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Nirma Etp Technology Transfer In Innovation


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Nirma Etp Technology Transfer In Innovation

  1. 1. <ul><li>The Role of Technology Transfer in Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Perspective of technology transfer </li></ul><ul><li>The attraction of technology transfer was that companies and industry in </li></ul><ul><li>general could benefit from technology that had already been paid for </li></ul><ul><li> Industry and </li></ul><ul><li> private </li></ul><ul><li> enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>can be transferred to </li></ul><ul><li>Existing R&D projects and developed </li></ul><ul><li>technology which has already been paid for </li></ul>
  2. 2. In the 1980s all over the world, the potential opportunities that technology transfer could bring were recognized. This was based on a simple economic theory. Technology which has already been produced, and hence paid for by someone else, could be used and exploited by other companies to generate revenue and thereby economic growth for economy. It was this theory in mind that governments began encouraging companies to be involved in technology transfer. They set up a whole variety of programs trying to utilize technology that had been developed for the defence or space industries. They encouraged companies to work together to see if they could share for the common good. Introduction to Technology Transfer: Technology Transfer is the application of technology to a new use or user. It is the process by which technology developed for one purpose is employed either in a different application or by new user. The activity practically involves the increased utilization of the existing
  3. 3. science/technology base in the new areas of application as opposed to its expansion by means of further research and development. Innovation is the process of promoting technical innovation through the transfer of ideas, knowledge, devices and artefacts from leading edge companies, R&D organizations and research to more general and effective application in industry and commerce. Information transfer and technology transfer The Intangibility of knowledge Data Intangibility Information Projects and activities of the organization Knowledge Knowhow Action Relevance to the firm
  4. 4. <ul><li>Information is central to the operation of firms and that it </li></ul><ul><li>is the stimulus for knowledge, skills and expertise. </li></ul><ul><li>The above figure distinguishes information from knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>and know-how according to its context. It is argued that it is </li></ul><ul><li>the industrial context which transforms knowledge into </li></ul><ul><li>action, in the form of projects and activities. It is only when </li></ul><ul><li>information is used by individuals or organizations that it </li></ul><ul><li>becomes knowledge, albeit tacit knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Models of technology transfer </li></ul><ul><li>A wide variety of models of technology transfer have been used over the years, The following are some of these models used for application. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Licensing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Science park model </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediary agency model </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directory model </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching Company Scheme model </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ferret model </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>Hiring skilled employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology transfer units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research clubs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note:Most models of technology transfer emphasize access to technology rather than </li></ul><ul><li>trying to understand the receptivity issues of the receiving organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal organizational factors and inward technology transfer </li></ul><ul><li>In the study of the adoption of innovations by industrial </li></ul><ul><li>companies, four different types of companies have been </li></ul><ul><li>identified. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Innovators: the first firm to adopt a new idea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initiators: the firms who adopted the idea soon after the </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>innovators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fabians: the firms who adopted the idea only after </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>its utility was widely acknowledge in the industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drones: the last firms to adopt new ideas. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In a comprehensive review of the technology transfer it is </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>suggested that some of the following factors foster </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>technology transfer: </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>High quality of incoming communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A readiness to look outside the firm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A willingness to share knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A willingness to take on new knowledge, to license and to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enter joint ventures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A deliberate survey of potential ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An awareness of costs and profits in R&D departments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good-quality intermediate management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A high rate of expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources of information from scanning and networking </li></ul><ul><li>Given the importance of an awareness of external </li></ul><ul><li>information and the role of technological scanning and </li></ul><ul><li>networking, awareness is seen as the necessary first stage in </li></ul><ul><li>the inward transfer process. </li></ul><ul><li>In order for an organization to search and scan effectively </li></ul><ul><li>for technology that will match its organizational </li></ul><ul><li>capabilities, it needs to have a thorough understanding of </li></ul><ul><li>its internal organizational strengths. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Within the public domain Held within organization Media Published information organization-specific General information industry-specific information information Newspapers Scientific journals Internal company Television Business journals reports, Sales rep visit Internet Books reports, Research Radio Databases scientists’ notes, Patents Minutes of meetings Trade catalogues Network with : Customers Competitors Partners, Vendors Consultants, Academia Predominately accessed via Personal contacts inanimate scanning awareness
  8. 8. Managing the inward transfer of technology The inward technology process External Process of awareness and business operating association of externally environment developed technology The extent of these External science Process of assimilation activities determines technology and of external know-how the level of receptivity business linkages with internal prior of an organization to knowledge externally developed technology Application of the technology into core routines of the business This model explains how external processes affect an organization’s ability to engage in inward technology transfer and contribute to the development of a receptive environment
  9. 9. Technology transfer and organizational learning Individual Internal knowledge accumulation process and group that creates genuine business opportunities learning processes Acceptance Application Adoption Behavioral Assimilation Development Organizational of core routines learning process Expansion of the learning capability of the organization Individual and organizational learning: integrated model
  10. 10. The way in which the learning cycles link together is illustrated in the above figure. In the manner of double- loop learning the individual and organizational cycles are inter-related and inter-dependent. The learning process forms a loop, transferring knowledge from individual into the group. The process of assimilation and adoption of this new knowledge within the inner cycle moves the knowledge into the wider environment and thus into the loop of organizational learning. The role of assimilation has a slightly different emphasis within the individual loops. Assimilation in the individual and group learning cycle refers to assimilation of knowledge from an external source, which may then be applied within the company. Assimilation in the wider cycle relates to assimilation of technology into the core routines of the organization which, is evidenced by a behavioral change within the organization. It is only when assimilation in the wider cycle has occurred that learning has truly taken place.