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  1. 1. The Internet Protocol <ul><li>Eliot Grove </li></ul><ul><li>Danny Friel </li></ul><ul><li>Stuart Anderson </li></ul>
  2. 2. OSI Model Application Presentation Session Transport Network Physical Data Link
  3. 3. The Network Layer <ul><li>Navigating data </li></ul><ul><li>Source </li></ul><ul><li>Destination </li></ul>
  4. 4. Internet Protocol <ul><li>Numbering scheme </li></ul><ul><li>Largest network of computers </li></ul><ul><li>American Registry of Internetwork Numbers (ARIN) </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is an IP address <ul><li>A way to identify machines on a network </li></ul><ul><li>A unique identifier </li></ul>
  6. 6. IP usage <ul><li>Used to connect to another computer </li></ul><ul><li>Allows transfers of files and e-mail </li></ul>
  7. 7. IP structure <ul><li>IP addresses consist of four sections </li></ul><ul><li>Each section is 8 bits long </li></ul><ul><li>Each section can range from 0 to 255 </li></ul><ul><li>Written, for example, </li></ul>
  8. 8. IP structure <ul><li>These four sections represent the machine itself and the network it is on </li></ul><ul><li>The network portion is assigned. </li></ul><ul><li>The host section is determined by the network administrator </li></ul>
  9. 9. IP structure <ul><li>5 Classes of IP address A B C D and E </li></ul><ul><li>Class A reserved for governments </li></ul><ul><li>Class B reserved for medium companies </li></ul><ul><li>Class C reserved for small companies </li></ul>
  10. 10. IP structure <ul><li>Class D are reserved for multicasting </li></ul><ul><li>Class E are reserved for future use </li></ul>
  11. 11. IP structure <ul><li>Class A begins 1 to 126 </li></ul><ul><li>Class B begins 128 to 191 </li></ul><ul><li>Class C begins 192 to 223 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Reserved addresses <ul><li>Addresses beginning 127 are reserved for loopback and internal testing </li></ul><ul><li>xxx.0.0.0 reserved for network address </li></ul><ul><li>xxx.255.255.255 reserved for broadcast </li></ul>
  13. 13. IP Addresses <ul><li>IP addresses are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global and Standardised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Subnetting - Why? <ul><li>Division of local networks </li></ul><ul><li>Greater number of networks </li></ul><ul><li>Simplifies addressing </li></ul>
  15. 15. Subnetting - How <ul><li>Bits borrowed from host field </li></ul>Network Network Host Host Network Network Subnet Host Network Network Subnet Subnet/Host
  16. 16. Subnetting -Example <ul><li> - Network address </li></ul><ul><li> - Host address </li></ul><ul><li> - Subnet Mask </li></ul><ul><li> - Subnet </li></ul>
  17. 17. Where do you want to go <ul><li>Computer controlled dwellings </li></ul><ul><li>Road and rail systems </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal tagging </li></ul>Tomorrow?
  18. 18. The Internet Protocol <ul><li>Running out!! </li></ul><ul><li>Upgraded to IPv6 </li></ul>
  19. 19. Thank you!
  20. 20. And goodnight!