Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Chapter 22 Ppt


Published on

Buena AP Bio power point of Chapter 22

Published in: Technology, Spiritual
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Chapter 22 Ppt

  1. 1. Chapter 22 Descent with Modification<br />By <br />Charith Samarasena<br />
  2. 2. Vocabulary<br />Fossils: the remains or traces of organisms from the past<br />Strata: layers of sediment <br />Paleontology: the study of fossils<br />Catastrophism: the principle that events in the past occurred suddenly and were caused by mechanisms different from the present<br />Gradualism: mechanisms of change occur gradually over time<br />Uniformitarianism: mechanisms of change are constant over time<br />Adaptations: characteristics of an organism that enhance their survival and reproduction in specific environments<br />
  3. 3. Vocab cont’d<br />Natural Selection: the process in which individuals with certain inheritable traits leave more offspring than individuals with other traits<br />Artificial Selection: the selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to encourage the occurrence of desirable traits<br />Homology: similarity of characteristics resulting from a shared ancestry<br />Vestigial Structures: historical remnants of structures that had important functions in ancestors but no use in current organisms<br />Evolutionary Tree: a branching diagram that reflects a hypothesis about evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms<br />
  4. 4. Vocab still cont’d<br />Convergent Evolution: the evolution of similar features in independent lineages<br />Analogous: having characteristics that are similar because of convergent evolution, not homology<br />Biogeography: the study of past and present distribution of species<br />Plate Tectonics: theory of how landmasses move along the earth’s crust<br />Endemic: where a species of plant or animal is only found in one particular location<br />Theory: a hypothesis that is supported by evidence and has been tested repeatedly with success<br />
  5. 5. What is Evolution and why is important?<br />Evolution is the process in which species have modifications of certain traits that allow them to adapt to changes in environments<br />It’s important because it helps explain how some species in one location don’t look like other species in another location<br />It’s also explains why current organisms don’t resemble their ancestors<br />
  6. 6. Carolus Linnaeus<br />He developed a two-part system of naming organisms according to genus and species<br />
  7. 7. Georges Cuvier<br />Largely developed the field of paleontology<br />Observed that older layers of strata contain fossils of organisms that are more and more dissimilar to today’s organisms<br />Also came up with the principle of catastrophism<br />
  8. 8. James Hutton<br />Proposed that Earth’s geological features could be explained by gradual mechanisms in the past that still occur today (ex. Continental drift)<br />
  9. 9. Charles Lyell<br />Came up with the principle of uniformitarianism and also thought that this process still occurred today<br />
  10. 10. Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck<br />Observed that older to younger fossils lead to living species<br />Hypothesized that structures that are used more frequently than others grow larger and stronger, and the structures that aren’t used deteriorate over time<br />Also hypothesized that organisms could pass on these modifications to offspring<br />Also thought that evolution occurs because organisms have an innate drive to become more and more complex<br />
  11. 11. Charles Darwin<br />Proposed the idea of descent with modification by natural selection<br />Observed this in various finches while exploring the Galapagos Islands<br />
  12. 12. What did Charles Darwin conclude after his voyage on the H.M.S. Beagle?<br />The Five Points of Evolution:<br />1. Organisms produce more offspring than necessary.<br />2. There is a variation in the offspring’s traits.<br />3. Competition among offspring cause many to die out (as do the lack of food and resources).<br />4. Natural Selection favors the traits of the offspring that survive.<br />5. Evolutionary changes in organisms occur over time. <br />
  14. 14. The Fossil Record<br />Fossils of past organisms show that there have been evolutionary changes over time to shape organisms into the forms of today<br />
  15. 15. Homology<br />Homologous and Vestigial structures show similarities of structures in different species <br />
  16. 16. DNA & RNA<br />The genetic code is essentially universal in all organisms; this shows evidence of common ancestry<br />
  17. 17. Biogeography<br />Distribution of organisms allows paleontologists to figure out where fossils will be<br />Also shows similarities of species in different areas<br />