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Final Wikki Presentation

  1. 1. Subcultures and in Major American Cities Throughout the Twentieth Century Max, Kara, Tracey, Leah, Jacqueli ne, Anna, Stefania
  2. 2. 1920‟s and 1930‟s Depression, Art Deco, Harlem Renaissance, and Skyscrapers
  3. 3. Great Depression Cities in the Great  Depression were hit hard, beginning in 1929 and lasting through most of the 1930s Worst hit were ports (as  world trade fell) and cities dependent on heavy industry, such as steel and automobiles The Depression's damage  to large cities, suburbs, towns and rural areas varied according to the economic base.
  4. 4. Great Depression Devastating was the  disappearance of 2 million high paying jobs in the construction trades, plus the loss of profits and rents that humbled many thousands of landlords and real estate investors. Second came the general  downturn in industry, especially heavy manufacturing. Steel in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and G ary, Indiana, and automobiles in Detroit took the heaviest hits, along with railroads and coal mining. A sharp educational gradient  meant that the less skilled inner city men had much higher unemployment rates than the high-school and college educated men who lived in outer zones and suburbs.
  5. 5. Great Depression While some  unemployed came to the cities looking for relief (especially African Americans), it appears that even larger numbers of unemployed returned to family farms. For the first time ever, the movement of native population was away from cities and toward rural America.
  6. 6. Art Deco Art Deco was a popular international  art design movement from 1925 until 1939, affecting the decorative arts such as architecture, interior design, and industrial design, as well as the visual arts such as fashion, painting, the graphic arts and film. At the time, this style was seen as elegant, glamorous, functional, and modern. Its popularity peaked in Europe during  the Roaring Twenties and continued strongly in the United States through the 1930s. Although many design movements have political or philosophical roots or intentions, Art Deco was purely decorative.
  7. 7. Art Deco Many classic examples still  exist in the form of architecture in many major cities. The Chrysler Building, designed by William Van Alen, is a classic example of this, as it is one of the most notable examples of Art Deco architecture today. Its rich, festive character fitted  it for quot;modernquot; contexts, including the Golden Gate Bridge The style is said to have  reflected the tensions in the cultural politics of its day, with eclecticism having been one of its defining features
  8. 8. Harlem Renaissance Refers to the flowering of African  American cultural and intellectual life during the 1920s and 1930s. At the time, it was known as the quot;New Negro Movementquot;, named after the 1925 anthology The New Negro edited by Alain Locke Centered in the Harlem neighborhood  of New York City, the movement impacted urban centers throughout the United States. Across the cultural spectrum (literature, drama, music, visual art, dance) and also in the realm of social thought (sociology, historiography, philosophy), arti sts and intellectuals found new ways to explore the historical experiences of black America and the contemporary experiences of black life in the urban North.
  9. 9. Harlem Renaissance The Harlem Renaissance had a  profound impact not only on African- American culture but also on the cultures of the African Diaspora. Afro- Caribbean artists and intellectuals from the British West Indies, who had migrated to New York in number, were part of the movement. Opened on 125th Street on January  26, 1914, in a former burlesque house, it has remained a symbol of African- American culture. As one of the most famous clubs for popular music in the United States, it was the first place where many figures from the Harlem Renaissance found a venue for their talents and a start to their careers. The careers of Billie Holiday,Ella Fitzgerald, and Sarah Vaughan (among many others) were launched at the Apollo.
