Subcultures and in Major
Cities Throughout the
Max, Kara, Tracey, Leah, Jacqueli
ne, Anna, Stefania
1920‟s and 1930‟s
Depression, Art Deco, Harlem
Renaissance, and Skyscrapers
Cities in the Great
Depression were hit
hard, beginning in 1929
and lasting through most
of the 1930s
Worst hit were ports (as
world trade fell) and cities
dependent on heavy
industry, such as steel and
The Depression's damage
cities, suburbs, towns and
rural areas varied
according to the economic
Devastating was the
disappearance of 2 million high
paying jobs in the construction
trades, plus the loss of profits and
rents that humbled many
thousands of landlords and real
Second came the general
downturn in industry, especially
heavy manufacturing. Steel
in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and G
ary, Indiana, and automobiles
in Detroit took the heaviest
hits, along with railroads and coal
A sharp educational gradient
meant that the less skilled inner
city men had much higher
unemployment rates than the
high-school and college educated
men who lived in outer zones and
unemployed came to
the cities looking for
African Americans), it
appears that even
larger numbers of
to family farms. For
the first time ever, the
movement of native
population was away
from cities and toward
Art Deco was a popular international
art design movement from 1925 until
1939, affecting the decorative arts
such as architecture, interior
design, and industrial design, as well
as the visual arts such
as fashion, painting, the graphic
arts and film. At the time, this style
was seen as
elegant, glamorous, functional, and
Its popularity peaked in Europe during
the Roaring Twenties and continued
strongly in the United States through
the 1930s. Although many design
movements have political or
philosophical roots or intentions, Art
Deco was purely decorative.
Many classic examples still
exist in the form of
architecture in many major
cities. The Chrysler
Building, designed by William
Van Alen, is a classic example
of this, as it is one of the most
notable examples of Art Deco
Its rich, festive character fitted
it for quot;modernquot;
contexts, including the Golden
The style is said to have
reflected the tensions in the
cultural politics of its
day, with eclecticism having
been one of its defining
Refers to the flowering of African
American cultural and intellectual life during
the 1920s and 1930s. At the time, it was
known as the quot;New Negro
Movementquot;, named after the 1925
anthology The New Negro edited by Alain
Centered in the Harlem neighborhood
of New York City, the movement impacted
urban centers throughout the United States.
Across the cultural spectrum
(literature, drama, music, visual art, dance)
and also in the realm of social thought
(sociology, historiography, philosophy), arti
sts and intellectuals found new ways to
explore the historical experiences of black
America and the contemporary experiences
of black life in the urban North.
The Harlem Renaissance had a
profound impact not only on African-
American culture but also on the
cultures of the African Diaspora. Afro-
Caribbean artists and intellectuals
from the British West Indies, who had
migrated to New York in number, were
part of the movement.
Opened on 125th Street on January
26, 1914, in a
former burlesque house, it has
remained a symbol of African-
American culture. As one of the most
famous clubs for popular music in the
United States, it was the first place
where many figures from the Harlem
Renaissance found a venue for their
talents and a start to their careers.
The careers of Billie Holiday,Ella
Fitzgerald, and Sarah
Vaughan (among many others) were
launched at the Apollo.
From the 1930s
onwards, skyscrapers also
began to appear in Latin
Paulo, Caracas, Mexico City)
in Asia (Tokyo, Shanghai, Ho
Kong, Manila,Singapore, Mu
mbai, Jakarta, Kuala
Lumpur, Taipei, Bangkok).
No city in the world has
more completed individual
free-standing buildings over
492 ft (150 m) than New
At the beginning of the 20th century, New
York City was a center for the Beaux-Arts
architectural movement, attracting the
talents of such great architects as Stanford
Whiteand Carrere and Hastings. As better
construction and engineering technology
became available as the century
progressed, New York became the focal point
of the competition for the tallest building in
the world. The city's striking skyline has been
composed of numerous and varied
skyscrapers, many of which are icons of 20th
Chrysler Building took the lead as the tallest
building in the world, scraping the sky at
1,046 feet (319 m).Designed by William Van
Alen, an art deco masterpiece with an
exterior crafted of brick, the Chrysler Building
continues to be a favorite of New Yorkers to
The Empire State Building, the first building to
have more than 100 floors (it has 102), was
completed the following year. It was designed
by Shreve, Lamb and Harmonin the
contemporary Art Deco style. The tower takes its
name from the nickname of New York State.
