1.Branches of linguistics in the macrolinguistic perspective
MICROLINGUISTICS –               covers only mat...
1) phonology – how the sound are interpreted, how put together in communication systems, focuses on
       phonemes and th...
4. Human languages combine elements to produce new messages (a property known as creativity). This is not
possible in anim...
Prescriptive grammar- prefer giving practical advice about using language: straightforward rules to help us avoid
making e...
-   it‘s arbitrary
        -   it‘s linear
        -   it‘s mutable (changeable) – there may be a change in the concept (p...
other properties of its frequency spectrum, and the relationship of these properties to other branches of phonetics, and
Allophone- When we have a group of several phones, all of which are versions of one phoneme, we add the prefix
‗allo-‘ (on...
Alveo-palatals- sounds are produced with tongue at the very front of palate just behind alveoral ridge.
Palatals- sounds p...
30.major allophonic variants of English plosives
1. p,t k (voiceless stops) when syllable initial becomes aspirated when i...
Because the choice of allophone is seldom under conscious control, people may not realize they exist. English
speakers may...
semiconsonantic glides or with glottal or pharyngeal consonants). Phonotactics is the micro-level study of the structure
rephrased like iced cream or cream of ice. Likewise, a proper noun is a word, however long it is. A space may not be
even ...
of another syntactic category. For example, the English derivational suffix -ly changes adjectives into adverbs (slow →
demonstrated below, occurs overwhelmingly in lexical items which arise particularly often. Many suppletive forms are
Compound prepositions formed by prepositions and nouns are common in English and the Romance languages
(consider English o...
they have no lexical meaning

55.Obligatorily bound and potentially free morphs

56.Bound bases and portmanteau morphs
A p...
Nominative       I     you (thou)    he, she, it   we      you     they        who
          Genitive      mine yours (thi...
In case passivization results in a grammatical sentence, the phrases that have been moved can be regarded as
Stand on your head. ("You" is understood before "stand.")
Be careful with sentences that begin with "there" plus a form of...
Abstract Nouns
-More ethereal, theoretical concepts use abstract nouns to refer to them. Concepts like freedom, love, powe...
the action or state is completed or not. Voice is used to show relationships between the action and the people affected
Licencjat Met Ling Uram
Licencjat Met Ling Uram
Licencjat Met Ling Uram
Licencjat Met Ling Uram
Licencjat Met Ling Uram
Licencjat Met Ling Uram
Licencjat Met Ling Uram
Licencjat Met Ling Uram
Licencjat Met Ling Uram
Licencjat Met Ling Uram
Licencjat Met Ling Uram
Licencjat Met Ling Uram
Licencjat Met Ling Uram
Licencjat Met Ling Uram
Licencjat Met Ling Uram
Licencjat Met Ling Uram
Licencjat Met Ling Uram
Licencjat Met Ling Uram
Licencjat Met Ling Uram
Licencjat Met Ling Uram
Licencjat Met Ling Uram
Licencjat Met Ling Uram
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Licencjat Met Ling Uram

  1. 1. Lingwistyka 1.Branches of linguistics in the macrolinguistic perspective MICROLINGUISTICS – covers only matter related to language, without taking any consideration of linguistic factors. It is impossible to talk about language, to separate it from other mental process of cognition. MACROLINGUISTICS – it takes into consideration other branches of science. About how the extralinguistic branches/factors influence language. Socilinguistics studies the relations between language and society: how social factors influence the structure and use of language. Psycholinguistics is the study of language and mind: the mental structures and processes which are involved in the acquistion, comprehension and production of language. Neurolingistics is the study of language processing and language representation in the brain. It typically studies the disturbances of language comprehension and production caused by the damage of certain areas of the brain. Stylistics is the study of how literary effects can be related to linguistic features. It usually refers to the study of written language, including literary text, but it also investigates spoken language. Discourse analysis, or text linguistics is the study of the relationship between language and the contexts in which language is used. It deals with how sentences in spoken and written language form larger meaningful units. Ethnolinguistics-like sociolinguistics, but considers culture, ethnics, the way of life, how this way of life influences language and where we can find examples of it. Deals with language games/rituals/rites/ways and norms of behavior. Typological lnguistic - deals with categorizing styles of languages or branches into types and families, ex. those, which developed from the same source (ex. from Latin). Those types don‘t have to be related, are distinguished on factors (almost on anything) Computational linguistics is an approach to linguistics which employs mathematical techniques, often with the help of a computer. Cognitive linguistics is an approach to the analysis of natural language that focuses on language as an instrument for organizing, processing, and conveying information. Applied linguistics is primarily concerned with the application of linguistic theories, methods and findings to the explanation of language problems which have arisen in other areas of experience. 2. Dichotomies in the divisions of linguistics Dichotomy – the separation that exists between two groups or things that are completely opposite to and different from each other. Linguistics developed not earlier than in VIII/IX century and firstly linguist was associated with a person of philosopher. First investigations were connected with teaching languages; they noticed that certain languages are so similar that it couldn‘t be a coincident. Latin was a very common language in the past and seen as a model one, nations used some pieces of Latin in their lang. Then a discovery was made that Asian family of lang. has a similarity with European ones. Linguistics started to analyze languages, it started to divide into several branches which their Characteristic is dichotomy: 1) a) Descriptive – looks at particular language and describes it, its phenomena, provides data b) General – about language in overall, looks for phenomenon, bases on hypothesis, looks at parts of speech. General Descriptive 2) a) Theoretical – more less the same as general ling. b) Applied – concerned with practical application of theoretical findings /teaching, writing, handwriting, dictionaries, study of signs, artificial languages/. 1) a) Synchronic – contemporary state of a language at present, photograph in a particular moment, not interested in ethymology but they‘re related now. b) Diachronic – study of a language development, history of a language, development of the first language in a child, changes in a route of history they do not show the complete description 3. Levels of linguistic investigation according to the unit of description
  2. 2. 1) phonology – how the sound are interpreted, how put together in communication systems, focuses on phonemes and their systems, every single language has its own phonology 2) phonetics – describe real sound of language: how produce sounds – articulatory what they sound like – aquistics + properties of sound waves how we hear them – auditory articulatory: like biology, about organs aquistics: can be measured by equipment, pictures, computers, diagrams, time, vibrations auditory: which aspects of sounds are more important? on which we focus? Phoneme – individual sound of lang. 3) morphology – focuses on morphemes (units of meaning), on certain concepts and forms – how they‘re linked, how they build blocks of words; how morphemes are put together to build a word; internal structures of words – how they‘re built. 4) syntax /składnia/ - how words are being formed to phrases, phrases into sentences; deals with parts of speech and functions. 5) discourse analysis – all texts and dialogs – how they‘re organized, how do they make sense, who speaks when, exchanges of phrases (polite). 6) Semantics – interested in meanings, how lexical items are put together and related, abstract motions, doesn‘t take a context of use 7) Pragmatics – use of language, situational factors influence language 4. Unique features of language as contrasted with animal communication First feature- unique for humans teetch which are upright and no slauting outwords. The positon of teeth is very important. We can produce sounds like f, v, Q Second feature- lips, involved in production of most sounds. Flexibility is crucial and only humans have it. we have more mussle structure than animals. Sounds like b, p, m Third feature- human mouth. Is relatively small and can be open and closed rapidly, so the tempo of speech can differ Fourth feature- tongue which is very flexible Fifth feature- larynx called voice box. It contains vocal courds. Position of human larynx is much lower than that of other spicies. Creates longer cavity called the pharynx and acts as a resonator. Makes sound louder. Sixth feature- brain. Is extremely complexed. There is an evidence that ot has specialised finctions put in each hemispheres. Lg. functions are largely confined in the left hemisphere of the brain. Most animals (including people) use ―body language‖ as well as sound and smell in order to communicate with one another. Here are some of the ways animals express themselves. Many animals communicate by smell: they release pheromones (airborne chemicals) to send messages to others. Pheromones play an important part in reproduction and other social behavior. They are used by many animals, including insects, wolves, deer, and even humans! Animal communication is any behaviour on the part of one animal that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal. The study of animal communication, called zoosemiotics (distinguishable from anthroposemiotics, the study of human communication) has played an important part in the development of ethology, sociobiology, and the study of animal cognition. Some people believe that it is possible for humans and animals to communicate through telepathy. For linguistics, the interest of animal communication systems lies in their similarities to and differences from human language: 1. Human languages are characterized for having a double articulation (in the characterization of French linguist André Martinet). It means that complex linguistic expressions can be broken down in meaningful elements (such as morphemes and words), which in turn are composed of smallest meaningless phonetic elements, or phonemes. Animal signals, however, do not exhibit this dual structure. 2. Animal utterances are generally reflexes of external stimuli and thus are not produced intentionally. They cannot refer to matters removed in time and space (a possible exception is the information conveyed in honeybee dance language). 3. Human langage is learned, while animal communication systems are known largely by instinct.