  10. 10. Skyscrapers From the 1930s  onwards, skyscrapers also began to appear in Latin America (São Paulo, Caracas, Mexico City) and in Asia (Tokyo, Shanghai, Ho ng Kong, Manila,Singapore, Mu mbai, Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur, Taipei, Bangkok). No city in the world has  more completed individual free-standing buildings over 492 ft (150 m) than New York City
  11. 11. Skyscrapers At the beginning of the 20th century, New  York City was a center for the Beaux-Arts architectural movement, attracting the talents of such great architects as Stanford Whiteand Carrere and Hastings. As better construction and engineering technology became available as the century progressed, New York became the focal point of the competition for the tallest building in the world. The city's striking skyline has been composed of numerous and varied skyscrapers, many of which are icons of 20th century architecture: Chrysler Building took the lead as the tallest  building in the world, scraping the sky at 1,046 feet (319 m).Designed by William Van Alen, an art deco masterpiece with an exterior crafted of brick, the Chrysler Building continues to be a favorite of New Yorkers to this day
  12. 12. Skyscrapers The Empire State Building, the first building to  have more than 100 floors (it has 102), was completed the following year. It was designed by Shreve, Lamb and Harmonin the contemporary Art Deco style. The tower takes its name from the nickname of New York State. Upon its completion in 1931, it took the top spot as tallest building, and at 1,472 feet (448 m) to the very top of the antenna, towered above all other buildings until 1973. The Sears Tower was completed in 1974, one  year after the World Trade Center, and surpassed it as the world's tallest building. It was the first building to employ the quot;bundled tubequot; structural system, designed by Fazlur Khan The building was not surpassed in height until the Petronas Towers were constructed in 1998, but remained the tallest in some categories until the Burj Dubai, currently under construction, surpassed it in all categories.
  13. 13. 1940‟s White Flight, Surrealism, Beat Generation, Hipsters, Gay Subculture
  14. 14. Important 1940‟s Events The NAACP denounces racial segregation in  the military. WWII  G.I. Bill introduced  The first digital computer called the ENIAC  was completed. United Nations founded.  Margret Sanger founded the International  Planned Parenthood Foundation. First nonstop flight around the world.  Cable television becomes available. 
  15. 15. Surrealism in Art After WWII many of  the artists in Europe migrated to the United States and settled in New York City Greenwich Village, the  Lower East Side and the East Village Predominate figure in  the art world Our desires go against  social expectations. Surrealist painters  used realistic representation, but juxtaposed objects and images in irrational ways Inspired by mythology 
  16. 16. White Flight and Black Migration After WWII ended  there was a great push for middle class America to move into the suburbs. G.I. Bill  White Middle  Class move to suburbs from cities African Americans  move into urban areas from the south
  17. 17. The Beat Generation New York City and San  Francisco Artists, poets, school  dropouts, and social explorers Jack Kerouac coined the  term Beat Generation in 1948 in a conversation with author John Clellon Holmes “Beat” means to be  bad, ruined or spent. Also associated with  poets who would beat their legs together when they read their work
  18. 18. The Beat Generation Went against traditional  American values Wanted to be the exact  opposite of their parents‟ generation Experimented with drugs  and sexuality Little mention of women  They were later known  as Beatniks
  19. 19. Hipsters Introduced in 1941 and was derived  from the word “hip” which meant to be cool, stylish, modern, and in the know White youths started to go to African  American communities for their music, dance, and culture. These were the one of the first white  youth groups to leave the mainstream due to their racial equality beliefs, openness to sexuality and drug use. Hipsters were in a lower economic class  with a “straight-edge” style.
  20. 20. Hipsters Used drugs, believed in  free sex, and had self- imposed poverty They were in the same  economic class as African Americans at the time Many were called the  “white negro” This continued on in the  1950‟s and then translated into the hippies in later years
  21. 21. The Gay Subculture During WWII many people found a way to  explore their sexuality It was the first time they were away from  their small towns where certain expectations needed to be met Being gay was still a felony  If anyone in the military was found to be  gay they would be discharged Once the war was over a large gay  population moved into the city Gay bars began opening 
  22. 22. SUBCULTURES OF THE 1950’S By Tracey Ross Of the Pudgy Pandas
  23. 23. elated Greasers-  originated in southern United States among different street gangs.  AKA “Hoods” but not related to gang behavior we know today.  Their name came from their greased back hair, which involved combing  back hair with wax, gel, creams, tonics or pomade. Some greasers worked at gas stations or shops that repaired cars or  motorcycles. American Greasers were known more for their love of hotrod cars.  Movies that accurately depicted the greaser culture were movies like  Grease and La Bamba. Women‟s Fashion  Men‟s Fashion 
  24. 24. The Teens-”A threat to a cohesive society and  contributor to destruction in American society” Teens during the 50‟s deviated from the normative model of the happy  nuclear family. In response to the constraints of the suburban family model, teens spent  large amounts of time with other teens rather than with their families and developed their values, language, fashions, and music distinct from their parents. Parental Authority was challenged, teens had become more  autonomous, they had begun their own jobs and had become consumers in their own right, buying their own clothes, cars and music. A man who was a teen in the 50‟s stated “as a young teenager in the  1950's, I was unaware of anyone having sex outside of marriage, (no doubt is was happening, but it was apparently too heinous to talk about), and I never knew of a child born out of wedlock being raised by a single mother until I was in my 20's (in the early 1970's). Adults feared that their own teens would fall into the bad practices of the  juvenile delinquents. Some stereotypes were drag racing, drugs, sex, teenage jive language  and rebellion against authority.