Upon its completion in 1931, it took the top spot
as tallest building, and at 1,472 feet (448 m) to
the very top of the antenna, towered above all
other buildings until 1973.
The Sears Tower was completed in 1974, one
year after the World Trade Center, and surpassed
it as the world's tallest building. It was the first
building to employ the quot;bundled tubequot; structural
system, designed by Fazlur Khan The building
was not surpassed in height until the Petronas
Towers were constructed in 1998, but remained
the tallest in some categories until the Burj
Dubai, currently under construction, surpassed it
in all categories.
White Flight, Surrealism, Beat
Generation, Hipsters, Gay
Important 1940‟s Events
The NAACP denounces racial segregation in
G.I. Bill introduced
The first digital computer called the ENIAC
United Nations founded.
Margret Sanger founded the International
Planned Parenthood Foundation.
First nonstop flight around the world.
Cable television becomes available.
Surrealism in Art
After WWII many of
the artists in Europe
migrated to the United
States and settled in
New York City
Greenwich Village, the
Lower East Side and
the East Village
Predominate figure in
the art world
Our desires go against
juxtaposed objects and
images in irrational
Inspired by mythology
White Flight and Black
After WWII ended
there was a great
push for middle
class America to
move into the
Class move to
move into urban
areas from the
The Beat Generation
New York City and San
Artists, poets, school
dropouts, and social
Jack Kerouac coined the
term Beat Generation in
1948 in a conversation
with author John Clellon
“Beat” means to be
bad, ruined or spent.
Also associated with
poets who would beat
their legs together when
they read their work
The Beat Generation
Went against traditional
Wanted to be the exact
opposite of their parents‟
Experimented with drugs
Little mention of women
They were later known
Introduced in 1941 and was derived
from the word “hip” which meant to be
cool, stylish, modern, and in the know
White youths started to go to African
American communities for their
music, dance, and culture.
These were the one of the first white
youth groups to leave the mainstream
due to their racial equality
beliefs, openness to sexuality and drug
Hipsters were in a lower economic class
with a “straight-edge” style.
Used drugs, believed in
free sex, and had self-
They were in the same
economic class as African
Americans at the time
Many were called the
This continued on in the
1950‟s and then translated
into the hippies in later
The Gay Subculture
During WWII many people found a way to
explore their sexuality
It was the first time they were away from
their small towns where certain
expectations needed to be met
Being gay was still a felony
If anyone in the military was found to be
gay they would be discharged
Once the war was over a large gay
population moved into the city
Gay bars began opening
By Tracey Ross
Of the Pudgy Pandas
originated in southern United States among different street gangs.
AKA “Hoods” but not related to gang behavior we know today.
Their name came from their greased back hair, which involved combing
back hair with wax, gel, creams, tonics or pomade.
Some greasers worked at gas stations or shops that repaired cars or
American Greasers were known more for their love of hotrod cars.
Movies that accurately depicted the greaser culture were movies like
Grease and La Bamba.
The Teens-”A threat to a cohesive society and
contributor to destruction in American society”
Teens during the 50‟s deviated from the normative model of the happy
In response to the constraints of the suburban family model, teens spent
large amounts of time with other teens rather than with their families and
developed their values, language, fashions, and music distinct from their
Parental Authority was challenged, teens had become more
autonomous, they had begun their own jobs and had become consumers
in their own right, buying their own clothes, cars and music.
A man who was a teen in the 50‟s stated “as a young teenager in the
1950's, I was unaware of anyone having sex outside of marriage, (no
doubt is was happening, but it was apparently too heinous to talk
about), and I never knew of a child born out of wedlock being raised by a
single mother until I was in my 20's (in the early 1970's).
Adults feared that their own teens would fall into the bad practices of the
Some stereotypes were drag racing, drugs, sex, teenage jive language
and rebellion against authority.
The Beatniks or Beats were a sub-culture of American males who rebelled against
their role as breadwinner/husband in the dominant model of the family.
Sex, which seemed to be their only goal, was available for the Beats without
subscribing to the dominant model lifestyle; a man didn't have to be married and
responsible for supporting a family to get sex.
Much of Beat culture represented a negative stance rather than a positive one. It
was animated more by a vague feeling of cultural and emotional
displacement, dissatisfaction, and yearning
stereotype, with men wearing goatees
and berets, rolling their own cigarettes
and playing bongos.