  3. 3. 4. Human languages combine elements to produce new messages (a property known as creativity). This is not possible in animal communication systems. 5. In contrast to human language, animal communication systems are not able to express conceptual generalizations. A language is a method of communication and is a method used by human beings to describe their experiences. Human spoken languages can be described as a system of symbols (sometimes known as lexemes) and the grammars (rules) by which the symbols are manipulated. The word language is also used to refer to common properties of languages. Language learning is normal in human childhood. Most human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others. There are thousands of human languages, and these seem to share certain properties, even though every shared property has exceptions.There is no defined line between a language and a dialect, but it is often said that a language is a dialect with an army and a navy, a statement credited to Max Weinreich.Humans and computer programs have also constructed other languages, including conlangs such as Esperanto, Interlingua and Klingon, programming languages, and various mathematical formalisms. These languages are not necessarily restricted to the properties shared by human languages. 5. The components and nature of native speaker’s linguistic knowledge Knowing a language means knowing a lot. Learning takes a lot of time. You can learn to swim faster than learn language. We are learning our language form the moment we are born even in pregnancy period. Vocabulary we learn through the whole life. There are words that are not existed before (komórka), and we do not know about new words in a future. Native Speaker Linguistic Knowledge (NSLK) encompasses certain rules of use of language which contain words and expression that may change all time. The sound system-phonotactic constrains-possible combination of sounds connected with language is part of our native speaker knowledge. We can judge if certain combination of sound are possible or not in our language. There are much more sounds than we can produce knowing only Polish language. English has different sounds and learning English we are aware of them. The sound system is very important component of NSLK, but also structure of syllables, stress placement, intonation. Intonation can change the meaning of the words. Yes? Yes! Next - grammar of the language - how to make words - create new vocabulary items, how to connect words in phrases & sentences, it is another factor. It internalize relatively early. About age of 5-6 the children have entirely acquire syntactic component of the language. They understand the construction of sentences and phrases, they know the rules. It is certain finite number of rules enables us to make any sentence-infinite nr of them. We are able to understand the sentences we have never heard before. Before 5-6 children are trying to find the rules and constructions by themselves. -Pani idała (iść) poszła. This is subconscious knowledge. Because you don‘t have to know subject, object, auxiliary, preposition itd. You can use the language without this knowledge- it is good for scientists, school children (when they learn about the language). The linguistic knowledge is subconscious (podświadoma). We use language automatically do not think about processes in our minds. But we are able to supply missing elements. As native speakers of language we are able to make the grammatical judgment - when given certain construction we evaluate as good or not, comparing with our internalize grammar, even not being explicitly taught about grammar. A different thing from grammaticality is acceptability, because grammaticality is an agreement of the rules of grammar, acceptability is judged against different criteria: -our tolerance for a known language forms (we are more tolerant towards sb who is learning lg /foreigner/ than towards native speaker). We can accept it. What else can we accept? Our patience, tiredness, effort of our mind to analyze certain structure, e.g.‖insurance policy‖- too complicated to understand. In E-mail correspondence people don‘t use capital letters (it‘s acceptable) e.g. multiple embedding /powbijane w siebie zdania/ of sentences-example---the rat, the cat, the dog chassed scratched, bit me. = it could be paraphrased as;‘ the rat which the cat that the dog chassed, scratched, bit me‘ here relative pronounce had been omitted. It is gram. but unacceptable. Scientist discuss if language is(1) separate section of our mind or(2) form of our general cognitive knowledge. Ad (2) is more likely. 6. Linguistic competence versus linguistic performance Linguistic competence is the knowledge of adjectives adverbs and so on that we can build sentences with. Concept identified by Noam Chomsky, to refer to the level of knowledge of a given language necessary for a speaker to be able to produce an infinite number of novel sentences Linguistic performance is the ability to use this knowledge in production, comprehension. 7. Prescriptive versus descriptive grammar Descriptive grammar- it doesn‘t tell you how to speak but it describes your basic linguistic knowledge, describes how it is possible for you to speak and understand. Tells you what you know about the sounds, words, phrases, and sentences of your lg. speakers share the knowledge of grammar and this knowledge allows them to communicate.
  4. 4. Prescriptive grammar- prefer giving practical advice about using language: straightforward rules to help us avoid making errors. The rules may be over-simplified at times, but they are meant to keep us out of trouble--the kind of trouble that may distract or even confuse our readers. 8. Grammatical categories and grammaticalization Grammatical categores traditionally called parts of speech. Also known as synthactic categories. Expressions of the same grammatical category can generally substitute one for another without loss of grammaticality. Grammaticalization- the change whereby lexical terms and constructions come in certain linguistic contexts to serve grammatical functions, and, once grammaticalized, continue to develop new grammatical functions. 9. Theories about the origin of language There are many different theories about the orign of lg. we can‘t approve or disapprove any of them. Those are: The devine source theory- lg. is gift from god ot gods. I Christianity it‘s a story of god and adam. In hndu lg is given by the godess sarasvati wife of brahma creator of universe. The natural sound theory- primitive words could have been imitations of nature. Sounds which early men an women hearned around them. Onomatopeic word like echo natural sounds(buzz, splash) The oral-gesture theory- links physical gestures and orally produced sounds used hends and then mouth (miming) to communicate. Glossogenetic- fouses on biologis bases of the formation and development of human lg. physical aspects of human not shared with other spicies. Change from horizontal to upright posture which in consequence give humans ability to acqure other features with intern facilitated speech. There are two types of theories of the origins of language: the continuity approach (nature) and the discontinuity (nurture) approach. The continuity approach has often labeled itself Darwinian, and looked for predecessors of language, typically in animal communication systems. It claims that language is too complex to have evolved without any precursors. The discontinuity approach argues that language is unique to humans with no precursors among nonhuman animal communication systems. 10. Major assumptions of Ferdinand de Saussure’s theory of language Saussure has two basic, and famous, principles: 1) The arbitrary nature of the sign; and 2) The linear nature of the signifier. The sign is arbitrary because "the bond between the signifier and the signified is arbitrary." The idea of "sister" is not linked to the sound of the word "sister." The link between the idea and the sound--or the signified and the signifier--is a matter of societal convention. The German word Schwester and the Spanish word hermana each refer to the idea of "sister," but the sounds of the respective signifiers are nothing alike. The signifier is of a linear nature because "auditory signifiers have at their command only the dimension of time." It "represents a span, and the span is measurable in a single dimension"--that of time. Saussure also distinguishes between what he calls langue--the system of a language, the language as a system of forms--and parole--actual speech, the speech acts that are made possible by the language. 11. The concept of linguistic sign This is the unit saussere defines through its intrinsic and relational properties. The linguistic sign is as element constituted of two faces: the signified(signifie) and signifier(significant). These two sides aspects or faces of the sign are identified as an acoustic image and a concept so intimately associated that it is impossible, or futile to study one in isolation form the other. Both sides of linguistic sign are defined in psychic or psychological terms: the signified, because it‘s a concept, and the acoustic image as signifier since he finds even the most detailed phonetics accounts must be incomplete while phonic distinctions are readily imaged in writing. This definition places the sign as a unit outside the cope of empirical observation, while the relationship already discussed between phonetic and phonological aspects or the same. Lg. consists of linguistic signs which are combination of 2 inseprable elements. He claims that a linguistic sign exists only when there is: a. a concept - signifie - mental concept - signified - a word, phrase b. acoustic image - signifiant - the phonological aspect - signifier (signifying) - word image – visual or acoustic Characteristics of linguistic sign:
  5. 5. - it‘s arbitrary - it‘s linear - it‘s mutable (changeable) – there may be a change in the concept (preach – ‗kazać & order ‗kazać‘) or a change in acoustic image - both: signifier & signified have mental character - they are indivisible – like both sides of the sheet of paper 12. Major assumptions of Noam Chomsky’s theory of language Chomsky postulated a syntactic base of language (called deep structure), which consists of a series of phrase-structure rewrite rules, i.e., a series of (possibly universal) rules that generates the underlying phrase-structure of a sentence, and a series of rules (called transformations) that act upon the phrase-structure to form more complex sentences. The end result of a transformational-generative grammar is a surface structure that, after the addition of words and pronunciation, is identical to an actual sentence of a language. 13. Deep and Surface Structures, Phrase Structure Rules and Transformations Transformation- syntactic rule that applies to an underlying phrase structure tree or sentence and derives a new structure by moving and inserting elements. Phrase structure rules-principles of grammar that specify the constituency of syntactic categories Deep structure- - the underlying level of a sentence , a sentence structure is represented in an abstract way and reveals how its meaning should be interpreted. It is not what actually sentence means. any phrase structure tree generated by the phrase structure rules of a transformational grammar. The basic syntax structure of grammar. - is an abstract level of structure that is close to meaning - specifies the logical roles of phrases: logical subject is the NP dominated by S whereas logical object is the NP dominated by VP - is formed by phrase structure rules. Surface structure- - there is a more concrete representation , giving the string of morphemes that closely corresponds to what we could hear if the sentences were spoken. the structure that results from applying the transformational rule a deep structure. It is syntactically closest to the actual utterances. - is a superficial level of structure that is close to sound - describes the ordering of words and phrases - is formed by transformational rules: these are movement rules that relate sentences with the same deep structure 14. Major assumptions of the cognitive theory of language 15. phonetics versus phonology Phonetics - the general study of speech sounds. It is concerned with the actual properties of speech sounds (phones) as well as those of non-speech sounds, and their production, audition and perception, as opposed to phonology, which operates at the level of sound systems and abstract sound units (such as phonemes and distinctive features). Phonetics deals with the sounds the mselves rather than the contexts in which they are used in languages. Phonetics has three main branches -articulatory phonetics, concerned with the positions and movements of the lips, tongue, vocal tract and folds and other speech organs in producing speech. -acoustic phonetics, concerned with the properties of the sound waves and how they are received by the inner ear -auditory phonetics, concerned with speech perception, principally how the brain forms perceptual representations of the input it receives Phonology- description of a systems and patterns of speech sound in lg. is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). phonology describes the way sounds function within a given language or across languages. The principles of phonological theory have also been applied to the analysis of signed languages, with gestures and their relationships as the object of study. 16.articulatory, acoustic and auditory phonetics Articulatory phonetics- is the study of how speech sounds are made or articulated. In studying articulation, the phonetician is attempting to document how we produce speech sounds. That is, articulatory phoneticians are interested in how the different structures of the vocal tract, called the articulators (tongue, lips, jaw, palate, teeth etc.), interact to create the specific sounds. Acoustic phonetics- deals with the physical properties of speech as sound waves in the air. Acoustic phonetics investigates properties like the mean squared amplitude of a waveform, its duration, its fundamental frequency, or