  25. 25. The Beatniks  The Beatniks or Beats were a sub-culture of American males who rebelled against  their role as breadwinner/husband in the dominant model of the family. Sex, which seemed to be their only goal, was available for the Beats without  subscribing to the dominant model lifestyle; a man didn't have to be married and responsible for supporting a family to get sex. Much of Beat culture represented a negative stance rather than a positive one. It  was animated more by a vague feeling of cultural and emotional displacement, dissatisfaction, and yearning Violent culture  stereotype, with men wearing goatees  and berets, rolling their own cigarettes  and playing bongos. 
  26. 26. The Gays and Lesbians  Many people during this time felt that gays and lesbians threatened the  propagation of American society. When they became a visible sub-culture within American society, they  became a threat. Consequently, they were oppressed, ostracized, and threatened. Since the strength and future of the society was seen to rest on the  nuclear family, and nuclear families by definition consisted of heterosexual parents producing children, gays and lesbians where hated because they deviated from this model. The military experience had served to strengthen the identity of gays and  lesbians because they were put in isolation in small towns and found other people like themselves. While most of America looked forward to the end of the war and a return  to quot;normal,quot; for gays and lesbians that meant a return to hiding in the closet or forcing themselves into the (unnatural (for them)) roles of husband or wife.
  27. 27. 1960’s Subcultures By Leah Rainer
  28. 28. Major Events Timeline 1960  First televised Presidential debates bring image into the  campaign when JFK wins the debate against a very distressed looking Nixon. JFK becomes America‟s 35th President  1961  Berlin Wall is constructed, creating a divide between  Eastern and Western Germany, and also bringing communism to the forefront of American concern. Peace Corps is founded, an example of the desire for  peace and harmony as US involvement in Vietnam begins to increase. 1962-  Cuban Missile Crisis  First person killed trying to cross the Berlin Wall  Silent Spring by Rachel Carson is published and  launches much of the Environmental Movement
  29. 29. Major Events Cont. 1963-  JFK is assassinated, Lyndon B. Johnson takes office  Martin Luther King Jr.‟s “I Have A Dream” Speech  Betty Friedman publishes The Feminine Mystique, empowering women to  seek a more fulfilling life outside of the traditional norms and expectations of the American woman. 1964-  Civil Rights Act passed, outlawing segregation and creating the Equal  Employment Opportunity Commission Beatles become popular in US  1965-  US sends troops to Vietnam  Los Angeles Riots  Malcolm X is assassinated  1966-  Black Panther Party is established  Mass protests against the draft 
  30. 30. Major Events Cont. 1967-  Riots in Newark  After riots throughout the country, Lyndon B. Johnson  files the Kerner Commission which states that the US was becoming a nation that was “separate and unequal, black and white.” Demands more accurate and unbiased news coverage for all races. 1968-  MLK Jr. assassinated  Robert Kennedy assassinated  1969-  Charles Manson and “family” (cult) is arrested  Woodstock concert  Summer of Love 
  31. 31. Civil Rights Movement The reform movements in the United States aimed at abolishing racial discrimination against African Americans and restoring suffrage in Southern states. Push for African-American civil rights • began in Southern Universities in the mid 1950s. By the 60‟s, it had developed into a huge social movement with a vast underground following. Martin Luther King Jr. was one of the • most vocal activists of the movement. The Black Panthers emerged from the • Civil Rights movement.
