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  1. 1. KEYWORDS<br /><ul><li> Demographics
  2. 2. Mode of Address
  3. 3. Representation
  4. 4. Stereotypes
  5. 5. Hypodermic Syringe/Needle Model
  6. 6. Uses and Gratifications
  7. 7. Reception Theory</li></ul>Tuesday 27th April 2010AS Media StudiesInstitutions and Audience - Audience<br />Aim:<br />To be able to understand the role and importance of the audience in the film industry.<br />To be able to understand and apply audience theories. <br />
  8. 8. Section B: Institutions and Audiences (Exam) <br />One compulsory question to be answered by candidates based upon a case study of a specific media industry, from a choice of six topic areas offered by OCR. <br />Centres should choose one of the following topic areas, in advance of the examination. Through specific case studies of the centre’s choice, candidates should be prepared to demonstrate understanding of contemporary institutional processes of production, distribution, marketing and exchange/exhibition at a local, national or international level as well as British audiences’ reception and consumption. There should also be some emphasis on the students’ own experiences of being audiences of a particular medium. Centres may choose to focus on one of the following media industries: <br />Film <br />
  9. 9. Section B: Institutions and Audiences (Exam)<br />Candidates should be prepared to understand and discuss the processes of production, distribution, marketing and exchange as they relate to contemporary media institutions, as well as the nature of audience consumption and the relationships between audiences and institutions. In addition, candidates should be familiar with: <br />the issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice; <br />the importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production, distribution and marketing; <br />the technologies that have been introduced in recent years at the levels of production, distribution, marketing and exchange; <br />the significance of proliferation in hardware and content for institutions and audiences; <br />the importance of technological convergence for institutions and audiences; <br />the issues raised in the targeting of national and local audiences (specifically, British) by international or global institutions; <br />the ways in which the candidates’ own experiences of media consumption illustrate wider patterns and trends of audience behaviour. <br />This unit should be approached through contemporary examples in the form of case studies based upon one of the specified media areas. Examples may include the following: <br />
  10. 10. Film <br />A study of a specific studio or production company within a contemporary film industry that targets a British audience (eg Hollywood, Bollywood, UK film), including its patterns of production, distribution, exhibition and consumption by audiences. This should be accompanied by study of contemporary film distribution practices (digital cinemas, DVD, HD-DVD, downloads, etc) and their impact upon production, marketing and consumption. <br />
  11. 11. Positioning, genre and audiences questions.<br /><br />What does Sara say is the most important thing when planning a film release?<br />What questions does she use to target audiences?<br />What audience watch Specialised films?<br />How are this audience targeted for these specialist films?<br />
  12. 12. Target audiences questions<br />How are target audiences identified for smaller films?<br />What questions must be answered to identify past audiences?<br />Describe how 45+ year olds are targeted and why?<br />How do teenagers decide on what films to watch?<br />What else is different between the two age groups mentioned in the last question?<br />Why do different audiences need to be targeted differently?<br />
  13. 13. Things you need to know…<br />How the industry thinks about its audiences.<br />How products are tailored to audiences.<br />How the industry represents its audience, other social groups or social issues of interest to its audience.<br />
  14. 14. Why are audiences important?<br />Without them - why would media texts be created?<br />Size & reaction measure success.<br />People who buy provide income for production companies.<br />Advertising.<br />
  15. 15. Disney<br />‘High School Musical’<br />Movie – DVD-stage show – ice show<br />CD - Stationary – Karaoke <br />Sticker Album – lunch boxes <br />Dance Mat – Dolls – clothing<br />Sing a long showings - competitions<br />
