affirmative action #2


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affirmative action #2

  1. 1. Affirmative Action <br />Aiding the underprivileged?<br />Or reverse discrimination?<br />
  2. 2. Background<br />A policy or program providing advantages for people of a minority group who are seen to have traditionally been discriminated against, with the aim of creating a more egalitarian society through preferential access to education, employment, health care, social welfare, etc. <br />
  3. 3. Background cont.<br />The actual phrase &quot;affirmative action&quot; was first used in President John F. Kennedy&apos;s 1961 Executive Order 10925 which requires federal contractors to &quot;take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin.&quot; The same language was later used in Lyndon Johnson&apos;s 1965 Executive Order 112466.<br />
  4. 4. Background cont.<br />It was developed and enforced for the first time by President Johnson, who said, “This is the next and more profound stage of the battle for civil rights. We seek… not just equality as a right and a theory, but equality as a fact and as a result.&quot;<br />
  5. 5. What is all the hype about?<br />Doesn’t and shouldn’t everyone be able to receive the same opportunities regardless of race, sex, ethnicity, etc?<br />
  6. 6. Proponents argue:<br />Affirmative Action has been a success story<br />Millions of men and women have been given the equal opportunity in education, workforce, housing, and voting.<br />
  7. 7. Proponents argue:<br />Serious discrimination still exists in our society, affirmative action is needed as long as discrimination based on race, and gender exists in our society. <br />
  8. 8. Proponents argue:<br />Few realize, however, that white males are also beneficiaries<br />Because of affirmative action fairness is now the rule, guarantee more opportunity for white males as well as minorities and women to compete for jobs.<br />
  9. 9. A study was done my Prof. Gurin former dean and Physiologist of University of Michigan. Analyzed data over 200 college and universities across the nation.<br />Based her research on the academic and social impacts a diverse ethnic population has on majority white students<br />Results: Students who interacted with these ethnic groups did better academically and were more open to different point of views. And students were more open to helping racial boundaries being described and more willing to help out in community services activities. <br />
  10. 10. Critics argue: <br />Opponents to Affirmative Action believe that the process leads to reverse discrimination, and that it leads to hiring people based on race, gender, etc., rather than merit. They argue that Affirmative Action actually makes people more biased against each other, as it increases the sense of &quot;us versus them.&quot; <br />
  11. 11. Critics argue:<br />It has also been argued that since growing numbers of minorities are entering upper-management ranks, Affirmative Action has worked, and discrimination is decreasing<br />
  12. 12. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, <br />The Medical School of the University of California at Davis had two admissions programs for the entering class of 100 students - the regular admissions program and the special admissions program.<br />Allan Bakke, a white male, applied to Davis in 1973 and 1974, in both years being considered only under the general admissions program<br />
  13. 13. After his second rejection, Bakke filed an action in state court for mandatory, injunctive, and declaratory relief. Bakee said that it was in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment and the Civil Rights act of 1964.<br />The trial court found that the special program operated as a racial quota, because minority applicants in that program were rated only against one another, and 16 places in the class of 100 were reserved for them. Declaring that UC Davis Medical School could not take race into account in making admissions decisions, the court declared the program violated the Federal and State Constitutions and Title VI<br />
  14. 14. The court ruled 5-4 in Bakke&apos;s favor on June 23, 1978<br />
  15. 15. What does President Obama feel towards Affirmative Action?<br />
  16. 16. What did the class think about affirmative action?<br />
  17. 17. 50% of females were in favor of affirmative action and do not consider affirmative action to be reverse discrimination, while the other 50% of femalesdo not support affirmative action and consider it reverse discrimination.<br />72.72 % of males were in favor of affirmative action and do not consider affirmative action to be reverse discrimination, while 36.36% percent of males do not support affirmative action and consider it reverse discrimination. <br />Overall: 63.15% of the class supports affirmative action and do not consider it to be reverse discrimination, while 36.84 % of the class do not supportaffirmative action and consider it reverse discrimination. <br />