  6. 6. other properties of its frequency spectrum, and the relationship of these properties to other branches of phonetics, and to abstract linguistic concepts like phones, phrases, or utterances. Auditory phonetics- the study of the perception of speech sounds by the ear also called perceptual phonetics. The branch of phonetics that is specifically concerned with a hearer's perception of sounds, especially speech sounds. 17.the reasons for differences between spelling and pronunciation in the english lg. the differances are due to borrowing words from other languages and the complicate developement in the history of english language. English is a mixture of Saxon, Viking, French and Latin, so it has different spelling systems mixed together. 1. gradual changes in pronunciation, such as the Great Vowel Shift, account for many irregularities. The Great Vowel Shift was a major change in the pronunciation of the English language, generally 2. accomplished in the 15th century, although evidence suggests it began as early as the 14th century. relatively recent loan words from other languages generally carry their original spellings, which are often not phonetic in English. Inconsistencies in the Romanization of languages using alphabets not derived from the Latin alphabet (e.g., Chinese) has further complicated this problem. 3. some prescriptionists have had partial success in their attempts to normalize the English language, forcing a change in spelling but not in pronunciation. 18. homophones, homographs, homonyms Homophones- when two or more written forms have the same pronunciation. Like bear/bare or to/too/two. Homonyms- when one form spoken or written has two or more unrelated meanings like: bank(institution) and bank(in a park), race(etnic group) race(sport competition). Homographs- are those words which have one spelling but two pronunciations and two distinct meanings or usages. phonetics alphabeth, diacritics and types of transcription. international phonetics alphabeth - The aim of it was to devise a system for transcribing the sounds of speech which was independent of any particular language and applicable to all languages. A phonetic script for English created in 1847 by Isaac Pitman and Henry Ellis was used as a model for the IPA. The IPA is used in dictionaries to indicate the pronunciation of words, has been used as a basis for creating new writing systems for previously unwritten languages. The IPA is used in some foreign language text books and phrase books to transcribe the sounds of languages which are written with non-latin alphabets. It is also used by non-native speakers of English when learning to speak English. types of transcription- (recording script; orthographic transcription; morphological, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic representations; citation-phonemic representation; broad phonetic or phonotypic transcription; narrow phonetic transcription; acoustic-phonetic transcription; physical transcription; prosodic transcription; non-linguistic and other phenomena. ) phonetic transcriptions phonemic transcriptions 1. - should be enclosed in square brackets "[ ]". 1. phonological contrasts may be enclosed in slashes "/ /" 2. to objectively capture the actual pronunciation of a 2. phonemic transcriptions are model dependent word 3. there is flexibility in how closely sounds may be 3. phonemic transcriptions may also be broad or narrow transcribed A transcription that gives only a basic idea of the sounds of a language in the broadest terms is called a "broad transcription"; in some cases this may be equivalent to a phonemic transcription (only without any theoretical claims). A close transcription, indicating precise details of the sounds, is called a "narrow transcription". diacritics- s an ancillary glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph. The term derives from the Greek διακριηικός (diakritikós, "distinguishing"). Some diacritical marks, such as the grave and acute, but not the cedilla, are often called accents. Diacritical marks may appear above or below a letter, or in some other position such as within the letter or between two letters. 20.the notion of phoneme, phone and allophone. Phoneme- the smallest meaning-distinguishing sound unit in the abstract representation of the sounds of a language. it function contrastively it means thet you can exchange one phoneme in a word and it changes into another wors with different meanng.. Its an abstract notion a sound type which is repreented by single phonetic symbol. Phone- are phonetic units and appear in square brackets. there are many different versions of that sound type regularly produced in actual speech. Different verion of phoneme.
  7. 7. Allophone- When we have a group of several phones, all of which are versions of one phoneme, we add the prefix ‗allo-‘ (one of a closely related set). COMAPRISON: A phoneme is manifested as one or more phones (phonetic sounds) in different environments. These phones are called allophones. 21. articulatory features of English consonants. Consonants are created when the airflow is directly restricted, or obstructed. As such, pulmonary air cannot escape from the oral cavity without creating audible friction. It should be noted that the line between vowels and consonants cannot be clearly drawn. In English, there are also intermediate instances: (a) liquids, and (b) glides. Each consonant can be distinguished by several features:[4] The manner of articulation is the method that the consonant is articulated, such as nasal (through the nose), stop (complete obstruction of air), or approximant (vowel like). The place of articulation is where in the vocal tract the obstruction of the consonant occurs, and which speech organs are involved. Places include bilabial (both lips), alveolar (tongue against the gum ridge), and velar (tongue against soft palate). Additionally, there may be a simultaneous narrowing at another place of articulation, such as palatalisation or pharyngealisation. The phonation of a consonant is how the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. When the vocal cords vibrate fully, the consonant is called voiced; when they do not vibrate at all, it's voiceless. The voice onset time (VOT) indicates the timing of the phonation. Aspiration is a feature of VOT. The airstream mechanism is how the air moving through the vocal tract is powered. Most languages have exclusively pulmonic egressive consonants, which use the lungs and diaphragm, but ejectives, clicks and implosives use different mechanisms. The length is how long the obstruction of a consonant lasts. This feature is borderline distinctive in English, as in "wholly" [hoʊlli] vs. "holy" [hoʊli], but cases are limited to morpheme boundaries. Unrelated roots are differentiated in various languages such as Italian, Japanese and Finnish, with two length levels, "single" and "geminate". Estonian and some Sami languages have three phonemic lengths: short, geminate, and long geminate, although the distinction between the geminate and overlong geminate includes suprasegmental features. The articulatory force is how much muscular energy is involved. This has been proposed many times, but no distinction relying exclusively on force has ever been demonstrated. All English consonants can be classified by a combination of these features, such as "voiceless alveolar stop consonant" [t]. In this case the airstream mechanism is omitted. Some pairs of consonants like p::b, t::d are sometimes called fortis and lenis, but this is a phonological rather than phonetic distinction. 22. articulatory features of English vowels Vowels -voiced sounds in the formation of which the air passes through the larynx & mouth without obstruction -there‘s no friction, no closure, no narrowing -in a lg system they function as syllabic centre (nucleus) – a syllable must contain at least 1 vowel -vowels change more rapidly than consonants Vowel sounds are divided into: a. monophthongs single vowel sound b. diphthongs double vowel sound formed by gliding from 1 vowel position to another they are treated as one unit c. thriphthongs triple vowel sounds formed by gliding from 1 through another to a third vowel position hardly ever occurs in connected speech 23. places of articulation of English consonants Bilabials- are sounds produced with active use of upper and lower lips. P,b,m Labiodentals- sounds produced when we tough lower lip upper teeth. V,f Dentals- sounds are produced when tip of the tongue toughs place just behind upper front teeth. Q, Alveorals- sounds are formed when tip of the tongue toughs place called alveoral ridge. T,d,s,z,n,l,r
  8. 8. Alveo-palatals- sounds are produced with tongue at the very front of palate just behind alveoral ridge. Palatals- sounds produced with the tongue in the middle of the palate. J Velars- produced when the back of the tongue is pressed against the velum. K,g, Glottals- produced without any active use of the tongue or other parts of the mouth. When glottis is open and air passes through without any manipulation. h 24. manner of articulation of English consonants Stops(plosives)- produced by some form of complete stopping of the air steam, very briefly and then letting it go abruptly p,b,t,k,g,d, Fricatives- production envolves almost blocking the air steam and having the air pushed through the narrow opening as a result a type of friction is produced f,v,Q, ,s,z, , Affricatives- are produed if you combine breath stopping of the air stream with an obstructed release which cause some friction. t ,d . Nasals- are produced when the velum is lowered and the air steam is allowed to low out through the nose. M,n, . Approximants- are sounds which articulation is strongly influenced by the following vowel sound with the tongue moving or gliding to or from the position of a nearby vowel. W,j,h,l,r. 25. the voiced-voiceless, oral-nasal and central-lateral position. Voiced-the vocal courds are drown together, the air from the lungs, repeatedly pushes them apart as it passes through, creating vibration effect. Voiceless- when the vocal courds are spresaa apart the air from the lungs passes between them unimpeded. Oral-nasal- is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through nose as well as the mouth. The term stands in opposition to the term "oral vowel" refers to an ordinary vowel without this nasalisation. Central-lateral- 26. cardinal vowels cardinal vowel is a vowel sound produced when the tongue is in an extreme position, either front or back, high or low. The current system was systematised by Daniel Jones in the early 20th century. are a set of reference vowels used by phoneticians in describing the sounds of languages. 27. what are allophonic rules is a phonological rule that says which allophone realizes a phoneme in a given phonemic environment. In other words, an allophonic rule is a rule that converts the phonemes in a phonemic transcription into the allophones of the corresponding phonetic transcription. Those rules are formal description of what speakers normally do. More than two dozen allophonic rules have been identified for English Include rules that account for aspiration, devoicing, vowel length and nasalization. 28. types of coarticulation is English (what is coarticulation) Coarticulation in phonetics refers to two different phenomena: the assimilation of the place of articulation of one speech sound to that of an adjacent speech sound. For example, while the sound /n/ of English normally has an alveolar place of articulation, in the word tenth it is pronounced with a dental place of articulation because the following sound, /θ/, is dental. the production of a coarticulated consonant, that is, a consonant with two simultaneous places of articulation. An example of such a sound is the voiceless labial-velar plosive p/ found in many West African languages. Types of corticulation have bee described: left-to-right or carry-over coarticulation and right-to-left or anticipatory coarticulation. The English word ―spoon‖ can be used to illustrate both types. In their canonical forms /s/, /p/ and /n/ do not have lip-rounding; /u/ is specified for lip-rounding. When the word ‗spoon‘ is spoken, however lip-rounding occurs in all segments. Thus anticipatory coarticualton occurs for the segments /s/ and /p/ while carry-over coariculation appears in the segment /n/. both types of coarticulation can appear In fingerspelling.( Eg. The fingerspelled letter a is not specified for movement; z Is made with a zigzag movement. When the word maze is fngerspelled the movement of the z spreads into the a segment.) 29.Phases in the articulation of plosives, the fortis-lenis distinction. The fortis-lenis distinction is usually thought of as the voiced/voiceless distinction in consonants. This is the distinction between the initial sounds in pit- bit, to-do, few-view, sue-zoo. Plosive sounds are made by forming a complete obstruction to the flow of air through the mouth and nose. The first stage is that a closure occurs. Then the flow of air builds up and finally the closure is released, making an explosion of air that causes a sharp noise. Try to slowly say /p/ to yourself. You should be able to feel the build up of air that bursts into the /p/ sound when you open your lips. It should be noted that a plosive cannot be prolonged or maintained so that once the air has been released, the sound has escaped.
