Cry Freedom, by John Briley Watch clip The true story of the friendship that shook South Africa and awakened the world Dramatic story, based on actual events, about the friendship between two men struggling against apartheid in South Africa in the 1970s. The movie poster for Cry Freedom .
Cry Freedom, the movie <ul><li>Cry Freedom is a 1987 feature film directed by Richard Attenborough, set in the late 1970s, during the apartheid era of South Africa. The film was shot in Zimbabwe, and, although not banned in South Africa, cinemas showing the films were faced with bomb threats. </li></ul><ul><li>The film was seized by authorities in 1988. In some cases, there were reports that prints of the films were wrenched off the cinema projectors and the film remained unseen in South Africa until 1991. </li></ul>
Apartheid <ul><li>Apartheid consisted of numerous laws that allowed the ruling white minority in South Africa to segregate, exploit and terrorize the vast majority: Africans, mostly, but also Asians and Coloureds - people of mixed race. </li></ul><ul><li>In white-ruled South Africa, black people were denied basic human rights and political rights. Their labour was exploited, their lives segregated. </li></ul>
Segregated public facilities in Johannesburg, 1985.
Apartheid Museum <ul><li>Two entrances at the apartheid museum. </li></ul>
Segregated facilities <ul><li>Beach in South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Public premises </li></ul>
Human Rights <ul><li>This system of institutionalized racial discrimination defied the principles of the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately, Blacks demonstrated, held strikes and rioted over such discriminatory practices. As a result, diplomatic pressure mounted abroad for change. </li></ul>
Nelson Mandela <ul><li>In 1990, Nelson Mandela, who had devoted his life to democracy, equality and learning for all South Africans, was released from prison after serving almost 30 years for those beliefs. He was elected president of the African National Congress, and in 1993 received the Nobel Peace Prize. </li></ul>In 1994, Nelson Mandela was elected South Africa's first black President, in that country's first truly democratic election.
Basis for the story <ul><li>Cry Freedom is based on the true story of Steve Biko, the charismatic South African Black Consciousness Movement leader, and Donald Woods, the liberal white editor of the Daily Dispatch newspaper. </li></ul><ul><li>After Biko was arrested and killed while in police custody, Woods wrote a book entitled Biko exposing police complicity in his death. For him to get the book published, he had to escape from South Africa. This book, along with Woods's autobiography "Asking For Trouble," became the basis for this film. </li></ul>
Grave of the young Black leader, Steve Biko, in King Williams Town, South Africa. <ul><li>Biko died in police detention in 1977. During the inquest into his death, strong evidence was presented that Biko suffered violent and inhumane treatment during his detention. </li></ul>
Banning in South Africa <ul><li>When Biko first appears in the film, he has already been "banned" by the South African government. "Banning" meant he was not allowed to be in the same room with more than one other person outside his immediate family, and not allowed to write anything for either public or private consumption. Additionally, he was not allowed to leave his defined banning area. </li></ul>
Background <ul><li>Initially, Woods is critical of Biko's views and actions in his newspaper. But Biko invites Woods to visit a black township to see the impoverished conditions and to witness the effect of the government imposed restrictions which make up the apartheid system. </li></ul>
Friendship <ul><li>Woods begins to agree with Biko's desire for a South Africa where blacks have the same opportunities and freedoms as those enjoyed by the white population. As Woods comes to understand Biko's point of view, a friendship develops between them. </li></ul>
Critics <ul><li>The film was criticized for focusing more on (white) newspaper editor Woods, on whose written accounts of Biko the film was based, than on Biko himself, whose life is told in the movie mostly through his interactions with Woods. </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand, Steve Biko's portrayal was sufficiently lengthy to earn actor Denzel Washington his first Oscar nomination (as a supporting actor) for playing that role. </li></ul>
Changing ideologies <ul><li>Woods changed from a liberal newspaper editor with only a moderate concern for apartheid, to an internationally known figure who bravely endangered his and his family's safety to expose the injustices he discovered. </li></ul><ul><li>Both Biko and Woods have been credited with helping to bring apartheid to an end, and it has also been argued that the complexities of Woods' ideological metamorphosis required more film time to reveal. </li></ul>
Project work <ul><li>With "Cry Freedom" you will have the opportunity to explore South Africa’s history at one of its most crucial and terrible era - the time of the Apartheid. </li></ul><ul><li>On the one hand the workshop will enable you to get familiar with the historical and political background of the novel. On the other hand, I will provide questions of general and detailed understanding to make sure you follow what is going on in the story. For each chapter you will find several questions, one of which needs more development. </li></ul>