mucin </li></ul><ul><li>Contains goblet cells </li></ul><ul><li>Structurally complex </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Classified as simple or compound </li></ul><ul><li>Home, epithelium, glandular, exocrine </li></ul>
  18. 18. Connective Tissue <ul><li>Consists of connective tissue proper, cartilage, blood, bone </li></ul><ul><li>Binds, supports, protects, and insulates </li></ul><ul><li>Have a common origin, a degree of vascularity, and an extracellular matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Home, cartilage, bone, blood, tissue proper </li></ul>
  19. 19. Blood <ul><li>Fluid within the blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Develops from mesenchyme </li></ul><ul><li>Classified into red and white blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>Transports nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Home, Connective tissue </li></ul>
  20. 20. Muscle Tissue <ul><li>Highly cellular tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for most of the body's movements </li></ul><ul><li>Contains myofilaments </li></ul><ul><li>Three types: cardiac, skeletal, and smooth </li></ul><ul><li>Home, Connective tissue, Smooth, Cardiac, Skeletal </li></ul>
  21. 21. Skeletal Muscle <ul><li>Long cylindrical cells with striations </li></ul><ul><li>Controls and initiates voluntary movements </li></ul><ul><li>Found attached to bone </li></ul><ul><li>Home, Connective Tissue, Muscular Tissue, Smooth Muscle, Cardiac Muscle </li></ul>
  22. 22. Cardiac Muscle <ul><li>Found only among the walls of the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Contracts and propels blood into the body </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues are branched and striated </li></ul><ul><li>Home, Connective tissue, Smooth, Skeletal Muscular </li></ul>
  23. 23. Smooth Muscle <ul><li>Has no visible striations </li></ul><ul><li>Spindle shaped </li></ul><ul><li>One central nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Found in hollow organs contracting and squeezing </li></ul><ul><li>Home, Connective Tissue, Cardiac Muscle, Skeletal Muscle, Muscle Tissue </li></ul>
  24. 24. Nervous Tissue <ul><li>Main component of brain, spinal cord, and nerves </li></ul><ul><li>contains neurons </li></ul><ul><li>transmits electrical signals to effectors </li></ul><ul><li>Home, Connective Tissue </li></ul>
  25. 25. Bone <ul><li>Also known as osseous tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Able to support bodily structure </li></ul><ul><li>Stores marrow, calcium, and minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Home, Connective Tissue </li></ul>
  26. 26. Cartilage <ul><li>Tough but flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Avascular and lacks nerves fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Chondroblast produces new matrix until skeleton stops growing </li></ul><ul><li>Home, Connective Tissue </li></ul>
  27. 27. Hyaline Cartilage <ul><li>Most abundant of all the cartilages </li></ul><ul><li>Amorphous matrix, firm with imperceptible network of fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Supports, reinforces, and cushions </li></ul><ul><li>Home, Connective Tissue, Cartilage </li></ul>
  28. 28. Elastic Cartilage <ul><li>Identical to hyaline cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Has more elastic fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains structure and shape with flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Home, Connective tissue, Cartilage, </li></ul>
  29. 29. Fibrocartilage <ul><li>Similar to hyaline cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Found where support is most needed due to heavy pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Contains rows of chondrocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Home, Connective Tissue, Cartilage </li></ul>
  30. 30. Connective Tissue Proper <ul><li>Contains two substances: Loose and dense connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Home, Connective Tissue, Loose, Dense </li></ul>
  31. 31. Connective tissue proper: Loose aerolar <ul><li>Wraps and cushions organs </li></ul><ul><li>Holds and conveys tissue fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Widely distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Has a gel-like matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Home, Connective Tissue, Adipose, reticular, Dense </li></ul>
  32. 32. Loose Connective Tissue: Adipose <ul><li>Similar matrix to aerolar with closely packed adipocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Insulates, supports, and protects </li></ul><ul><li>Found under the skin </li></ul><ul><li>Home, Connective tissue, aerolar, reticular, dense </li></ul>
  33. 33. Loose connective tissue: reticular <ul><li>Loose ground substance </li></ul><ul><li>Reticular fibers lying in the same network </li></ul><ul><li>Supports other cell types </li></ul><ul><li>Home, Connective Tissue, aerolar, dense, adipose, dense </li></ul>
  34. 34. Dense Connective Tissue: Regular <ul><li>Made of mostly fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Contains fibrous connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Attaches bone to muscle or muscle to bone </li></ul><ul><li>Found in tendons </li></ul><ul><li>Home, Connective Tissue, Loose, Irregular </li></ul>
  35. 35. Dense connective tissue: Irregular <ul><li>Contains thick bundles of collagen fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Provides structural strength </li></ul><ul><li>Able to withstand tension </li></ul><ul><li>Home, Connective tissue, Dense regular, Loose </li></ul>
  36. 36. Credits Pictures provided by Google.com and Flick.com. Sound and voice of Wesley House