  9. 9. 30.major allophonic variants of English plosives 1. p,t k (voiceless stops) when syllable initial becomes aspirated when it comes after a syllable boundary eg. [thest] 2. p,t,k (voiceless stops) have before them a glottal stop when they occur after a vowel and at the end of a syllable eg. [piʔn] 3. t becomes a glottal sto when it occurs before [n] eg. [beaʔn] 4. t, d is omitted when it is between two consonants eg. best game 5. t,d,(ale też : s, z, n, l) become dental when they occur before a dental sound eg. Eighth 6. p, b, t, d, k, g become unexploded when they occur before a stop eg. apt, act 7. all voiceless become longer at the end of a syllable 8. k, g become more front when they occur before a front vowel eg. key 31. major allophonic variants of English nasals and approximants 1. w, r, l, j become voiceless when they are after aspirated stops eg. play, twin 2. r, l become syllabic when they occur immediately after a consonant and at the end of a word eg. razor 3. l becomes velarised when occurs after a vowel and before another consonant or at the end of a word eg. file ( to jest chyba to DARK L) 32.articulatory differences between plosives, fricatives and approximants 33. the notion of aspiration, syllabic consonants, nasal and lateral release. aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some obstruents. To feel or see the difference between aspirated and unaspirated sounds, one can put a hand or a lit candle in front of his or her mouth, and say tore and then store. One should either feel a puff of air or see a flicker of the candle flame with tore that one does not get with store. In English, the t should be aspirated in tore and unaspirated in store. A period of voicelessness after the stop articulation and before the start of a voicing for the vowel. Voiceless stops are aspirated at the beginning of a syllable. At the end of words stops are not aspirated. Voiced stops are completely unaspirated. Syllabic consonants- A syllabic consonant is a phonetic element that normally patterns as a consonant, but may fill a vowel slot in a syllable. Consonants that last longer that they would normally do, they become the centre of a syllable when there is no vowel eg. prison [prizn] these are: l, r, m, n, ŋ Examples: The final nasals in /pattern/ ; The final nasals in /bottom/ nasal release is the release of a plosive consonant into a nasal stop. Such consonants are also called prestopped nasals. Syllabic n is most common after alveolar plosives and fricatives; in the case of t and d followed by n the plosive is nasally released by lowering the soft palate, so that in the word 'eaten' i:tn, for example, the tongue does not move in the tn sequence but the soft palate is lowered at the end of t so that compressed air escapes through the nose. Lateral realise- Syllabic j is perhaps the most noticeable example of the English syllabic consonant, though it would be wrong to expect to find it in all accents. It occurs after another consonant, and the way it is produced depends to some extent on the nature of that consonant. If the preceding consonant is alveolar, as in 'bottle' and 'muddle' the articulatory movement from the preceding consonant to the syllabic l is quite simple. The sides of the tongue, which are raised for the preceding consonant, are lowered to allow air to escape over them (this is called a lateral release. The tip and blade of the tongue do not move until the articulatory contact for the l is released. 34. allophonic processes affecting vowels in English. There are many other allophonic processes in English, like lack of plosion, nasal plosion, partial devoicing of sonorants, complete devoicing of sonorants, partial devoicing of obstruents, lengthening and shortening vowels, and retraction. Aspiration – strong explosion of breath. In English a voiceless plosive that is p, t or k is aspirated whenever it stands as the only consonant at the beginning of the stressed syllable or of the first, stressed or unstressed, syllable in a word. Nasal plosion – In English a plosive (/p, t, k, b, d, g/) has nasal plosion when it‘s followed by nasal, inside a word or across word boundary. Partial devoicing of sonorants – In English sonorants (/j, w, l, r, m, n, ŋ/) are partially devoiced when they follow a voiceless sound within the same syllable. Complete devoicing of sonorants – In English a sonorant is completely devoiced when it follows an aspirated plosive (/p, t, k/). Partial devoicing of obstruents – In English, a voiced obstruent is partially devoiced next to a pause or next to a voiceless sound, inside a word or across its boundary. Retraction – in English /t, d, n, l/ are retracted before /r/.
  10. 10. Because the choice of allophone is seldom under conscious control, people may not realize they exist. English speakers may become aware of the difference between two allophones of the phoneme /t/, namely unreleased [t] and aspirated [tʰ], if they contrast the pronunciations of the following words: Night rate: [ˈnʌɪt.ɹʷeɪt] (sans word space between . and ɹ) ɪ.t Nitrate: [ˈna eɪt] 35.Suprasegmental featres prosody refers to intonation, rhythm, and vocal stress in speech. The prosodic features of a unit of speech, whether a syllable, word, phrase, or clause, are called suprasegmental features because they affect all the segments of the unit. These suprasegmental features are manifested, among other things, as syllable length, tone, and stress. is a vocal effect that extends over more than one sound segment in an utterance, such as pitch, stress, or juncture pattern. Intonation – is the variation of pitch when speaking Many languages use pitch syntactically, for instance to convey surprise and irony or to change a statement to a question. Such languages are called intonation languages. English is a well-known example pitch, defined as the frequency of vibration of vocal cords). Pitch is measured in hertzes. Physiologically, pitch tends to be higher in woman than in men, and higher before puberty than after puberty. Also, the pitch of women's voices tends to lower with old age; the pitch of men's voices tends to get higher with age Tone – is the use of speech in language to distinguish words. All languages use intonation to express emphasis, contrast, emotion, or other such nuances, but not every language uses tone to distinguish lexical meaning . There are two basic types of tones in tone languages. Register tones are measured by contrasts in the absolute pitch of different syllables. Register tones may be high, mid, or low. (Cf. the IPA symbols for register tones.) Many West African languages use contrasts of high mid and low tones to distinguish word meaning: Zulu, Hausa, Yoruba. See text pp 204-205. Contour tones are tones involving a pitch shift upward or downward on a single syllable. Many languages of East and Southeast Asia use contour tones, the best known being Mandarin Chinese Accent or stress is another suprasegmental feature. It is a meaure of relative volume of sound between syllable peaks. Auditorily, we hear an accented syllable of a word as relatively louder than the unaccented syllables. Acoustically, this difference can be measured in decibels. Syllable – a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds . It is typically made up of vowels and consontants 36. Stress-timed versus syllable-timed languages In a stress-timed language, syllables may last different amounts of time, but there is perceived to be a fairly constant amount of time (on average) between consecutive stressed syllables. Stress-timing is sometimes called Morse-code rhythm. Stress-timing is strongly related to vowel reduction processes. a tendency for stresses to occur at regular intervals the reduction of unstressed syllables the total duration of the utterance depending on the number and position of stressed syllables Syllable-timed language is a language whose syllables take approximately equal amounts of time to pronounce. It can be compared with a stress-timed language, where there is approximately the same amount of time between stressed syllables. Learners whose first language can be described as syllable-timed often have problems recognising and then producing features of English such as contractions, main and secondary stress, and elision. a tendency for syllables to occur at regular intervals no strong stress pattern no marked reduction of unstressed syllables total duration of the utterance depending on the number of syllables 37. The structure of a syllable and phonotactic constraints in English Phonotactic rules determine which sounds are allowed or disallowed in each part of the syllable. English allows very complicated syllables; syllables may begin with up to three consonants (as in string or splash), and occasionally end with as many as four (as in prompts). Many other languages are much more restricted; Japanese, for example, only allows /n/ and a chroneme in a coda, and has no consonant clusters at all, as the onset is composed of at most one consonant. There are languages that forbid empty onsets, such as Hebrew and Arabic (the names transliterated as "Israel", "Abraham", "Omar", "Ali" and "Abdullah", among many others, actually begin with
  11. 11. semiconsonantic glides or with glottal or pharyngeal consonants). Phonotactics is the micro-level study of the structure of syllables that aims to explore how well-formed the syllables of a language are. A macro-level study of the syllables that aims to examine the constraints on the combinatory possibilities of syllables, their positions of occurrence and possible order in the word is called Syllabotactics. We assume that each lexeme has a phonological structure consisting of a sequence of syllables, each syllable having the conventional structure shown below: Onset – is the part of a syllable that precedes the syllable nucleus (vowel ) obligatory in some language Rhyme(Rime)- are variants of the same word , consists of nucleus and optional coda Coda – compromises the consonants sounds of a syllable that folllow the nucleus which is usualyy vowel The combination of a nucleus and a coda is called a rime. A coda is not required in syllables. Nucleus (peak) – is the central part of a syllable , mostly cvommonly a vowel , In an addition to a nucleus a syllable may begin with onset and end with coda but the only part of a syllable that is mandatory is the nucleus 38. Types and functions of intonation in English Rising intonation means the pitch of the voice increases over time; falling intonation means that the pitch decreases with time. A dipping intonation falls and then rises, whereas a peaking intonation rises and then falls. 