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### Presentation2

1. 1. Adjective The adjective is a word added to a noun to distinguish the thing spoken of from other thing of the same class. Kinds of adjectives: A] Attributive adjective: - They are used to express comparison There are three degrees of comparison Positive, Comparative and Superlative.
2. 2. <ul><li>Positive =expresses the simple quality (high). </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative =expresses a higher degree of the quality and is used when two things are compared </li></ul><ul><li>(higher than). </li></ul><ul><li>Superlative = expresses the highest degree of the quality is used when more than two things are compared ( the highest). </li></ul>
3. 3. How to Form the Comparative and Superlative. <ul><li>Add Add </li></ul><ul><li>er est. </li></ul><ul><li>more most </li></ul><ul><li>Change </li></ul>
4. 4. B] Numeral Adjectives: <ul><li>Numeral adjectives are either definite or indefinite. </li></ul><ul><li>1. The definite numerals are those which refer to particular number as six , seven, second and tenth. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The indefinite numerals are those which refer to number but do not specify how many as , some, few many and several. </li></ul>
5. 5. Adverb <ul><li>Adverb is a word joined to a verb, an adjective, or another adverb to express more quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Ali writes well. </li></ul><ul><li>Sami Speaks very correctly </li></ul>
6. 6. <ul><li>Adverb of Number </li></ul><ul><li>Once , twice , first, thirdly </li></ul><ul><li>Adverb of time </li></ul><ul><li>Ago , already, daily, ever , hourly , now ,then </li></ul><ul><li>Adverb of place </li></ul><ul><li>Here, there, where, upward, downward , elsewhere . </li></ul><ul><li>Adverb of manner or quality </li></ul><ul><li>Well , ill , soft ly , sweet ly </li></ul><ul><li>Formed from adjectives: by adding( ly ) </li></ul>
7. 7. <ul><li>Adverb of quality </li></ul><ul><li>very, too, enough, much, better. </li></ul>
8. 8. Verb <ul><li>The verb is the word that expresses action. </li></ul>
9. 9. Active <ul><li>Transitive: </li></ul><ul><li>Expresses action which passes from the agent to an object . </li></ul>
10. 10. <ul><li>Intransitive: </li></ul><ul><li>Expresses action which doesn’t pass over to an object but is confined to the agent. </li></ul>
11. 11. Kinds of Verbs: <ul><li>Verbs are: Active – Passive </li></ul><ul><li>The active verb denotes that the subject is doing something: </li></ul><ul><li>I eat the apple The apple is eaten. </li></ul><ul><li>I ate the apple The apple was eaten. </li></ul><ul><li>I am eating the apple The apple is being eaten. </li></ul><ul><li>I have eaten the apple The apple has been eaten. </li></ul><ul><li>I had eaten the apple The apple had been eaten. </li></ul><ul><li>I will eat the apple The apple will be eaten. </li></ul>
12. 12. Tenses of Verbs <ul><li>The tenses of verbs , the time of the action or of the state doing : </li></ul>
13. 13. <ul><li>Tenses of the verb are very important they show the time of actions and their relations to each other . </li></ul><ul><li>1] Present Simple Tense : </li></ul><ul><li>It denotes that the action is going on at the present time or habitually (everyday, always, sometimes ) </li></ul>
14. 14. Formation <ul><li>He </li></ul><ul><li>She s or es </li></ul><ul><li>It </li></ul>
15. 15. <ul><li>2] Present Continous Tense </li></ul><ul><li>(Am /is /are) Verb + ing </li></ul><ul><li>The denotes that the action is going just now . </li></ul><ul><li>(now, at this moment ,look, listen) </li></ul><ul><li>3] Present Perfect Tense: </li></ul><ul><li>The denotes that the action has just now been completed </li></ul><ul><li>(Has /have) + Past participle </li></ul><ul><li>(since,for) </li></ul><ul><li>4] Past simple Tense: </li></ul><ul><li>It denotes that the action is in the past . </li></ul>
16. 16. <ul><li>5] Future Simple Tense: </li></ul><ul><li>It denotes that the action is not yet taken place. </li></ul><ul><li>(tomorrow,next,the coming) </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliary Verb: </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs that are found to express manner more precisely than done by the simple verb : are , be , do , have , will , may , can , must, many ,might, can ,could. </li></ul>
17. 17. Preposition: <ul><li>Is a word placed before a noun or pronoun to show the relation between the things in the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>The minister offered a donation to the university. </li></ul>
18. 18. Conjunction <ul><li>Is a word used to join words and clauses </li></ul><ul><li>I have a pen and a book. </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinative Subordinate </li></ul>
19. 19. <ul><li>Coordinative: </li></ul><ul><li>It joins words and clauses of independent constructions .My brother and sister have arrived. </li></ul><ul><li>And, either, or , neither ,nor , for, therefore. </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinate: </li></ul><ul><li>It joins words and clauses of dependant constructions: </li></ul><ul><li>Although, because , if , unless, whether , yet. </li></ul>
20. 20. Interjection <ul><li>Is a word to express some sudden emotion of the mind </li></ul><ul><li>Principle interjection in use are: </li></ul><ul><li>Ah, Alas, bravo, ha, hallo, Hark!, hey, ho, O oh, oh deer, shoo. </li></ul>