The Gays and Lesbians
Many people during this time felt that gays and lesbians threatened the
propagation of American society.
When they became a visible sub-culture within American society, they
became a threat. Consequently, they were oppressed, ostracized, and
Since the strength and future of the society was seen to rest on the
nuclear family, and nuclear families by definition consisted of heterosexual
parents producing children, gays and lesbians where hated because they
deviated from this model.
The military experience had served to strengthen the identity of gays and
lesbians because they were put in isolation in small towns and found other
people like themselves.
While most of America looked forward to the end of the war and a return
to quot;normal,quot; for gays and lesbians that meant a return to hiding in the
closet or forcing themselves into the (unnatural (for them)) roles of
husband or wife.
Major Events Timeline
First televised Presidential debates bring image into the
campaign when JFK wins the debate against a very
distressed looking Nixon.
JFK becomes America‟s 35th President
Berlin Wall is constructed, creating a divide between
Eastern and Western Germany, and also bringing
communism to the forefront of American concern.
Peace Corps is founded, an example of the desire for
peace and harmony as US involvement in Vietnam
begins to increase.
Cuban Missile Crisis
First person killed trying to cross the Berlin Wall
Silent Spring by Rachel Carson is published and
launches much of the Environmental Movement
Major Events Cont.
JFK is assassinated, Lyndon B. Johnson takes office
Martin Luther King Jr.‟s “I Have A Dream” Speech
Betty Friedman publishes The Feminine Mystique, empowering women to
seek a more fulfilling life outside of the traditional norms and expectations
of the American woman.
Civil Rights Act passed, outlawing segregation and creating the Equal
Employment Opportunity Commission
Beatles become popular in US
US sends troops to Vietnam
Los Angeles Riots
Malcolm X is assassinated
Black Panther Party is established
Mass protests against the draft
Major Events Cont.
Riots in Newark
After riots throughout the country, Lyndon B. Johnson
files the Kerner Commission which states that the US
was becoming a nation that was “separate and
unequal, black and white.” Demands more accurate
and unbiased news coverage for all races.
MLK Jr. assassinated
Robert Kennedy assassinated
Charles Manson and “family” (cult) is arrested
Summer of Love
Civil Rights Movement
The reform movements in the United
States aimed at abolishing racial
discrimination against African Americans
and restoring suffrage in Southern states.
Push for African-American civil rights
began in Southern Universities in the mid
1950s. By the 60‟s, it had developed into
a huge social movement with a vast
Martin Luther King Jr. was one of the
most vocal activists of the movement.
The Black Panthers emerged from the
Civil Rights movement.
The Black Panthers
Founded in Oakland, California,1966 by Bobby Seale and Huey
The Black Panther were one of the most prominent
subcultures that emerged from the Civil Rights Movement
Their objective was to promote Black Power and self defense
against police brutality through “acts of social agitation.”
They circulated a document called the Ten-Point
Program, which called for
land, bread, housing, education, clothing, justice and peace.
“The Panthers had established a working relationship with
the hippies, albeit a tentative one. After all, most of the
black community wanted precisely what the hippies
were dropping out of.”
The Black Panthers
Two years after the Black Panthers
began, they boasted a membership
base of approximately 5,000. At this
point, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover
refers to the Black Panthers as
“The greatest threat to the internal
security of the country.”
Their newspaper, The Black
Panther, had a circulation upwards of
The Black Panthers quickly became an
icon for 1960‟s counter culture.
The Black Panthers-
The political motives and progressive values of
the party were overshadowed by their violent
and outspoken tactics.
Party began to split between those who favored
a more community oriented approach coupled
with self-defense and those who favored a
more violent, confrontational approach.
Legal fees for social protests and
demonstrations kept rising.
The party could not manage the rising fees and
the internal conflict, and fell apart.
Some members joined splinter groups, such as
The Black Liberation Party.
Created their own communities, called
Psychedelic rock emerges from the hippie
Heavy use of marijuana, LSD, and other mind
Embraced the sexual revolution
Pushed for environmental cleanliness
Began as a youth movement for peace in San
Francisco, California. It spread first across the
country, and then into other parts of the world.
As conflicts in Vietnam escalated, so
did the anti-war sentiment at home.
Many felt we were fighting someone
else‟s battle and endangering our
troops‟ lives for no good reason.
War protests were sometimes
Walk-outs, sit-ins, and picket sign
protests were frequent.
