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  1. 1. Role of computers in veterinary surgery Dr.Mudasir Bashir Roll no.4856 MVSc scholar
  2. 2. <ul><li>Computer :-machine that carries out computation. </li></ul><ul><li>Al-jazari in 1206-”castle clock”an astronomical clock-ist computer analog. </li></ul><ul><li>Charles babbage credited for invention of computers. </li></ul><ul><li>In medical practices its use started in 1960`s. </li></ul><ul><li>Computers in veterinary science were started in 1980`s. </li></ul>
  3. 3. computers as Virtual labs <ul><li>Virtual physiology series:-includes------ </li></ul><ul><li>Sim vessel,sim muscle,sim nerve,sim patch and sim heart. </li></ul><ul><li>These are computer programmes wherein we are able to detect effects of various drugs on different organs of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>It avoids animal cruelty used for practical purposes. </li></ul>
  4. 4. ROLE IN VETERINARY HOSPITAL: <ul><li>MANAGEMENT OF DATA WITHIN A HOSPITAL RECORD:- </li></ul><ul><li>Patient demographics, </li></ul><ul><li>Signalment, </li></ul><ul><li>Final Diagnosis, </li></ul><ul><li>Medical-surgical Summaries </li></ul><ul><li>Anaesthesia And Drug Histories etc </li></ul>
  5. 5. COMPUTERS IN SURGERY:- <ul><li>Programmes loaded in computers assist in:- </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Guidance for developing therapeutic option </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing interactive and continuing educational oppertunities </li></ul><ul><li>Assist in primary surgical instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing data management applications </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>COMPUTER ASSISTED DIAGNOSIS AND PATIENT MANAGEMENT:- </li></ul><ul><li>Higher level processes include automated analysis of matrix considering all diagnostic possibilities from signs presented. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently many computerassisted diagnostic problems are available in both vety.and medicine and are most applicable in multifaceted or complex clinical situation. </li></ul><ul><li>These donot have observational ability,clinical experience or common sense.. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>As machines become more efficient and rapid data base access becomes more common,it is possible for local systems to automatically acquirethe latest references and abstracts from national and international bibliographic reference </li></ul><ul><li>COMPUTER-ASSISTED DIAGNOSTIC INSTRUMENTATION:- </li></ul><ul><li>Electroencephalography,electroretinography,digital radiography,digital flouroscopy,axial tomography,and thermal and ultrasonic image enhancement by computers are outstanding applications. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Computers in operating room and critical care unit:- <ul><li>Continuous and automated physiological monitoring of certain postsurgical patients in the recovery room and critical care ward is well established e.g.; computerized signal processing from electrocardiographic monitors is especially prevalent and detects cardiac rate and rhythm changes. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Flouroscopy:- <ul><li>PRESENTATION OF IMAGE->FLOUROSCOPY </li></ul><ul><li>More suited to study of moving structures and dynamic processes than x-rays </li></ul><ul><li>It gives an image that is continous in time and is required for maximum information. </li></ul><ul><li>X-ray beam is directed through patient & on to an image intensifier which amplifies the x-ray coming through the patient->decrease x-ray dose. </li></ul><ul><li>Resulting images are videotaped & hence permanent medical record </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY (DR) </li></ul><ul><li>X-ray tube is coupled to a specialised rerceiver that changes x-rays into electrical signals </li></ul><ul><li>Analog image is digitalized & displayed on integrated computer screen </li></ul><ul><li>Data is stored in magnetic optical discs(MODs),CDs,DVDs. </li></ul><ul><li>ADVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><li>No films are required. </li></ul><ul><li>No screens are required. </li></ul><ul><li>No processing is required. </li></ul><ul><li>Brightness & contrast of images can be adjusted. </li></ul>
  11. 15. COMPUTED RADIOGRAPHY <ul><li>Similar to DR except an x-ray receiver similar to cassete is required & must be processed in special machine which contains photostimulable phosphor that changes x-ray photons in latent electronic images that is read by processor & is transferred to computer. </li></ul>
