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krabs

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krabs

  1. 1. Fall Semester Final Exam Study Guide Name: _________________________ Period: ________________________ Date: _________________________ The following ideas, theories, or concepts are going to be on the test. You must know them. Unit I 1. Globalization 2. Physical Geography 3. Spatial Distribution 4. Pattern 5. Spatial Perspective 6. Five Themes a. Location i. Location Theory ii. Site iii. Situation b. Place i. Sense of Place ii. Perception of Place c. Human Environment Interaction d. Region i. Formal Region ii. Functional Region iii. Perceptional Region e. Movement i. Spatial Interaction ii. Distance iii. Accessibility iv. Connectivity 7. Four Traditions of Geography a. Man-Land Tradition b. Spatial Tradition c. Area Studies Tradition d. Earth Science Tradition 8. Landscape 9. Cultural Landscape
  2. 2. 10. Sequent Occupance 11. Toponym 12. Vernacular Region Map Skills Terminology: 1. Cartography 2. Reference Map 3. Thematic Map 4. Absolute Location 5. GPS System 6. Geocaching 7. Relative Location 8. Mental Maps 9. Activity Space 10. Generalized Information 11. Generalized Map 12. Remote Sensing 13. GIS 14. Map Components a. Equator b. Prime Meridian c. Lines of Latitude d. Lines of Longitude e. 15. Map Scale a. Graphic Scale b. Representative Fraction 16. Map Types a. Conical b. Cylindrical c. Planar d. Oval 17. Map Projections a. Mercator b. Gnomonic c. Homolosine d. Robinson Geographic Philosophy: 1. Environmental Determinism 2. Possibilism
  3. 3. a. Cultural Ecology b. Isotherms 3. Empiricism 4. Positivism 5. Humanism a. Pragmatism b. Phenomenonology c. Verstehen d. Idealism 6. Marxism a. Historical Materialism b. Forces of Production c. Relation of Production d. Mode of Production e. Infrastructure Unit II: Population: I. Elements of Population Geography: Spatial Aspects of Demography a. Demography: b. Population Distribution: c. Population Density: d. Arithmetic Population Density: e. Physiologic Density: f. Rate of Natural Increase: g. Growth Rate: II. Population Trends-Growth: a. Stationary Population Levels: b. Linear Growth: c. Exponential Growth: d. Doubling Time: III. Population Theories: a. Malthus Population Explosion (1798) b. Harding (Managing societies resources) c. Deevey (Stages of normal growth) d. Neo-Malthusians IV. Population Structure: a. Age-Sex Pyramids: i. What do they tell us about a country? b. Demographic Cycles i. Natural Increase: ii. Crude Birth Rate
  4. 4. iii. Crude Death Rate: iv. Total Fertility Rate: v. Infant Mortality Rate: V. Demographic Transition Model: a. High Stationary Stage: b. Early Expansion Stage: c. Late Expansion State: d. Low Stationary State: VI. Limited Population Growth: a. Checks on Populations: (natural and manmade) b. Governmental Policies: VII. Calculating Demographic Changes (Total Population = original population / Births – Deaths + Immigration – Emigration): VIII. Migration: a. Factors in Human Migration: i. Absolute vs. Relative Direction: ii. Absolute vs. Relative Distance: iii. Emigration vs. Immigration: b. Reasons for Migration: i. Economic Conditions: ii. Political Situations: iii. War (especially Civil Wars): iv. Environmental Conditions: v. Technological Advances – Information Technology: c. Push Factors / Pull Factors: d. Ravenstein’s Law of Migration: i. For every migration flow there is a counter migration ii. The majority of migrants move short distances iii. Migrants who move longer distances choose urban destinations iv. Urban residents are less migratory than rural residents v. Families are less like to migrate internationally than young adults e. The Gravity Model: i. Definition: ii. Principles of Distance Decay: f. Voluntary vs. Involuntary Migration: g. Dislocation: h. Regions of Dislocation i. Sub-Saharan Africa ii. Southwest Asia iii. North Africa iv. South Asia v. The Balkans
  5. 5. vi. Southeast Asia i. Types of Migration: i. Cyclical Movement: ii. Periodic Movement: iii. Migratory Movement: iv. Seasonal Movement: v. Internal vs. External Movement: j. Controlling Migration: i. Past Methods: ii. Legal Restrictions: iii. Quotas: iv. Illegal Immigration: k. Migration Within the United States: i. Early Migration Westward: ii. 20th Century Migrations: iii. Recent South and Western Migrations: iv. Counter-urbanization: l. Migration Selectivity: m. Migration Stream: n. Migration Counter-stream: Unit III: Political Geography I. States or Countries a. Independent Political Units b. Defined, Permanently Populated Territory c. Full Sovereign Control over Internal and Foreign Affairs d. Exceptions: Colonies and Protectorates II. Stateless Nations a. Palestinians b. Kurds III. Nations a. Group of people with common culture b. Strong sense of unity c. Shared customs and beliefs d. Language and religion similarities IV. Origins and Diffusions of Modern States a. European Model (Greece and Rome) b. Treaty of Westphalia c. Rise of Nationalism: (1684) d. Concept of Sovereignty e. Political Systems in Europe
