Mineral And Rocks


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Mineral And Rocks

  1. 1. Rocks & Minerals
  2. 2. Minerals
  3. 3. What is a Mineral? <ul><li>Naturally Occurring </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic </li></ul><ul><li>Solid </li></ul><ul><li>Definite Chemical Formula </li></ul><ul><li>Definite Crystal Structure </li></ul>
  4. 4. Naturally Occurring <ul><li>Formed by natural processes not in the laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>- Is an Ice Cube a mineral? </li></ul><ul><li>- Is the ice on the windshield of a car a </li></ul><ul><li>mineral? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Inorganic <ul><li>Formed by inorganic processes; not living </li></ul><ul><li>Does not contain chains of carbon atoms </li></ul>
  6. 6. Solid <ul><li>Not gas or liquid </li></ul><ul><li>-H 2 O as ice in a glacier is a mineral, but </li></ul><ul><li>water is not </li></ul>
  7. 7. Definite Crystal Structure <ul><li>Highly ordered atomic arrangement of atoms in regular geometric patterns </li></ul>8 Apatite Feldspar Diamond Quartz
  8. 8. Definite Chemical Formula <ul><li>Minerals are expressed by a specific chemical formula </li></ul><ul><li>-Gold (Au) </li></ul><ul><li>-Calcite (CaCO 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>-Quartz (SiO 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>-Pyrite (FeS 2 ) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Composition of the Earth’s Crust <ul><ul><li>Eight Elements that make up over 98% of Earth’s Crust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Oxygen (O) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Silicon (SI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Aluminum (Al) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Iron (Fe) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Calcium (Ca) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Sodium (Na) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Potassium (K) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Magnesium (Mg) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Where Do Minerals Come From? Magma Evaporation
  11. 11. How Are Minerals Identified? <ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Luster </li></ul><ul><li>Hardness </li></ul><ul><li>Streak </li></ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul><ul><li>Crystal Shape </li></ul><ul><li>Cleavage and Fracture </li></ul><ul><li>Special Properties </li></ul>
  12. 12. Color <ul><li>Usually the first and most easily observed </li></ul><ul><li>-Some minerals are always the same color </li></ul><ul><li>-Some minerals can have many colors </li></ul>QUARTZ ROSE QUARTZ SMOKY QUARTZ
  13. 13. Luster <ul><li>General appearance of a mineral surface in reflected light </li></ul>Glassy- Obsidian
  14. 14. Hardness <ul><li>Resistance to scratching by different items; “scratchability” </li></ul><ul><li>Mohs Hardness Scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>>2 fingernail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 penny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~5 Steel of a pocket knife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5.5 Window Glass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6.6 Steel of a file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 quartz crystal </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Mohs Mineral Hardness Scale <ul><li>1) Talc </li></ul><ul><li>2) Gypsum </li></ul><ul><li>3) Calcite </li></ul><ul><li>4) Flourite </li></ul><ul><li>5) Apatite </li></ul><ul><li>6) Feldspar </li></ul><ul><li>7) Quartz </li></ul><ul><li>8) Topaz </li></ul><ul><li>9) Corundum </li></ul><ul><li>10) Diamond </li></ul>Softest Hardest 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
  16. 16. Streak <ul><li>The color of a finely powdered mineral </li></ul><ul><li>Determined by rubbing the mineral on a piece of unglazed porcelain (streak plate) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Density <ul><li>The amount of matter in a given space (Mass/Volume) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Crystal Shape <ul><li>Minerals have a characteristic crystal shape resulting from the atomic packing of the atoms when the mineral is forming </li></ul>
