Tissues Project

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Tissues Project

  1. 1. Tissues <ul><li>Groups of cells similar in structure and function </li></ul><ul><li>4 types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous </li></ul></ul>Credits Epithelial Connective Muscular Nervous http://www.flickr.com/photos/jorrflv/1451540811/in/set-72157602184151046 /
  2. 2. Epithelial Tissue <ul><li>Cellularity </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>A vascular but innervated </li></ul><ul><li>Regenerative </li></ul><ul><li>Classifications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple or stratified </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Special Contacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Junctions and desmosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polarity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apical and basal </li></ul></ul>Tissues Stratified Simple http://images.google.com/images?hl=en&q=epithelial+tissue&gbv=2
  3. 3. Simple Epithelial <ul><li>Single layer </li></ul><ul><li>4 classification types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Squamous, cuboidal, columnar and pseudostratified columnar </li></ul></ul>Tissues Epithelial Simple Squamous Simple Cuboidal Simple Columnar Pseudostratified Columnar http://images.google.com/images?hl=en&q=epithelial+tissue&gbv=2
  4. 4. Simple Squamous Epithelial <ul><li>Single layer of flattened cells with disc-shaped nuclei and sparse cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion and filtration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides slick friction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Present in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kidney glome ruli, lining of heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and serosae </li></ul></ul>Tissues Epithelial Simple Epithelial Simple Cuboidal Simple Columnar Pseudostratified Columnar
  5. 5. Simple Columnar Epithelial <ul><li>Single layer of tall cells with oval nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Many contain cilia </li></ul><ul><li>Contains goblet cells </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorption, secretion, nonciliated type lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digestive tract and gallbladder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ciliated type lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small bronchi, uterine tubes and regions of uterus </li></ul></ul></ul>Tissues Epithelial Simple Epithelial Simple Cuboidal Simple Squamous Pseudostratified Columnar http://images.google.com/images?hl=en&q=epithelial+tissue&gbv=2
  6. 6. Simple Cuboidal Epithelial <ul><li>Single layer of cube-shaped cells with large, spherical central nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretion and absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Present in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kidney tubules, ducts, secretory portions of small glands and on ovary surface </li></ul></ul>Tissues Epithelial Simple Epithelial Simple Columnar Simple Squamous Pseudostratified Columnar
  7. 7. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelial <ul><li>Single layer of tall cells with different heights </li></ul><ul><li>Some cells don’t reach free surface </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclei seen at different layers </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretion and propulsion of mucus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Present in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non ciliated male sperm carrying ducts and ducts of large glands, ciliated trachea and upper respiratory tract </li></ul></ul>Tissues Epithelial Simple Epithelial Simple Columnar Simple Squamous Simple Cuboidal
  8. 8. Stratified Epithelial <ul><li>Two or more layers of cells </li></ul><ul><li>More durable than simple epithelial </li></ul><ul><li>Four types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratified squamous, stratified cuboidal, stratified columnar and transitional </li></ul></ul>Tissues Epithelial Stratified Squamous Stratified Cuboidal Stratified Columnar Transitional http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&q=stratified+epithelial
  9. 9. Stratified Squamous Epithelial <ul><li>Thick membrane composed of several layers of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects areas subject to abrasion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>external part of skin’s epidermis, linings of esophagus, mouth an vagina </li></ul></ul>Tissues Epithelial Stratified Epithelial Stratified Cuboidal Stratified Columnar Transitional
  10. 10. Stratified Cuboidal Epithelial <ul><li>Typically two cell layers </li></ul><ul><li>Rare </li></ul><ul><li>Found in sweat and mammary glands </li></ul>Tissues Epithelial Stratified Epithelial Stratified Squamous Stratified Columnar Transitional http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&q=stratified+cuboidal
  11. 11. Stratified Columnar Epithelial <ul><li>Limited distribution to body </li></ul><ul><li>Present in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharynx, male urethra and lining of some glandular ducts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occurs at </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition areas between two other types of epithelial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only layer is the apical layer </li></ul>Tissues Epithelial Stratified Epithelial Stratified Squamous Stratified Cuboidal Transitional
  12. 12. Transitional Epithelial <ul><li>Several cell layers </li></ul><ul><li>Basal cells are cuboidal </li></ul><ul><li>Surface cells are dome shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Stretchy </li></ul><ul><li>Lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urinary bladder, ureters and part of urethra </li></ul></ul>Tissues Epithelial Stratified Epithelial Stratified Squamous Stratified Cuboidal Stratified Columnar
  13. 13. Connective Tissue <ul><li>Most abundant and widely distributed in primary tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Found throughout body </li></ul><ul><li>Four main types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone and blood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binding and support, protection, insulation and transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three common properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesenchyme as common tissue of origin, degrees of vascularity, extracellular matrix </li></ul></ul>Tissues Connective Tissue Proper Cartilage Bone Blood http://washington.uwc.edu/about/faculty/schaefer_w/TISSUES/fibrous_connective_tissue_tendon.jpg
  14. 14. Connective Tissue Proper <ul><li>Two subclasses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose and dense </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contains majority of mature connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of living cells surrounded by a matrix </li></ul>Tissues Connective Tissue Cartilage Bone Blood Loose Connective Tissue Dense Connective Tissue http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://anatomy.iupui.edu/courses/histo_D502/D502f04/Labs.f04/connective%2520lab/s4810x.jpg&imgrefurl=http://anatomy.iupui.edu/courses/histo_D502/D502f04/Labs.f04/connective%2520lab/Lab3f04.html&h=576&w=432&sz=300&hl=en&start=7&tbnid=r2UwEDPOLr2BBM:&tbnh=134&tbnw=101&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dconnective%2Btissue%2Bproper%26gbv%3D2%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den
  15. 15. Loose Connective Tissue <ul><li>Three types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Areolar, adipose and reticular </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 main functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support and bind other tissues, holds body fluids, defends against infection, stores nutrients as fat </li></ul></ul>Tissues Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper Cartilage Bone Blood Dense Connective Tissue Areolar Adipose Reticular http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&q=loose+connective+tissue+