  6. 6. i. Dejavu Soveriegnity- treaty determined ii. Defacto Soveriegnity- natural occurrence V. Colonialism – Imperialism – Decolonization a. Imperialism b. Colonialism i. Land Empires ii. Sea Empires iii. Settler Empires iv. Nationalist Empires c. Imperialism i. Economic ii. Military iii. Cultural d. Decolonization VI. Geographic Characteristics of States (size, shape, location, and core areas) a. Territory Morphology i. Compact ii. Fragmented iii. Elongated iv. Protruded v. Perforated b. Enclaves and Exclaves c. Landlocked d. Land Boundaries e. Evolution of Boundaries i. Definition ii. Delimitation iii. Demarcation f. Typed of Boundaries i. Geometric Boundaries ii. Natural Political Boundaries iii. Cultural Political Boundaries g. Genetic Boundaries i. Antecedent Boundaries ii. Subsequent Boundaries iii. Superimposed Boundaries iv. Relic Boundaries h. Boundaries Vs. Frontiers i. Boundary Disputes i. Definitional Boundary Disputed ii. Location Boundary Disputes iii. Operational Boundary Disputes
  7. 7. iv. Allocation Boundary Disputes VII. Political Organization of States and Countries a. Core States and Multi core states b. Capital Cities and “forward capitols” c. Unitary, Confederates, and Federal Systems d. Centripetal and Centrifugal Forces i. Nationalism ii. Religion iii. Infrastructure iv. Common History v. Social Inequality VIII. Geopolitics – Study of the state and its relationship to space a. Alfred Mahan’s Sea power Doctrine b. Ratzel’s Organic Theory c. Mackinders Heartland Theory d. Spykman Rimland Theory e. A Multipolar World f. Wallenstein’s World System Theory g. Multipolar World Theory h. New Superpowers of the future i. Containment Theory j. Domino Theory IX. Global Organization and Multinationalism a. Supranationalism b. United Nations i. Peacekeeping Operations ii. International Sanctions iii. Unrepresented Peoples iv. Law of the Sea 1. Territorial Sea 2. Truman Proclamation 3. Widening Maritime Claims 4. National Conference on the Laws of the Seas 5. Median Line Principle c. Regional Multinational Unions 1. Economic Supranational 2. Military Alliance 3. Cultural Organizations and Political Unions X. Devolutionary Pressures in Europe a. Balkanization b. Dayton Accord Partition Line c. Devolution in Kosovo
  8. 8. d. Devolution in Russia e. Devolution in Africa XI. Concept of Culture- The definition of culture: A group of belief systems, norms, and values practiced by people a. Subcultures- Sub-cultural Theory: Interpersonal conflicts in the large cities promote the formation of subcultures. Examples would be gangs and artists b. Artifacts: Products of culture i. Examples: I. Cultural Components c. Culture Religion: Area in a particular region where a particular religion is the basis of the culture. d. Culture Traits: Examples of lifestyles and belief systems that directly reflect that culture. These can be actual artifacts or e. Culture Complex: f. Culture Systems: g. Culture Realms: h. Culture Spheres: i. Folk Culture: i. A way of life practiced by a group that is unusual 1. Homogeneous in customs and ethnicity 2. Rural and cohesive 3. Subsistence economy 4. Goods are handmade according to tradition 5. Rigid family order based on religion 6. Social classes weekly developed 7. Nonexistent in most of the developed world 8. Utilization of astrology, songs, dances, and food. j. Popular Culture i. Constantly changing based in large heterogeneous groups, material goods massed produced, distinct divisions of labor, vast majorities of people belong to. ii. Close relationships with the physical environment (providing things needed for life) 1. Geophagy- The deliberate eating of dirt for medical purposes. 2. Folk medicines- Derived from roots, barks, and flowers 3. Moonshine in Appalachia- A folk tradition related to prohibition 4. Bluegrass Music- Cultural hearth of Appalachia iii. Diffusion of popular culture: XII. Cultural Landscapes a. Treatment of Natural Landscapes b. Built Environment
  9. 9. c. Sequent Occupance XIII. Cultural Hearths a. Ancient Hearths b. Hydraulic Civilization Theory c. Modern Hearths XIV. Cultural Diffusion a. Expansion Diffusion i. Contagious Diffusion ii. Hierarchical Diffusion b. Relocation Diffusion c. Culture Change and Convergence i. Acculturation ii. Assimilation iii. Transculturation iv. Migrant Diffusion v. Ethnocentrism d. Factors that Effect Diffusion i. Distance ii. Population Density iii. Means of Communication iv. Nature of Innovation v. Prestige of the Node XV. Cultural Perception a. Perceptual Regions b. Region Identity XVI. Culture and Environment a. Geomancy b. Cultural Ecology c. Environmental Determinism d. Possibilism XVII. Types of Cultural Regions a. Core Area b. Domain c. Sphere d. Sub national e. National Cultures

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