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Adman Lecture 7


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Adman Lecture 7: Creative Strategy

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Adman Lecture 7

  1. 1. Advertising Management Lecture 7: Creative Strategy
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Creative Thinking Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Strategy Planning and Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Importance of Creativity in Advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising Creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Creative Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative Strategy Development </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Creative Thinking Techniques <ul><li>From Robert Harris of Virtual Salt </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming </li></ul><ul><li>Blocking and Block Busting </li></ul><ul><li>What-Iffing </li></ul><ul><li>Attribute Analysis </li></ul>
  4. 4. Creative Thinking Techniques <ul><li>From Robert Harris of Virtual Salt </li></ul><ul><li>Morphological Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Reversal </li></ul><ul><li>Analogy and Metaphor </li></ul><ul><li>Trigger Concept </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul>
  5. 5. Creative Thinking Techniques <ul><li>Brainstorming: useful for attacking specific (rather than general) problems and where a collection of good, fresh, new ideas (rather than judgment or decision analysis) are needed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guidelines: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suspend judgment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Think freely </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tag on or build on ideas of others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quantity of ideas is important </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Creative Thinking Techniques <ul><li>Brainstorming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodology: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Choose a recorder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organize the chaos </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep the session relaxed and playful </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limit the session </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make copies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Add and evaluate ideas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas of immediate usefulness </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Areas for further exploration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New approaches to the problem </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Creative Thinking Techniques <ul><li>Brainstorming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variations: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stop and Go </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sequencing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Creative Thinking Techniques <ul><li>Block Busting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many people complain of not being creative when in fact their creativity has merely been blocked. Functional fixation arises when someone is unable to see beyond the historical or accepted use for an item, often identified by its name or label. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, a screwdriver is a tool for tightening or loosening screws. A person suffering from functional fixation would be unable to see any other uses for the item. But, of course, a screwdriver can also be used as a paint can opener, an ice pick, a plumb bob, a paper weight, and so on. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Creative Thinking Techniques <ul><li>Block Busting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Techniques: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses for… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improvements to...(objects, places, institutions, things and ideas) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What-Iffing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a tool for releasing the mind, for delivering us from being blocked by reality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In its simplest form, what-iffing involves describing an imagined action or solution and then examining the probable associated facts, consequences, or events. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Creative Thinking Techniques <ul><li>Attribute Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>process of breaking down a problem, idea, or thing into attributes or component parts and then thinking about the attributes rather than the thing itself. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Morphological Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>builds upon attribute analysis by generating alternatives for each attribute, thereby producing new possibilities. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Creative Thinking Techniques <ul><li>Morphological Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>List the attributes of the problem, object, or situation as you would in a standard attribute analysis. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Under each attribute, list all the alternatives you can think of. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Choose an alternative from each column at random and assemble the choices into a possibility for a new idea. Repeat the choosing and assembly many times. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Creative Thinking Techniques <ul><li>Reversal Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The reversal method for examining a problem or generating new ideas takes a situation as it is and turns it around, inside out, backwards, or upside down. A given situation can be &quot;reversed&quot; in several ways; there is no one formulaic way. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The value of reversal is its &quot;provocative rearrangement of information&quot; (de Bono's term). Looking at a familiar problem or situation in a fresh way can suggest new solutions or approaches. It doesn't matter whether the reversal makes sense or not. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Creative Thinking Techniques <ul><li>Analogy and Metaphor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analogy: to find a familiar thing or process that seems somewhat like the idea or problem to be clarified. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metaphor: a comparison between two unlike things, in which one thing is identified with the other. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Creative Thinking Techniques <ul><li>Trigger Concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A trigger concept (or idea seed or random seed) is an idea creating technique operated by bringing an unrelated idea into the problem and forcing connections or similarities between the two. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Importance of Creativity in Advertising <ul><li>Good creative strategy and execution can often be central to determining the success of a product or service or reversing the fortunes of a struggling brand. </li></ul><ul><li>Just because an ad or commercial is creative or popular does not mean it will increase sales or revive a declining brand. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Advertising Creativity <ul><li>the ability to generate fresh, unique, and appropriate ideas that can be used as solutions to communications problems. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To be appropriate and effective, a creative idea must be relevant to the target audience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advertising creativity is not the exclusive domain of those who work on the creative side of advertising. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolut Vodka case </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Absolut Vodka