39. Linking and intrusive /r/ in English The linking R occurs in most (but not all) non-rhotic dialects of English. In dialects that possess linking R, if a word that ends with /ɹ / precedes a word that begins with a vowel, /ɹ / will be realized at the onset of the next word. Thus, for example, the R in here would not be pronounced in here they are (because it is followed by a consonant), but it would be pronounced in here I am. Likewise, the R at the end of far would only be pronounced if the next word begins with a vowel, as in far away or far off. In other words, in a non-rhotic dialect with linking R, [ɹ ] is retained only if it is followed by a vowel, including across word boundaries. In a dialect with intrusive R, an epenthetic [ɹ ] is added after a word that ends in a non-high vowel or glide if the next word begins with a vowel, regardless of whether the first word historically ended with /ɹ /, and even though its spelling does not end with an R. For example, intrusive R would appear in Asia[ɹ ] and Africa or the idea[ɹ ] of it: Asia and idea did not historically end in /ɹ /, and are not pronounced with an [ɹ ] in other circumstances, but the [ɹ ] is inserted epenthetically to prevent a hiatus. Intrusive R also occurs within words before certain suffixes, such as draw[ɹ ]ing or withdraw[ɹ ]al. 40. Coalescence and elision in English Coalescence is a phonological process by which two neighboring sounds merge into a single sound that has properties of each of the two original sounds. Often, the resulting sound has the place of articulation of one of the source sounds and the manner of articulation of the other. Elision is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase, producing a result that is easier for the speaker to pronounce. Sometimes, sounds may be elided for euphonic effect. 41.lexigography and the dictionaries of English Practical lexicography is the art or craft of writing dictionaries. Theoretical lexicography is the scholarly discipline of analyzing and describing the semantic relationships within the lexicon (vocabulary) of a language and developing theories of dictionary components and structures linking the data in dictionaries. This is sometimes referred to as metalexicography. General lexicography focuses on the design, compilation, use and evaluation of general dictionaries, i.e. dictionaries that provide a description of the language in general use. Such a dictionary is usually called a general dictionary or LGP dictionary . Specialized lexicography focuses on the design, compilation, use and evaluation of specialized dictionaries, i.e. dictionaries that are devoted to a (relatively restricted) set of linguistic and factual elements of one or more specialist subject fields, e.g. legal lexicography 42.the problem with definition of term word The precise definition of what a word is depends on which language the definition is for, and the dividing line between words and phrases is not always clear. In most writing systems, a word is usually marked out in the text by interword separation such as spaces or word dividers used in some languages such as Amharic. In other languages such as Chinese and Japanese, and in many ancient languages such as Sanskrit, word boundaries are not shown. Even in writing systems that use interword separation, word boundaries are not always clear; for example, even though ice cream is written like two words, it is a single compound because it cannot be separated by another morpheme or
  12. 12. rephrased like iced cream or cream of ice. Likewise, a proper noun is a word, however long it is. A space may not be even the main morpheme boundary in a word; the word New Yorker is a compound of New York and -er, not of New and Yorker. In English, many common words have historically progressed from being written as two separate words (e.g. to day) to hyphenated (to-day) to a single word (today), a process which is still ongoing, as in the common spelling of all right as alright. 43.the notions of lexeme, word-form, phonological word, grammatical word Lexeme- is an abstract unit of lexicon which comprises all its morphologicl word-forms and all meaning pertaining to it. is an abstract unit of morphological analysis in linguistics, that roughly corresponds to a set of words that are different forms of "the same word". Word-form-contextual realization of a lexicon. The phonological or orthographic sound or appearance of a word that can be used to describe or identify something. The word form is the graphic form of a word, the word as it is written. In this sense gos is a different word from gossos, because they are written in a different manner, even if they correspond to a single entry in a dictionary. In the way the corpus processor is implemented even differences between upper and lower case matter; a query searching for the word gos will not find the word form Gos. You could use a regular expression (if you are familiar with them), like [gG]os+o?s?, but this is not necessary since CUCWeb can be searched for lemmata Phonological word- is a piece of speech which behaves as a unit of pronancuation according to criteria which vary from language to language , in english this criteria is that phonological word contains only one main stress. a particular sequence of letters or phonemes it is often referred to as the word-form it is composed of expression elements Grammatical word - is one of the several forms that may be assumed by a lexical item for gramatical purposes. totally abstract entities they are realized by phonological words e.g. down – realizes at least 2 grammatical words: down the hill; the soft down of his cheek 44.the notions of morpheme, morph, allomorph. Morpheme- the smallest meaningful element in the lg. utterances Types of morphemes: -Free morphemes like town, dog can appear with other lexemes (as in town-hall or dog-house) or they can stand alone, or "free". -Bound morphemes like "un-" appear only together with other morphemes to form a lexeme. Bound morphemes in general tend to be prefixes and suffixes. Morphemes existing in only one bound form are known as "cranberry" morphemes, from the "cran" in that very word. -Inflectional morphemes modify a word's tense, number, aspect, and so on. (as in the dog morpheme if written with the plural marker morpheme s becomes dogs). -Derivational morphemes can be added to a word to create (derive) another word: the addition of "-ness" to "happy", for example, to give "happiness". Morph- is textual context, sensitive realization of the morpheme. Allomorph- is a variant form of a morpheme. The meaning remains the same, while the sound can vary. 45.types of conditioning allomorphy ALLAMORPHES CAN BE:  PHONETICALLY CONDITIONED: (-ed) = walked (-t); stayed(-d); wanted(-id) (-s) = tells(-s); reads(-z); watches(-iz) LEXICALLY CONDITIONED: ox-oxen child-children (-s) => (-en) GRAMATICALLY CONDITIONED: okno, stoły, konie, sędziowie => gender difference 46. inflection versus derivation Derivation - can be set to deal with the methods of forming new lexemes from the already existing ones. Work- worker. Process of creating new lexemes from other lexemes, for example, by adding a derivational affix. It is a kind of word formation. Derivational affixes usually apply to words of one syntactic category and change them into words
  13. 13. of another syntactic category. For example, the English derivational suffix -ly changes adjectives into adverbs (slow → slowly). Inflection- concerns the production of word forms corresponding to a given lexeme. inflection is associated with the marking of such morpho-syntactic categories as: number, person, gender, aspect, tense, voice. Process of adding inflectional morphemes (atomic meaning units) to a word, which may indicate grammatical information (e.g., case, number, person, gender or word class, mood, tense, or aspect). Words generally do not appear in dictionaries with inflectional morphemes. But they often do appear with derivational morphemes. 47.concatenative morphological processes Conctinative consists in putting together 2 or more distinct meaning bearing elements. Compounding-consists in putting together 2 or more lexical items representing major syntactic categories. Noun-noun: homework, verb-noun: hangman, adj-noun: software, participle-noun: outlaw, participle-verb: income. Incorporation -morphology device. Its purest and most typical form is known as noun incorporation and as such it can be defined as verb forming process where by a nominal stem is fused with a verbal stem to yield a larger derived verbal stem. Incorporation is unknown in English. Affixation- the most frequent and wide spread method of producing morphologically complex words in human lg. it may be defined as a combination of a bound derivational or inflectional morpheme with a stem or rood. This morpheme added to the stem is called affix. Here are different types: prefixation(attachment of bound morpheme to the front of base form-unkind), suffixation(adding suffix to the base form at the end of it-domek), interfxation(confix- term covers both suffixed and affixes. Interfix is a confix that follows one stem and procedes another.-śrubokręt), infixation(describes a morphological process where a bound morpheme inflectional or derivational is inserted into the base form usually into a rood form-kango-bloody-roo), corcumfixation(it‘s a kind of affix that does not devide the rood but is devded by itself-gefragt), transfixation(it‘s defined as another kind of discontinuous affix. It cuts across the rood morpheme so that they are both combined like two interlocking-k-t-b=katab,kitaab,kutub). 48.non-concatinative morphological proceses Proceses involve modifying in a systematic way the internal composition of a single lexical item. Reduplication-process which involves repetition of the whole bse element rood or steme or just a part of it.complete reduplication-kitab=kitab-kitab(book, various books), partial reduplication-tawa=tatawa(laugh, one who will lough) Internal modification- denotes a morphological proess which typically consists in replacing within a word a particular phonological segment woth another word. Vowel modification- begin-began, ring-rang; consonant modification- belief-believe, defence-defend; mixed modification- catch-caught, teach-tought. Conversion-marchand- not so different from affixation. Addition of so called zero morpheme to the base. Cook(V)- cook(N) Banner- change n a calss of a form without any corresponding change of form. Back derivation- formation of a new lexeme by delation of a suffix or supposed suffix from form. Begger-to beg, editor-to edit. 49. word-manufacturing processes. The essential feature of word manufacturing is that the new lexeme it produes originate outside the morphological component of the grammar. Clipping- a word or more than one syllable is reduced to a shorter form ad(advertisement) flu(influenza). Back-clipping- the final element of the word is truncated. dorm-dormitory, photo-photography. Fore-clipping- initial part of a word is truncated. Phone-telephone, plain-aeroplain. Mixed-clipping- both initial and final parts of a word are truncated. Flu-influenza, fridge-refridgerator. Clipping-compounds- hi-fi Blending- denotes a process of word-coinage where phonetic fragments of two or more morphemes are put together to make single lexical item. Fragments used to blend are the beginning of one word and the end of another like: Brunch=breakfast+lunch. There are also such blends that two words partially overlap a section in both of them, like: slanguage=slang+language. Acronimization- a new word is created from the initial letters or syllables of a group of words. Ths is process of creating new names for scientific discovery, organization, offices. Letter-word- created from initial letters, include words such as: AIDS, NBA, NASA Syllable-words- created from initial syllables, include words: Benelux, fortrain. Analogical formation- cration of a single new lexeme on the basis of already existing one. Transmotion=promotion, demotion; to higher=to lower. 50. the notion of suppletion, zero morph and empty morph Suppletion- is the replacement of one stem with another, resulting in an allomorph of a morpheme which has no phonological similarity to the other allomorphs. go-went, good-better-best . Suppletion in a particular language, as