  32. 32. The Black Panthers Founded in Oakland, California,1966 by Bobby Seale and Huey  Newton. The Black Panther were one of the most prominent  subcultures that emerged from the Civil Rights Movement Their objective was to promote Black Power and self defense  against police brutality through “acts of social agitation.” They circulated a document called the Ten-Point  Program, which called for land, bread, housing, education, clothing, justice and peace. “The Panthers had established a working relationship with the hippies, albeit a tentative one. After all, most of the black community wanted precisely what the hippies were dropping out of.”
  33. 33. The Black Panthers Development Two years after the Black Panthers  began, they boasted a membership base of approximately 5,000. At this point, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover refers to the Black Panthers as “The greatest threat to the internal security of the country.” Their newspaper, The Black  Panther, had a circulation upwards of 250,000. The Black Panthers quickly became an  icon for 1960‟s counter culture.
  34. 34. The Black Panthers- Decline The political motives and progressive values of  the party were overshadowed by their violent and outspoken tactics. Party began to split between those who favored  a more community oriented approach coupled with self-defense and those who favored a more violent, confrontational approach. Legal fees for social protests and  demonstrations kept rising. The party could not manage the rising fees and  the internal conflict, and fell apart. Some members joined splinter groups, such as  The Black Liberation Party.
  35. 35. Hippies Anti-Vietnam Protests  Created their own communities, called  communes. Psychedelic rock emerges from the hippie  movement Heavy use of marijuana, LSD, and other mind  altering drugs Embraced the sexual revolution  Pushed for environmental cleanliness  Began as a youth movement for peace in San  Francisco, California. It spread first across the country, and then into other parts of the world.
  36. 36. Anti-War Protests As conflicts in Vietnam escalated, so  did the anti-war sentiment at home. Many felt we were fighting someone else‟s battle and endangering our troops‟ lives for no good reason. War protests were sometimes  enormous. Walk-outs, sit-ins, and picket sign  protests were frequent.
  37. 37. Drug Use Drug use was one of the most prevelant parts of the  hippie movement. Marijuana and LSD were the most commonly used  drugs. Ken Kesey studied LSD at Stanford University.  Impressed with its effects, he worked to push it into the public. He hosted many “Acid Tests,” parties where he and his friends would take acid, listen to the Grateful Dead, and shine strobe and black lights for a psychedelic effect. Such parties became popular throughout the hippie culture. Timothy Leary was a professor at Berkley and  Harvard, and was another strong advocate for LSD. His motto: “Tune in, Turn on, Drop Out.”
  38. 38. Free Love “Free love” implies sexual activity for the  sole purpose of pleasure. It is a rebellion from society‟s traditional norms and expectations of a sexual relationship. Marriage and monogamy were often rejected. Hippie communes were living areas  separate from the mainstream where free love and communal living was practiced. There was little individual ownership, as  everyone worked in a generally agreeable give and take relationship. Such social organization only ever proved possible on a small scale.
  39. 39. The Summer of Love 1969 was the Summer of Love, marked with  free spirited music, drug use, and rebellion. One of the most notable events of the summer  was The Woodstock Music Festival. It was a free outdoor concert in Upstate New York that lasted three days. Musicians influenced by the counterculture  played at the event. They were some of the biggest names of the time, making the concert one of the most momentous events in music history. Some artists included: •The Who Joan Baez •Jefferson Airplane  Jimi Hendrix •The Band  Santana •Crosby, Stills, Nash and  Janis Joplin Young  The Grateful Dead 
  40. 40. The Impact of Subcultures The Black Panthers and the  Hippies were two very influential subcultures of the 1960‟s. They both pushed for social reform and fought relentlessly for the causes they were so deeply devoted to. By moving away from the  mainstream society, these subcultures were able to change the mainstream from the outside.
  41. 41. The 1970s Decade of difference…
  42. 42. Punk Youth movement   Based on Punk Rock  Encompasses a style of music, an ideology, even lifestyle.