  19. 19. Cleavage and Fracture <ul><li>Cleavage is the tendency of a mineral to split or crack along parallel or flat planes </li></ul><ul><li>Fracture occurs when a mineral breaks at random lines instead of at consistent cleavage planes. </li></ul>Obsidian No Cleavage 1 Direction of Cleavage Conchoidal Fracture BIOTITE QUARTZ
  20. 20. Special Properties <ul><li>Magnetism (Magnetite) </li></ul><ul><li>Glowing under ultraviolet light (Fluorite) </li></ul><ul><li>Salty taste (Halite) </li></ul><ul><li>Smell (Sulfur) </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction to HCl (Calcite) </li></ul>Magnetite
  21. 21. Economic Importance of Minerals <ul><li>Minerals are in many things we see and use everyday such as; bricks, glass, cement, plaster, iron, gold </li></ul>
  22. 22. Every American Requires 40,000 Pounds of New Minerals per Year <ul><li>at this level of consumption the average newborn infant will need a lifetime supply of: </li></ul><ul><li>-795 lbs of lead (car batteries, electric components) </li></ul><ul><li>-757 lbs of zinc (to make brass, rubber, paints) </li></ul><ul><li>-1500lbs of copper (electrical motors, wirings </li></ul><ul><li>-3593 lbs aluminum (soda cans, aircraft) </li></ul><ul><li>-32,700 lbs of iron (kitchen utensils, automobiles, buildings) </li></ul><ul><li>-28,213 lbs of salt (cooking, detergents) </li></ul><ul><li>-1,238,101 lbs of stone, sand, gravel, cement (roads, homes, etc.) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Rocks
  24. 24. Rocks <ul><ul><li>Made of two or more different minerals that have been: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cemented together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>squeezed and heated together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>melted and cooled together. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Types of Rocks <ul><li>Igneous </li></ul><ul><li>Sedimentary </li></ul><ul><li>Metamorphic </li></ul>
  26. 26. Igneous Rocks <ul><li>Most igneous rocks are produced deep underground by the cooling and hardening of magma </li></ul>
  27. 27. Sedimentary Rocks <ul><li>Formed from the breaking apart of other rocks (igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary rocks) and the cementation, compaction and recrystallization of these broken pieces of rock </li></ul>
  28. 28. Fact about the Mississippi River <ul><li>Did You Know? </li></ul><ul><li>The Mississippi River carries an average of 436,000 tons of sediment each day </li></ul><ul><li>It moves an average of 159,000,000 tons of sediment a year </li></ul>
  29. 29. Metamorphic Rocks <ul><li>Formed from heat and pressure changing the original or parent rock into a completely new rock. The parent rock can be either sedimentary, igneous, or even another metamorphic rock. </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Rock Cycle <ul><li>The diagram of the rock cycle shows how the earth's rocks are changed again and again </li></ul>
  31. 31. Classification of Igneous Rocks <ul><li>Composition -refers to the minerals that make up the rock </li></ul><ul><li>Texture -shape, size, arrangement and distribution of minerals that make up the rock </li></ul>
  32. 32. Composition <ul><li>Extrusive - Formed from lava; volcanic </li></ul><ul><li>Intrusive - Formed deep within the earth </li></ul>Obsidian Pumice Granite
  33. 33. Textures <ul><li>Glassy </li></ul><ul><li>Fine-grained </li></ul><ul><li>Coarse-grained </li></ul><ul><li>Porphyritic </li></ul>Obsidian Granite Granite Basalt
  34. 34. Classification of Sedimentary Rocks <ul><li>Clastic Rocks- Made of the fragments of previously existing rocks </li></ul><ul><li>Organic Rocks- Come from organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Rocks- Formed by inorganic processes such as evaporation </li></ul>
  35. 35. Clastics Rocks <ul><li>Conglomerate </li></ul><ul><li>Sandstone </li></ul><ul><li>Mudstone </li></ul>
  36. 36. Organic Rocks <ul><li>Limestone </li></ul>Coquina Fossiliferous Limestone
  37. 37. Chemical Rocks <ul><li>Limestone </li></ul>
  38. 38. Metamorphic Rocks <ul><li>Foliated- Parallel alignment of flattened mineral grains and pebbles </li></ul><ul><li>Unfoliated- Rocks that are not banded and do not break into layers </li></ul>
  39. 39. Foliated Gneisse
  40. 40. Unfoliated Marble
  41. 41. Distribution of Rocks in the U.S.