  16. 16. BBC<br />Programmes / brands often have off shoots<br />educational magazine series / comics <br />audio books – books <br />DVDs <br />Toys – ie Tellytubbies / tweenies – <br />
  17. 17. How the industry thinks about its audiences.<br />
  18. 18. Target audiences<br />Media producers and institutions view audiences as an ‘imaginary entity’, a mass rather than individuals. They will however have a ‘typical’ audience member in mind. (len Ang: 1991)<br />
  19. 19. Doreen<br />Typical listener<br />Age, likes, dislikes, habits, household, husband.<br />Educated & intelligent<br />Half listens<br />Does not necessarily understand long words or discussions.<br />Make sure understands and is engaged with.<br />Talk to personally, as if known.<br />
  20. 20. Imaginary Entity<br />Subjectives used to help define the social position of the audience member:<br />Self image Gender <br />Age group Family<br />Class Nation<br />Ethnicity Education <br />Politics Religion<br />Location (geographical & local)<br />
  21. 21. Mode of Address<br />The way in which a text will address or speak to its audience.<br />
  22. 22. DEMOGRAPHICS<br />
  23. 23. Audience Theories<br />Hypodermic needle effect.<br />Uses & Gratifications<br />Reception Theory<br /><br />
  24. 24. The Hypodermic Syringe Model<br />This model suggests that the audience passively accepts the message ‘injected’ into them by the mass media. <br />This model believes that there is a DIRECT correlation between the violent behaviour shown on TV, computer games etc and anti-social and criminal behaviour in real life.<br />
  25. 25. Jamie Bulger- Can violent films be blamed?<br />Jamie Bulger, a two- year old toddler who was abducted and murdered by two 10 year old boys<br />Jon Venables and Robert Thompson, aged 10. Found guilty of the murder, and were sentenced to imprisonment in a young offenders institution.<br />The boys had apparently watched ‘Child’s Play 3’ before they murdered the toddler.<br />As Bulger’s death was very similar to a death in the film, newspapers such as ‘The Sun’ began to fuel the debate as to whether such violence in the media should be accepted.<br />
  26. 26. Calls for more censorship reflect the logic underlying this model. <br />Psychologists (Bandura, Ross and Ross) have carried out laboratory experiments that are claimed to prove a cause and effect relationship between media images and behaviour.<br />
  27. 27. Uses & Gratifications<br />Jay G. Blumler and Elihu Katz<br />Audience has a set of needs that are met by the media.<br />Diversion - escape from everyday problems and routine. <br />Personal Relationships - using the media for emotional and other interaction, eg) substituting soap operas for family life <br />Personal Identity - finding yourself reflected in texts, learning behaviour and values from texts <br />Surveillance - Information which could be useful for living eg) weather reports, financial news, holiday bargains <br />
  28. 28. Reception Theory<br />Reception theory is an approach to textual analysis focuses on the scope for "negotiation" and "opposition" on the part of the audience. This means that a "text"—be it a book, movie, or other creative work—is not simply passively accepted by the audience, but that the reader / viewer interprets the meanings of the text based on their individual cultural background and life experiences. In essence, the meaning of a text is not inherent within the text itself, but is created within the relationship between the text and the reader.<br />
  29. 29. Counting Audiences<br />Film:<br />Figures based on box office receipts. [tickets sold, then DVDs bought/ rented<br />[Subtract production costs to find profit = success]<br />Print:<br />Circulation [copies read]<br />Audit Bureau of Circulation<br />Radio / TV:<br />Viewing figures. Sample of population, viewing/listening habits monitored for 7 days.<br />Broadcast Audience Research Board<br />Radio Joint Audience Research<br />
  30. 30. Representation <br />Do the media suggest to large audiences that x or y character is typical of that group, and therefore that the whole group should be viewed in certain ways?<br />
  31. 31. Stereotypes<br />Negative / Positive<br />Coronation Street / Eastenders<br />Cultures - corner shop owners<br />Sean – Camp<br />Battersby family. <br />Hugh Grant:<br />Notting Hill, 4 Weddings & a Funeral, Love Actually.<br />
  32. 32.
  33. 33. Homework due Tuesday 4th May 2010<br />Create your own Fact sheet on WT using Working Title Fact Sheet Guide.<br />