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Quant Vs Qual Research

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Quant Vs Qual Research

  1. 1. Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research Methods
  2. 2. Two Approaches to Research <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes numbers, measurements, control, and experimentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the traditional scientific research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes natural settings, observations, verbal narratives, and interpretations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerged from sociology </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Goals <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test hypothesis (theory) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistically describe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outsider meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe multiple realities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture naturally occurring behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insider meaning </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Design <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predetermined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolving (emerging) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Sample <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Random Selection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-representative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purposeful </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Data <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field Notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photographs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People’s own words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrative </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Methods <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quasi-experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corr. /Surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex Post Facto </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnographies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal Protocol Analysis </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Mixed Methods <ul><li>Involve different combination of quantitative and qualitative methods at the level of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: A combination of questionnaire and interview. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. History of Mixed Methods <ul><li>Over the past 15 years, mixed methods have been used as a third approach in research methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly introduced in the 1970s with the introduction of the concept of “triangulation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using different methods and data sources </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Typology of Mixed Methods <ul><li>Notations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ QUAL’ or ‘qual’ stand for qualitative method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ QUAN’ or ‘quan’ stand for quantitative method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital letters denote priority or increased weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowercase letters denote lower priority or weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A plus sign (+) represents a concurrent data collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An arrow (  ) represents a sequential collection of data </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Nine possible combinations <ul><li>QUAL + QUAN </li></ul><ul><li>QUAL + quan </li></ul><ul><li>QUAN + qual </li></ul><ul><li>QUAL  QUAN </li></ul><ul><li>QUAN  QUAL </li></ul>6. QUAL  quan 7. Qual  QUAN 8. QUAN  qual 9. quan  QUAL
  12. 12. Which Approach is Best? <ul><li>The problem you are studying determines which approach to take. </li></ul><ul><li>One is not better than the other. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Which Would You Select? <ul><li>Research problem: Error correction: Yes or no? </li></ul><ul><li>Get with a partner and quickly design a study to investigate this problem. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide whether to approach this problem quantitatively or qualitatively or mixed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell What you would do and Why </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the advantages and disadvantages of your approach </li></ul></ul>

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