  14. 14. demonstrated below, occurs overwhelmingly in lexical items which arise particularly often. Many suppletive forms are known to learners of languages simply as irregular. Zero morph- it has no form but it has some meaning attached to it. 1 fish, 2 fish (zero morph) Empty morph- a form without corresponding meaning. Blue|berry, cran|berry. 51.types of affixes Affixes are divided into several types, depending on their position with reference to the root: - Prefixes (attached before another morpheme) - Suffixes (attached after another morpheme) - Infixes (inserted within another morpheme) - Circumfixes (attached before and after another morpheme or set of morphemes) - Interfixes (semantically empty linking elements in compounds) - Suprafixes (also superfix, attached suprasegmentally to another morpheme) - Simulfixes (also transfix or root-and-pattern morphology, discontinuous affix interweaved throughout a discontinuous base) - Duplifix (little used term referring to affix composed of both a reduplicated and non-reduplicated element, see Reduplication and other processes) Affixes are bound morphemes by definition. Prefixes and suffixes may be separable affixes. There also has been a proposal of a somewhat different type of affix, a disfix or subtractive morpheme, which subtracts phonological segments from bases. Affixes are central to the process of concatenation 52.types of compounds Noun-noun compounds Most natural languages have compound nouns. The positioning of the language, i. e. the most common order of constituents in phrases where nouns are modified by adjectives, by possessors, by other nouns, etc. While Germanic languages, for example, are left-branching when it comes to noun phrases (the modifiers come before the head), the Romance languages are usually right-branching. Verb-noun compounds A type of compound that is fairly common in the Indo-European languages is formed of a verb and its object, and in effect transforms a simple verbal clause into a noun. This construction exists in English, generally with the verb and noun both in uninflected form: examples are spoilsport, killjoy, breakfast, cutthroat, pickpocket, dreadnought, and know-nothing. Also common in English is another type of verb-noun (or noun-verb) compound, in which an argument of the verb is incorporated into the verb, which is then usually turned into a gerund, such as breastfeeding, finger-pointing, etc. The noun is often an instrumental complement. From these gerunds new verbs can be made: (a mother) breastfeeds (a child) and from them new compounds mother-child breastfeeding, etc. A special kind of composition is incorporation, of which noun incorporation into a verbal root (as in English backstabbing, breastfeed, etc.) is most prevalent (see below). Verb-verb compounds Verb-verb compounds are sequences of more than one verb acting together to determine clause structure. They have two types: In a serial verb, two actions, often sequential, are expressed in a single clause. For example, Ewe trɔ dzo, lit. "turn leave", means "turn and leave", and Hindi jā-kar dekh-o, lit. "go-CONJUNCTIVE PARTICIPLE see-IMPERATIVE", means "go and see". In each case, the two verbs together determine the semantics and argument structure. Serial verb expressions in English may include What did you go and do that for?, or He just upped and left; this is however not quite a true compound since they are connected by a conjunction and the second missing arguments may be taken as a case of ellipsis. In a compound verb (or complex predicate), one of the verbs is the primary, and determines the primary semantics and also the argument structure. The secondary verb, often called a vector verb or explicator, provides fine distinctions, usually in temporality or aspect, and also carries the inflection (tense and/or agreement markers). The main verb usually appears in conjunctive participial (sometimes zero) form. For examples, Hindi nikal gayā, lit. "exit went", means 'went out', while nikal paRā, lit. "exit fell", means 'departed' or 'was blurted out'. In these examples nikal is the primary verb, and gayā and paRā are the vector verbs. With a few exceptions all compound verbs alternate with their simple counterparts. That is, removing the vector does not affect grammaticality at all nor the meaning very much. Compound adpositions
  15. 15. Compound prepositions formed by prepositions and nouns are common in English and the Romance languages (consider English on top of, Spanish encima de, etc.). Japanese shows the same pattern, except the word order is the opposite (with postpositions): no naka (lit. "of inside", i.e. "on the inside of"). 53. the notion of base, stem, root Stem - in linguistics, is the combination of the basic form of a word (called the root) plus any derivational morphemes, but excluding inflectional elements. This means, alternatively, that the stem is the form of the word to which inflectional morphemes can be added, if applicable. For example, the root of the English verb form destabilized is stabil- (alternate form of stable); the stem is de·stabil·ize, which includes the derivational affixes de- and -ize, but not the inflectional past tense suffix (e)d The definition of stem usually includes the possibility of zero derivation, so in fact any root is also a stem. That is, if X is a root, then the stem X is the root X plus a zero derivational affix. base is a synonym for root word. Base the root or a stem of a word or a derivative the uninflected form of a verb any form to which affixes of any kind can be added (general concept) a lexeme from which another, complex lexeme is formed; any form to which any affixes can be added(both derivational and inflectional) e.g. UNTOUCHABLES derivational prefix derivational suffix inflectional ending UN TOUCH ABLE S Root=base stem=base root a morpheme which doesn‘t necessarily survive as a word itself from which words have been made by the addition of prefixes or affixes or by any other modification the innermost morpheme, it‘s not further analyzable into meaningful elements; it can be also called free morpheme; some words can be morphologically simplex as they are only the root (monomorphemic) stem the root or main part of a word, to which inflections or formative elements can be added concerns only inflectional morphology it is that part of a word which remains when all inflectional suffixes have been removed (e.g. pl. –s ) 54. content word and function word Function words- or grammatical words are words that have little lexical meaning or have ambiguous meaning, but instead serve to express grammatical relationships with other words within a sentence, or specify the attitude or mood of the speaker. Words which are not function words are called content words or lexical words: these include nouns, verbs, adjectives, and most adverbs, though some adverbs are function words (e.g. then, why). Dictionaries define the specific meanings of content words, but can only describe the general usages of function words. By contrast, grammars describe the use of function words in detail, but have little interest in lexical words. Function words may be prepositions, pronouns, auxiliary verbs, conjunctions, grammatical articles or particles, all of which belong to the group of closed class words. Interjections are sometimes considered function words but they belong to the group of open class words. Function words may or may not be inflected or may have affixes. Content word it‘s an open class of words these are words belonging to the major parts of speech classes open class means that an unlimited number of new words can be created & added to this class these are adjectives, nouns, adverbs, lexical verbs, numerals they have dictionary meaning function word it‘s a closed class of words no new elements can be added these are words like pronouns, auxiliaries, modal verbs, conjuctions, prepositions
  16. 16. they have no lexical meaning 55.Obligatorily bound and potentially free morphs 56.Bound bases and portmanteau morphs A portmanteau morph is a single morph that is analyzed as representing two underlying morphemes. Example(French,) au ‗to (him)‘ from a ‗to‘ + le ‗masc. art‘ du ‗of (him)‘ from de ‗of‘ + le ‗masc. art‘ 57.The category of aspect and tense in English Aspect is a somewhat difficult concept to grasp for the speakers of most modern Germanic languages, because they tend to conflate the concept of aspect with the concept of tense. Although English largely separates tense and aspect formally, its aspects (neutral, progressive, perfect and progressive perfect) do not correspond very closely to the distinction of perfective vs. imperfective that is common in most other languages. Furthermore, the separation of tense and aspect in English is not maintained rigidly. One instance of this is the alternation, in some forms of English, between sentences such as "Have you eaten yet?" and "Did you eat yet?". Another is in the past perfect ("I had eaten"), which sometimes represents the combination of past tense and perfect aspect ("I was full because I had already eaten"), but sometimes simply represents a past action which is anterior to another past action ("A little while after I had eaten, my friend arrived"). (The latter situation is often represented in other languages by a simple perfective tense. TENSE refers to the absolute location of an event or action in time, either the present or the past. It is marked by an inflection of the verb: David walks to school (present tense) David walked to school (past tense) Reference to other times -- the future, for instance -- can be made in a number of ways, by using the modal auxiliary will, or the semi-auxiliary be going to: David will walk to school tomorrow David is going to walk to school tomorrow. Since the expression of future time does not involve any inflecton of the verb, we do not refer to a "future tense". Strictly speaking, there are only two tenses in English: present and past. ASPECT refers to how an event or action is to be viewed with respect to time, rather than to its actual location in time. We can illustrate this using the following examples: [1] David fell in love on his eighteenth birthday [2] David has fallen in love [3] David is falling in love In [1], the verb fell tells us that David fell in love in the past, and specifically on his eighteenth birthday. This is a simple past tense verb. In [2] also, the action took place in the past, but it is implied that it took place quite recently. Furthermore, it is implied that is still relevant at the time of speaking -- David has fallen in love, and that's why he's behaving strangely. It is worth noting that we cannot say *David has fallen in love on his eighteenth birthday. The auxiliary has here encodes what is known as PERFECTIVE ASPECT, and the auxiliary itself is known as the PERFECTIVE AUXILIARY. In [3], the action of falling in love is still in progress -- David is falling in love at the time of speaking. For this reason, we call it PROGRESSIVE ASPECT, and the auxiliary is called the PROGRESSIVE AUXILIARY. While aspect always includes tense, tense can occur without aspect (David falls in love, David fell in love). 