Drug use was one of the most prevelant parts of the
Marijuana and LSD were the most commonly used
Ken Kesey studied LSD at Stanford University.
Impressed with its effects, he worked to push it into
the public. He hosted many “Acid Tests,” parties
where he and his friends would take acid, listen to the
Grateful Dead, and shine strobe and black lights for a
psychedelic effect. Such parties became popular
throughout the hippie culture.
Timothy Leary was a professor at Berkley and
Harvard, and was another strong advocate for LSD.
“Tune in, Turn on, Drop Out.”
“Free love” implies sexual activity for the
sole purpose of pleasure. It is a rebellion
from society‟s traditional norms and
expectations of a sexual relationship.
Marriage and monogamy were often
Hippie communes were living areas
separate from the mainstream where free
love and communal living was practiced.
There was little individual ownership, as
everyone worked in a generally agreeable
give and take relationship. Such social
organization only ever proved possible on
a small scale.
The Summer of Love
1969 was the Summer of Love, marked with
free spirited music, drug use, and rebellion.
One of the most notable events of the summer
was The Woodstock Music Festival. It was a
free outdoor concert in Upstate New York that
lasted three days.
Musicians influenced by the counterculture
played at the event. They were some of the
biggest names of the time, making the concert
one of the most momentous events in music
history. Some artists included:
Joan Baez •Jefferson Airplane
Jimi Hendrix •The Band
Santana •Crosby, Stills, Nash and
Janis Joplin Young
The Grateful Dead
The Impact of
The Black Panthers and the
Hippies were two very influential
subcultures of the 1960‟s. They
both pushed for social reform and
fought relentlessly for the causes
they were so deeply devoted to.
By moving away from the
mainstream society, these
subcultures were able to change
the mainstream from the outside.
Based on Punk Rock
Encompasses a style of
music, an ideology, even
Began in the 1960s, but
continued into the 1970s.
Women began to take a stand
Nineteenth Amendment to the
constitution was made, which
legalized female suffrage.
Began during the late
1970s, early 1980s.
Began in the United Kingdom.
Has different styles of music
Styles of dress consist of
Victorian, punk, death rock and
The Gay Movement
The first Gay Liberation Day
march took place in NYC, in
The American Psychiatric
homosexuality as a mental
Stonewall riots begin to take
place in the early 1970s.
Important Events of the
First woman appointed to U.S. Supreme Court
IBM introduces Personal Computers
2,075 Couples are married in Madison Square
„U.S. Embassy in Beirut bombed
India‟s Prime Minister, Gandhi, is murdered
Hole in ozone discovered
DNA is used for first time to convict a criminal
Introduction of Prozac
Fall of Berlin wall
Emergence of Punk Rock
Emerged in the
late 70‟s- early
Pistols, and The
of England and
U.S. Punk Rock
music and fashion
Extension of Punk
Originated in UK
a and Annie
similarities to its
Rock, then other
smoke, drink, or
Originated in the
music, Punk, an
d Post Punk
itself can be
traced to The
Cure and the
A majority were
from middle and
Large emphasis on
80‟s is branded the
At the beginning
these parties were
held in private
First raves in the
U.S. were in Los
Angeles and San
Market was created
as it gained
A Brief History of the
The 1990‟s was more of a time
of further development of the
subcultures that carried from
the 1970‟s and 80‟s
Growing diversity in America‟s
Economics, Politics, Crime
Information(media, computers, i
Generation X & Y
Age of Technology(mid 90‟s-
Generation X and Y/MTV
Generation X Consist of people born
with in the 1970-1980‟s that grew up
in the early 1990‟s.
Generation Y those that were born in
the 1980‟s –mid 1990‟s. Influence the
They influenced a lot of the
subcultures formed through
music, media and interenet
1990‟s generation opened a path for
the MTV Generation and Millennials
Age of Technology
the punk and
goth scene began in
the 70’s it further
developed in the 90’s.
Grunge influence to
•Brought people out to
locations in the city to
see punk bands.
movement started by
the youth culture of
Not always seen in a
Grew in popularity in
the cities of the west
and east coast.
class adults quot;... hipster lifestyle is
reduced to a pose, a
Know to be a pretensequot; which
subculture that wants
costume, worn to
to be different then appear quot;coolquot;, a
mainstream culture. liberal arts
education, and so on.
He claims that the
term quot;'Hipster' is far
too vague and broad
to have any semblance
of essential meaningquot;.