  18. 18. Creative Process <ul><li>Young’s Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immersion. Gathering raw material and information through background research and immersing yourself in the problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestion. Taking the information, working it over, and wrestling with it in the mind. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incubation. Putting the problems out of your conscious mind and turning the information over to the subconscious to do the work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illumination. The birth of an idea—the “Eureka! I have it!” phenomenon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reality or verification. Studying the idea to see if it still looks </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Creative Process <ul><li>Graham Wallas’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation. Gathering background information needed to solve the problem through research and study. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incubation. Getting away and letting ideas develop. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illumination. Seeing the light or solution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verification. Refining and polishing the idea and seeing if it is an appropriate solution. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Creative Process <ul><li>Account planning plays an important role during creative strategy development by driving the process from the customers’ point of view. </li></ul><ul><li>Planners will work with the client as well as other agency personnel, such as the creative team and media specialists, to discuss how the knowledge and information they have gathered can be used in the development of the creative strategy as well as other aspects of the advertising campaign. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Inputs to the Creative Process <ul><li>Background Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>client’s product or service, the target market, the competition, and any other relevant background information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General trends, conditions, and developments in the marketplace, as well as research on specific advertising approaches or techniques that might be effective. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Inputs to the Creative Process <ul><li>Product/Service-Specific Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>specific studies conducted on the product or service, the target audience, or a combination of the two </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative and qualitative consumer research such as attitude studies, market structure and positioning studies such as perceptual mapping and lifestyle research, focus group interviews, and demographic and psychographic profiles of users of a particular product, service, or brand </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Inputs to the Creative Process <ul><li>BBDO Problem Detection approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide valuable input for product improvements, reformulations, or new products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>give the creative people ideas regarding attributes or features to emphasize and guidelines for positioning new or existing brands. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>asking consumers familiar with a product (or service) to generate an exhaustive list of things that bother them or problems they encounter when using it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consumers rate these problems in order of importance and evaluate various brands in terms of their association with each problem. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Inputs to the Creative Process <ul><li>Qualitative Research Input </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide the creative team with valuable insight at the early stages of the creative process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus groups are a research method whereby consumers (usually 10 to 12 people) from the target market are led through a discussion regarding a particular topic. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Inputs to the Creative Process <ul><li>Qualitative Research Input </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ethnographic research, which involves observing consumers in their natural environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some agencies send anthropologists or trained researchers into the field to study and observe consumers in their homes, at work, or at play. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Inputs to the Creative Process <ul><li>Verification and Revision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>process evaluates ideas generated during the illumination stage, rejects inappropriate ones, refines and polishes those that remain, and gives them final expression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Techniques used at this stage include directed focus groups to evaluate creative concepts, ideas, or themes; message communication studies; portfolio tests; and evaluation measures such as viewer reaction profiles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find the best creative approach or execution style before moving ahead with the campaign themes and going into actual production of the ad </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Creative Strategy Development <ul><li>Advertising Campaign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is a set of interrelated and coordinated marketing communication activities that center on a single theme or idea that appears in different media across a specified time period </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Campaign theme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a strong idea, as it is the central message that will be communicated in all the advertising and other promotional activities. AKA Big Idea </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Creative Strategy Development <ul><li>The creative aspect of advertising and the development of the campaign theme is guided by specific goals and objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>A creative strategy that focuses on what must be communicated will guide the selection of the campaign theme and the development of all messages used in the ad campaign. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Creative Strategy Development <ul><li>The creative strategy is based on several factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identification of the target audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the basic problem, issue, or opportunity the advertising must address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the major selling idea or key benefit the message needs to communicate; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>any supportive information that needs to be included in the ad </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Creative Strategy Development <ul><li>Advertising campaign plans are short-term in nature and, like marketing and IMC plans, are done on an annual basis. </li></ul><ul><li>campaign themes are usually developed with the intention of being used for a longer time period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Many campaign themes last only a short time, usually because they are ineffective or market conditions and/or competitive developments in the marketplace change. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Creative Strategy Development <ul><li>While some marketers change their campaign themes often, a successful campaign theme may last for years. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Philip Morris: Marlboro Country (40 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BMW: The Ultimate Driving Machine (1974) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Top 10 Ad Slogans of the Century
  33. 34. Creative Strategy Development <ul><li>Copy platform (AKA creative platform or work plan, creative brief, creative blueprint, or creative contract) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>specifies the basic elements of the creative strategy; usually prepared by the account manager </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Creative Strategy Development <ul><li>Copy Platform Outline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic problem or issue the advertising must address. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising and communications objectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target audience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major selling idea or key benefits to communicate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative strategy statement (campaign theme, appeal, and execution technique to be used). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting information and requirement </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Creative Strategy Development <ul><li>The major selling idea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>should emerge as the strongest singular thing you can say about your product or service. This should be the claim with the broadest and most meaningful appeal to your target audience. Once you determine this message, be certain you can live with it; be sure it stands strong enough to remain the central issue in every ad and commercial in the campaign. (Jeweler) </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Creative Strategy Development <ul><li>The BIG IDEA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“that flash of insight that synthesizes the purpose of the strategy, joins the product benefit with consumer desire in a fresh, involving way, brings the subject to life, and makes the reader or audience stop, look, and listen.” (O’Toole) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tom Duncan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has legs: can cater to difference audiences or media or versions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ROI: relevance, originality & impact </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Creative Strategy Development <ul><li>best-known approaches in searching for a major selling idea and offer solutions for developing effective advertising: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using a unique selling proposition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating a brand image. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding the inherent drama. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positioning. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Creative Strategy Development <ul><li>Unique Selling Proposition (USP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each advertisement must make a proposition to the consumer. Not just words, not just product puffery, not just show-window advertising. Each advertisement must say to each reader: “Buy this product and you will get this benefit.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The proposition must be one that the competition either cannot or does not offer . It must be unique either in the brand or in the claim. (Sustainable competitive advantage) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The proposition must be strong enough to move the mass millions, that is, pull over new customers to your brand. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 41. Creative Strategy Development <ul><li>Creating a Brand Image </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the development of a strong, memorable identity for the brand through image advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>key to successful image advertising is developing an image that will appeal to product users. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image advertising has become increasingly popular and is used as the main selling idea for a variety of products and services, including soft drinks, liquor, cigarettes, cars, airlines, financial services, perfume/colognes, and clothing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pepsi </li></ul></ul>
  40. 42. Creative Strategy Development <ul><li>Finding the Inherent Drama </li></ul><ul><ul><li>characteristic of the product that makes the consumer purchase it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inherent-drama “is often hard to find but it is always there, and once found it is the most interesting and believable of all advertising appeals.” (Leo Burnett) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burnett advocated a down-home type of advertising that presents the message in a warm and realistic way. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McDonald’s, Maytag appliances, Kellogg cereals, and Hallmark cards. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nokia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McDo </li></ul></ul>
  41. 43. Creative Strategy Development <ul><li>Positioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>that advertising is used to establish or “position” the product or service in a particular place in the consumer’s mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>products can be positioned on the basis of product attributes, price/quality, usage or application, product users, or product class. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since positioning can be done on the basis of a distinctive attribute, the positioning and unique selling proposition approaches can overlap. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 44. Creative Strategy Development <ul><li>Positioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positioning is often the basis of a firm’s creative strategy when it has multiple brands competing in the same market. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 46. The End Next lecture: Creative Strategy Implementation and Evaluation