58.The category of number, gender and case in English masculine (m.), feminine (f.), neuter (n.). A Latin noun has a given grammatical gender which may or may not correspond to its natural gender. An adjective takes on the gender of the noun that it modifies; this is gender called agreeing with its noun. He is used for masculine nouns; she is used for feminine nouns; and it is used for nouns of indeterminate gender and inanimate objects. It is generally considered both ungrammatical and/or impolite to refer to humans as it; common gender – teacher, neighbour singular (one) or plural (two or more); Nouns are described as being either singular or plural, the latter number referring to two or more of the same type of thing (with the case of zero things providing a few twists). a form of a noun (and any agreeing adjective) that indicates by its ending how the word functions grammatically in the sentence. Latin has six cases (see individual definitions): nominative, genitive, dative, case accusative, ablative, and vocative. English has only two cases: nominative (used for the subject of a sentence) and objective (used for everything else). Case 1st sg. 2nd sg. 3rd sg. 1st pl. 2nd pl. 3rd pl. interrogative
  17. 17. Nominative I you (thou) he, she, it we you they who Genitive mine yours (thine) his, hers, its ours yours theirs whose Accusative me you (thee) him, her, it us you them whom 59.The category of mood, person and voice in English MOOD – grammatical category expressed by verb inflectionwhich indicates what the speaker is doing with a proposition in a particular discourse situation: - indicative (usual form) - imperative (command) - hortative (ex hortation) – nawoływanie - subjunctive (subordination) PERSON – grammatical category reffering to the number and nature of the participants in a situation: - first person (I, we) – refers to themselves or group including themselves - second person – (you) – person they are addresing - third person (he, she, they) – refers to other people, animals. VOICE – category used in grammatical description, chiefly with reference to the verb, to express the way a clause may alter the relation between subject and object without changing the meaning of the sentence: - active – grammatical subject is the actor in relation to the verb - pasive – when it is the goal or recipient of the action denoted by the verb. 60. the scope of syntactic analysis The purpose of syntactic analysis is to determine the structure of the input text. This structure consists of a hierarchy of phrases, the smallest of which are the basic symbols and the largest of which is the sentence. It can be described by a tree with one node for each phrase. Basic symbols are represented by leaf nodes, and other phrases by interior nodes. The root of the tree represents the sentence. 61. Tests for constituency Constituency tests Various constituency tests exist. Some syntacticians arrange such tests on a scale of reliability, with less-reliable tests treated as useful to confirm constituency though not sufficient on their own. Failing to pass a test, however, does not always mean that the unit is not a constituent. It is best to apply as many tests as possible to a given unit in order to prove or to rule out its constituency. Substitution (replacement) Using "it" instead of the whole clause "what you said" is called substitution, or replacement. This is one of the tests used to determine the internal structure of a sentence, i.e. to determine its constituents. Substitution normally involves using pronouns like it, he, there, here etc. in place of a phrase or a clause. If such a change yields a grammatical sentence where the general structure has not been altered, then the sequence of words which is being tested is a constituent: e.g. I don't know the man who is sleeping in the car. I don't know him who is sleeping in the car. (ungrammatical) I don't know him. The ungrammaticality of the first changed version and the grammaticality of the second one demonstrates that the whole sequence, the man who is sleeping in the car, and not just the man is a constituent functioning as a unit. Movement Movement includes such operations as clefting, fronting, pseudo-clefting and passivization. Fronting is the simplest movement operation when the sequence we want to test is moved to the front of the sentence: He is going to attend another language course to improve his English. To improve his English, he is going to attend another course. Clefting involves placing a sequence of words X within the structure beginning with "It is/was": It was X that... She bought a pair of gloves with silk embroidery. It was a pair of gloves with silk embroidery that she bought. Pseudo-clefting (also preposing) is similar to clefting in that it puts emphasis on a certain phrase in a sentence. It involves inserting a sequence of words before "is/are what" or "is/are who": A pair of gloves with silk embroidery is what she bought. Passivization involves more than just movement. Apart from putting the object in the subject position and the subject after the preposition by, it also triggers changes in the verb form: A car driving at breakneck speed nearly hit the little dog. The little dog was nearly hit by a car driving at breakneck speed.
  18. 18. In case passivization results in a grammatical sentence, the phrases that have been moved can be regarded as constituents. The stand-alone (or question) test This test refers to the ability of a sequence of words to stand alone as a reply to a question. It is often used to test the constituency of a verbal phrase but can also be applied to other phrases: What did you do yesterday? - Worked on my new project. vs. What did you do yesterday? - Worked on. (ungrammatical, which means that [worked on] is not a unit). Linguists do not agree whether passing the stand-alone test is sufficient, though at a minimum they agree that it can help confirm the results of another constituency test. Other tests Other constituency tests can be used in a limited number of syntactic environments: Deletion checks whether a sequence of words can be omitted without influencing the grammaticality of the sentence — in most cases local or temporal adverbials can be safely omitted and thus constitute a syntactic unit; Coordination relies on the fact that only constituents can be coordinated, i.e., joined by means of the coordinating conjunction "and" (e.g., He enjoys [writing short stories] and [reading them to his friends].) 62. modification and complementation in syntax Modification- is a morphological process which produces an alteration within a root or stem. complementation has to do with "completing the meaning" of a verb. Complementation is indicated in diagramming by labeling the grammatical tie between the verb and its complement with a C. But the situation with verbs is a little complicated. Structural grammar distinguishes five types of complementation, as follows. Direct Object, indicated in diagramming by C with DO. Example: The dog ate bones, where bones is said to be the direct object of ate. Direct Object and Indirect Object, indicated in diagramming by DO and IO, respectively, along with the obligatory C. Example: He gave her flowers, where flowers is said to be the direct object of gave, and her is said to be the indirect object of gave. Objective Complement, indicated in diagramming by C with OC. Example: It made him angry, where angry is said to be the objective complement of made. Retained Object, indicated in diagramming by C with RO. Example: She was given flowers, where flowers is said to be the retained object of was given. Subjective Complement, indicated in diagramming by C with SC. Example: He was angry, where angry is said to be the subjective complement of was. 63 Functions in a sentence In linguistics, sentence function refers to a speaker's purpose in uttering a specific sentence, phrase, or clause. Whether a listener is present or not is sometimes irrelevant. It answers the question: "Why has this been said?" The most basic sentence functions in the world's languages include the declarative, interrogative, exclamative, and the imperative. These correspond to a statement, question, exclamation, and command respectively. Typically, a sentence goes from one function to the next through a combination of changes in word order, intonation, the addition of certain auxiliaries or particles, and many times by providing a special verbal form as well. The four main categories can be further specified as being either communicative or informative. 64. Subject and predicate as the immediate constituents of a sentence Every complete sentence contains two parts: a subject and a predicate. The subject is what (or whom) the sentence is about, while the predicate tells something about the subject. In the following sentences, the predicate is enclosed in braces ({}), while the subject is highlighted. Judy {runs}. Judy and her dog {run on the beach every morning}. To determine the subject of a sentence, first isolate the verb and then make a question by placing "who?" or "what?" before it -- the answer is the subject. The audience littered the theatre floor with torn wrappings and spilled popcorn. The verb in the above sentence is "littered." Who or what littered? The audience did. "The audience" is the subject of the sentence. The predicate (which always includes the verb) goes on to relate something about the subject: what about the audience? It "littered the theatre floor with torn wrappings and spilled popcorn." Unusual Sentences Imperative sentences (sentences that give a command or an order) differ from conventional sentences in that their subject, which is always "you," is understood rather than expressed.