  43. 43. Feminism Began in the 1960s, but  continued into the 1970s.  Women began to take a stand for themselves.  Nineteenth Amendment to the constitution was made, which legalized female suffrage.
  44. 44. Goth Began during the late  1970s, early 1980s.  Began in the United Kingdom.  Has different styles of music  Styles of dress consist of Victorian, punk, death rock and
  45. 45. The Gay Movement The first Gay Liberation Day  march took place in NYC, in 1970  The American Psychiatric Association removes homosexuality as a mental disorder.  Stonewall riots begin to take place in the early 1970s.
  46. 46. 1980 Subcultures Anna Phillips
  47. 47. Important Events of the 80‟s First woman appointed to U.S. Supreme Court  IBM introduces Personal Computers  2,075 Couples are married in Madison Square  Garden „U.S. Embassy in Beirut bombed  India‟s Prime Minister, Gandhi, is murdered  Hole in ozone discovered  DNA is used for first time to convict a criminal  Introduction of Prozac  Fall of Berlin wall 
  48. 48. Emergence of Punk Rock Emerged in the  late 70‟s- early 60‟s Most influential  bands: The Ramones, Sex Pistols, and The Clash Differences  between themes of England and U.S. Punk Rock
  49. 49. New Romantics/Sexuality Was a  combination of music and fashion Extension of Punk  Rock Originated in UK  and Ireland Non-Gender  specific Influential  people: David Bowie, Bananram a and Annie Lennox
  50. 50. Hardcore Punk/Straight Edge Emerged almost  by accident Had more  similarities to its roots, Punk Rock, then other extensions Those who  identified themselves as Straight Edge didn‟t smoke, drink, or use drugs.
  51. 51. Gothic Originated in the  United Kingdom Combination of  New Wave music, Punk, an d Post Punk The fashion  itself can be traced to The Cure and the Banshees
  52. 52. Yuppies Young Urban  Professionals (Yuppies) A majority were  college graduates from middle and upper middle classes Frequently went  into debt Large emphasis on  material goods 80‟s is branded the  “Me” generation
  53. 53. Raves/Ravers Emerged with  American House and European Techno music At the beginning  these parties were held in private venues First raves in the  U.S. were in Los Angeles and San Francisco Market was created  as it gained momentum
  54. 54. 1990‟S
  55. 55. A Brief History of the 90‟s The 1990‟s was more of a time  of further development of the subcultures that carried from the 1970‟s and 80‟s  Growing diversity in America‟s population  Economics, Politics, Crime  Age of Information(media, computers, i nternet)
  56. 56. Subcultures -1990-Today Generation X & Y Punk/Goth   Hip Hop  Hipsters  Age of Technology(mid 90‟s- today)
  57. 57. Generation X and Y/MTV Generation/Millennials Generation X Consist of people born  with in the 1970-1980‟s that grew up in the early 1990‟s. Generation Y those that were born in  the 1980‟s –mid 1990‟s. Influence the new subcutures They influenced a lot of the  subcultures formed through music, media and interenet 1990‟s generation opened a path for  the MTV Generation and Millennials Generation Y  Generation X 
  58. 58. Age of Technology rooms •Chat •E-mail •Blogs •Napster subculture •New language (lol-omg- brb) •Networking sites •Advanced technology
  59. 59. Punk/Goth the punk and •Though goth scene began in the 70’s it further developed in the 90’s. brought about •1990’s the Grunge influence to these subcultures. •Brought people out to locations in the city to see punk bands.
  60. 60. Hip Hop Considered the  movement started by the youth culture of the inner-cities. Not always seen in a  positive light. Grew in popularity in  the cities of the west and east coast.
  61. 61. Hipster The urban-middle class adults quot;... hipster lifestyle is reduced to a pose, a Know to be a pretensequot; which  involvesquot;...quot;a hipster subculture that wants costume, worn to to be different then appear quot;coolquot;, a mainstream culture. liberal arts education, and so on. He claims that the term quot;'Hipster' is far too vague and broad to have any semblance of essential meaningquot;.