  12. 18. ULTRASONOGRAPHY <ul><li>PRINCIPLE PULSE-ECHO </li></ul><ul><li>Pulse is generated by piezoelectric crystals in an ultrasound transducer & is transferred to the patient ->Echo formed is transmitted in the form of electrical waves->images are formed on the computer. </li></ul>
  13. 21. NUCLEAR MEDICINE <ul><li>TWO TYPES </li></ul><ul><li>THERAPEUTIC NM & DIAGNOSTIC NM </li></ul><ul><li>THERAPEUTIC NMː </li></ul><ul><li>Administration of radioactive iodine for treatment of hypothyroidism & thyroid tumours </li></ul><ul><li>DIAGNOSTIC NM ː </li></ul><ul><li>Administration of radioactive nuclides to patients and detection by gama-scintillation camera of electromagnetic rays </li></ul><ul><li>Technetium->primary choice-------t 1/2= 6hr </li></ul>
  14. 25. Computerized tomography (CT) <ul><li>CT scan is obtained by passing a very thin x-ray beam through patient & measurring x-ray attenuation at multiple sites in a thin slice of patients anatomy. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer reconstructs the transmitted x-ray data into a crossectional image on a video monitor. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal is kept in dorso-ventral or ventro- dorsal position.Table then moves the patient through circular gantry that houses the x-ray tube & detectors. </li></ul>
  15. 28. MAGNETIC RESONANT IMAGING (MRI) <ul><li>Unlike CT scan, no ionizing radiation is used. </li></ul><ul><li>MRI represents the intensity of a radiowave signal from tissues in which hydrogen nuclei has been disturbed by a characteristic radiofrequency pulse. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages over CT scan </li></ul><ul><li>Better image resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomic definition & sensitivity to tissue composition differences </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly used for CNS evaluation </li></ul>
  16. 30. ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY PRINCIPAL->COLOUR DOPPLER EFFECT <ul><li>Used to diagnose cardiovascular system disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides helpful information including size & shape of heart, its pumping capacity and location and extent of any damage to its tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>It is specially useful for assessing diseases of heart valves </li></ul>
  17. 33. LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY <ul><li>Keyhole surgery-operation performed through small incision. </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of laparoscope </li></ul><ul><li>Telescopic rod lens system-usually connected to camera. </li></ul><ul><li>Digital laparoscope where charge-coupled device is placed at the end of laparoscope eliminating the rod lens system. </li></ul><ul><li>Operative field illuminator-cold light source (halogen or xenon) </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 insuffulation is done to avoid abdominal wall over internal organ. </li></ul>
  18. 35. ROBOTICS & TECHNOLOGY <ul><li>In recent years, electronic tools have been developed to aid surgeons. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the features of these electronic tools are : </li></ul><ul><li>Visual magnification-use of large viewing screens improves visibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilization-electromechanical damping of vibrations due to machinary or shaky human hands </li></ul><ul><li>Simulators-use of specialized virtual reality training tools to improve physicians proficiency in surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced number of incisions </li></ul>
  19. 36. <ul><li>Advantages of robotic surgery:- </li></ul><ul><li>Precision. </li></ul><ul><li>Small size incision. </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease blood loss. </li></ul><ul><li>Less pain. </li></ul><ul><li>Unmanned surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>Quicker healing. </li></ul>
  20. 38. NATURAL ORIFICE TRANS LUMINAL ENDOSCOPIC SURGERY (NOTES) <ul><li>Surgical technique where by scar less abdominal operations can be performed with an endoscope passed through a natural orifice (mouth, urethra, anus etc) </li></ul><ul><li>-> then through this an internal incision in stomach, vagina, bladder or colon is given->thus avoiding any external incision or scar. </li></ul>
  21. 40. THANKS