  19. 19. Stand on your head. ("You" is understood before "stand.") Be careful with sentences that begin with "there" plus a form of the verb "to be." In such sentences, "there" is not the subject; it merely signals that the true subject will soon follow. There were three stray kittens cowering under our porch steps this morning. If you ask who? or what? before the verb ("were cowering"), the answer is "three stray kittens," the correct subject. Simple Subject and Simple Predicate Every subject is built around one noun or pronoun (or more) that, when stripped of all the words that modify it, is known as the simple subject. Consider the following example: A piece of pepperoni pizza would satisfy his hunger. The subject is built around the noun "piece," with the other words of the subject -- "a" and "of pepperoni pizza" -- modifying the noun. "Piece" is the simple subject. Likewise, a predicate has at its centre a simple predicate, which is always the verb or verbs that link up with the subject. In the example we just considered, the simple predicate is "would satisfy" -- in other words, the verb of the sentence. A sentence may have a compound subject -- a simple subject consisting of more than one noun or pronoun -- as in these examples: Team pennants, rock posters and family photographs covered the boy's bedroom walls. Her uncle and she walked slowly through the Inuit art gallery and admired the powerful sculptures exhibited there. The second sentence above features a compound predicate, a predicate that includes more than one verb pertaining to the same subject (in this case, "walked" and "admired"). 65.Types of nouns and the functions of NP’s Classifications of Types of Nouns Proper Nouns Proper nouns are nouns that refer to specific entities. Writers of English capitalize proper nouns like Nebraska, Steve, Harvard, or White House to show their distinction from common nouns. Common Nouns Common nouns refer to general, unspecific categories of entities. Whereas Nebraska is a proper noun because it signifies a specific state, the word state itself is a common noun because it can refer to any of the 50 states in the United States. Harvard refers to a particular institution of higher learning, while the common noun university can refer to any such institution. Countable Nouns To linguists, these count nouns can occur in both single and plural forms, can be modified by numerals, and can co- occur with quantificational determiners like many, most, more, several, etc. -For example, the noun bike is countable noun. Consider the following sentence: There is a bike in that garage. In this example, the word bike is singular as it refers to one bike that is presently residing in a particular garage. -However, bike can also occur in the plural form: There are six broken bikes in that garage. In this example, the noun bikes refers to more than one bike as it is being modified by the numeral six. In addition, countable nouns can co-occur with quantificational determiners. In that garage, several bikes are broken. This sentence is grammatical, as the noun bike can take the modification of the quantificational determiner several. Uncountable Nouns or Mass Nouns -Conversely, some nouns are not countable and are called uncountable nouns or mass nouns. For example, the word clutter is a mass noun. That garage is full of clutter. This sentence makes grammatical sense. -However, the following example does not. That garage is full of clutters. Mass nouns can not take plural forms, and therefore a sentence containing the word clutters is ungrammatical. -Substances, liquids, and powders are entities that are often signified by mass nouns such as wood, sand, water, and flour. Other examples would be milk, air, furniture, freedom, rice, and intelligence. Collective Nouns -In general, collective nouns are nouns that refer to a group of something in a specific manner. Often, collective nouns are used to refer to groups of animals. Consider the following sentences. Look at the gaggle of geese. There used to be herds of wild buffalo on the prairie. A bevy of swans is swimming in the pond. A colony of ants live in the anthill. In the above examples, gaggle, herds, bevy, and colony are collective nouns. Concrete Nouns -Concrete nouns are nouns that can be touched, smelled, seen, felt, or tasted. Steak, table, dog, Maria, salt, and wool are all examples of concrete nouns. Can I pet your dog? Your sweater is made of fine wool. Concrete nouns can be perceived by at least one of our senses.
  20. 20. Abstract Nouns -More ethereal, theoretical concepts use abstract nouns to refer to them. Concepts like freedom, love, power, and redemption are all examples of abstract nouns. They hate us for our freedom. All you need is love. In these sentences, the abstract nouns refer to concepts, ideas, philosophies, and other entities that cannot be concretely perceived. Pronouns -Personal pronouns are types of nouns that take the place of nouns when referring to people, places or things. The personal pronouns in English are I, you, he, she, it, and they. Amy works at a flower shop. She works at a flower shop. -These pronouns take on other forms depending on what type of function they are performing in a sentence. For example, when used to signify possession of another noun, pronouns take on their possessive form such as mine, ours, hers, and theirs. That pizza belongs to Marley. That pizza is hers. -When used as the object of a preposition, pronouns take on their objective case. Examples include him, her, me, us, and them. Hand the money over to Jennifer. Hand the money over to her. 66. Major properties of English nouns - Number ( & countability ) The most common manifestation of the category of number is the distinction between singular and plural. What we count as ‗one‘ or ‗more than one‘ or ‗as a group of objects‘ is determined by the lexical structure of particular languages. e.g. Eng. ‗grape‘ can be pluralised but German ‗Traube‘ is a mass noun. In all languages certain may be used either as ‗mass‘ or ‗countable‘ nouns. The lexical categorisation of the world in terms o ‗countable‘ or ‗ collective‘ and ‗mass‘ nouns varies from language to language. Apart from these three categories there may be the possibility of secondary recategorisation ‗ a countable‘ in certain context ( They drink three of four vines at every meal ). There are also ‗plural only‘ forms as ‗scissors‘ and ‗trousers‘. - Gender The traditional names for the three genders found in the classical IE languages: ―masculine‖ , ―feminine‖ , ―neuter‖ - clearly reflect the association which traditional grammar establish between sex and gender. Gender plays relatively minor part in the grammar of English by comparison with its role in many other languages. The reference of the pronouns ― he, she, it ‖ is largely determined by what is sometimes referred to as ‗natural gender‘. - Case Case was the most important of the inflexional categories of the noun, as tense was the most important inflexional category of a verb. The contemporarily language has cases for nouns and pronouns mainly the common case and the genitive case. Potentially countable nouns have four case forms: - Two in singular: girl, girl‘s - Two in plural: girls, girls‘ Heads of phrases that can act as subject or object and can be modified by adjectives, other nouns and prepositional phrases Quantifiers- are used to describe the quantity Determiners-articles, demonstrative pronouns The best way to check if sth is a noun is to use it as a head of a phrase A noun is a word used to refer to people, animals, objects, substances, states, events and feelings. Nouns can be a subject or an object of a verb, can be modified by an adjective and can take an article or determiner. Nouns may be divided into two groups: Countable Nouns have plural forms and Uncountable Nouns do not. 67. major properties of English verbs. Verbs- heads of phrases that can function as predicates and that can be complimented by adjective phrases, noun phrases, prepositional phrases and modified by noun phrases, prepositional phrases, adverb phrases Verbs are one of the major grammatical groups, and all sentences must contain one. verbs refer to an action (do, break, walk, etc.) or a state (be, like, own).The verb tense shows the time of the action or state. Aspect shows whether
  21. 21. the action or state is completed or not. Voice is used to show relationships between the action and the people affected by it. Mood shows the attitude of the speaker about the verb, whether it is a declaration or an order. Verbs can be affected by person and number to show agreement with the subject. Every verb has 5 properties: 1. Person 2. Number 3. Tense 4. Voice 5. Mood I. Person If speaker/writer‘s relationship to the subject is I or we to I or we=1st PERSON If I or we to you (singular or plural)=2nd PERSON If I or we to he, she, it, or they=3rd PERSON II. Number � If subject represents one person, place, or thing (the subject of the sentence)� SINGULAR�. � If subject represents more than one persons, places, or things� PLURAL� . IV. Voice If the subject is acting ACTIVE. If the subject is being acted upon PASSIVE. V. Mood 1. If sentence is a simple statement of fact=INDICATIVE 2. If it depends on something else to happen (i.e., a condition)=SUBJUNCTIVE 3. If a command=IMPERATIVE 68. Subcategories of verbs in English There are 6 sub-categories of verbs: 1) Verbs which haven‘t complement = intransitive verbs It cannot occur in the passive voice. Example: sleep, smile, sign 2) Verbs with one complement= monotransitive verbs. Complement is called direct object and it have to be noun. You could make the passive with one exeption: verb ―to be‖. Example: John was writing the book 3) prepositional verb- has only one complementation. Only prepositional phrase can be complement of prepositional verb. Examp: wait, look Uwaga! Nie mylić z phrasal verb which are followed by verb phrase not prepositional one. If you can put object between Verb and particle to to jest Phrasal, jeśli nie to prepositional phrase 4)Intensive Verb- ―to be‖ –has only one complementation. You cannot make passive voice. Complementation describes subject predicative. It‘s either prepositional phrase of adjective one. EX: Suzan was at home-description of location of S. 5)Ditransitive verb= has two objects- one direct-always noun phrase, one indirect is a noun phrase or prepositional ph. When its after the verb EX: John gave Suzan a present. ―suzan‖ is direct o. and ―a present‖ is indirect There are two possibilities of passive because both object can be passive 6)Complextransitive= combination of monotransitive and intensive- consists of direct object and object predicative EX: the people elected Kaczke as a President- position is stable- nie można zmienić pozycji więc możliwa jest tylko jedna passive Direct obj: must be noun phase and Object predicative:can be adjective phrase 69.How to distinguish ditransitive and complex transitive verbs? A transitive verb is a verb that takes a direct object. Transitivity is the number of objects a verb requires or takes in a given instance. Transitivity is sometimes expressed as a grammatical category by means of verb morphology. The meaning of a transitive verb is incomplete without a direct object, as in the following examples: INCOMPLETE The shelf holds. COMPLETE The shelf holds three books and a vase of flowers. INCOMPLETE