  16. 16. Areolar Connective Tissue <ul><li>Gel like matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Contains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells and some white blood cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cushions organs </li></ul><ul><li>Widely distributed </li></ul>Tissues Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper Cartilage Bone Blood Loose Connective Tissue Adipose Reticular
  17. 17. Adipose Connective Tissue <ul><li>Similar matrix to areolar connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Adiopcytes closely packed together </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores and reserves food, insulates against heat loss, supports, and protects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Present in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under the skin, around kidneys, within abdomen and in breasts </li></ul></ul>Tissues Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper Cartilage Bone Blood Loose Connective Tissue Reticular Areolar
  18. 18. Reticular Connective Tissue <ul><li>Loose ground substance with reticular fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Cells live in a fiber network </li></ul><ul><li>Forms soft internal skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Found in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymph nodes, bone marrow and spleen </li></ul></ul>Tissues Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper Cartilage Bone Blood Loose Connective Tissue Areolar Adipose http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&q=reticular+tissue
  19. 19. Dense Connective Tissue <ul><li>Two types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular and irregular </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fibers are predominant elements </li></ul>Tissues Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper Cartilage Bone Blood Loose Connective Tissue Dense Regular Dense Irregular http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&q=dense+connective+tissue
  20. 20. Dense Regular Connective Tissue <ul><li>Parallel collagen fibers with few elastic fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Major cell type is fibroblasts </li></ul><ul><li>Attaches muscle to bone or to other muscles and bone to bone </li></ul><ul><li>Present in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendons, ligaments and aponeuroses </li></ul></ul>Tissues Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper Cartilage Bone Blood Dense Connective Tissue Dense Irregular
  21. 21. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue <ul><li>Irregularly arranged thick collagen fibers with some elastic fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Major cell type is fibroblasts </li></ul><ul><li>Withstands tension in many directions </li></ul><ul><li>Provides structural strength </li></ul><ul><li>Found in the dermis </li></ul><ul><li>Forms fibrous joint capsules and fibrous coverings that surround some organs </li></ul>Tissues Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper Cartilage Bone Blood Dense Connective Tissue Dense Regular http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&q=dense+irregular+tissue
  22. 22. Cartilage <ul><li>Stands up to tension and compression </li></ul><ul><li>Lacks nerve fibers </li></ul><ul><li>A vascular </li></ul><ul><li>Tough but flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Chondroblasts </li></ul><ul><li>80% water </li></ul><ul><li>Heals slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Three varieties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyaline, elastic and fibrocartliage </li></ul></ul>Tissues Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper Bone Blood Hyaline Cartilage Elastic Cartilage Fibrocartilage http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&q=cartilage+tissue
  23. 23. Hyaline Cartilage <ul><li>Amorphous </li></ul><ul><li>Firm matrix with imperceptible network of collagen fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Chondrocytes lie in lacunae </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports, cushions and resists compression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forms costal cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Present in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Embryonic skeleton, ends of long bones, nose, trachea and larynx </li></ul></ul>Tissues Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper Bone Blood Cartilage Elastic Cartilage Fibrocartilage
  24. 24. Elastic Cartilage <ul><li>Similar to hyaline cartilage but with more elastic fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains shape and structure </li></ul><ul><li>Allows flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Supports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External ear and epiglottis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Found where strength and stretchability are necessary </li></ul>Tissues Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper Bone Blood Cartilage Hyaline Cartilage Fibrocartilage
  25. 25. Fibrocartilage <ul><li>Matrix similar to hyaline cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Less firm with thick collagen fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Provides tensile strength </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbs compression shock </li></ul><ul><li>Present in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis and discs of knee joint </li></ul></ul>Tissues Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper Bone Blood Cartilage Hyaline Cartilage Elastic Cartilage
  26. 26. Bone <ul><li>Osseous tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Hard </li></ul><ul><li>Calcified matrix with collagen fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Osteocytes found in lacunae </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports, protects and provides levers for muscular action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium, minerals and fat, marrow in bone </li></ul></ul>Tissues Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper Blood Cartilage
  27. 27. <ul><li>Red and white cells in fluid matrix contained within blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Functions in transport of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory gases, nutrients and wastes </li></ul></ul>Blood Tissues Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper Bone Cartilage
  28. 28. <ul><li>Possesses myofilaments </li></ul><ul><li>3 types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth, skeletal and cardiac </li></ul></ul>Muscular Tissue Tissues Smooth Muscle Tissue Skeletal Muscle Tissue Cardiac Muscle Tissue http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&q=muscular+tissue
  29. 29. <ul><li>Long, cylindrical, multinucleate cells </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiates and controls voluntary movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Present in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skeletal muscles that attach to bones or skin </li></ul></ul>Skeletal Muscle Tissue Tissues Muscular Tissue Smooth Muscle Tissue Cardiac Muscle Tissue http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&q=skeletal+tissue
  30. 30. <ul><li>Branching, striated, uninucleate cells that inter-block at intercalated discs </li></ul><ul><li>Propels blood into circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Present in walls of heart </li></ul>Cardiac Muscle Tissue Tissues Muscular Tissue Smooth Muscle Tissue Skeletal Muscle Tissue http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&q=cardiac+tissue
  31. 31. <ul><li>Sheets of spindle </li></ul><ul><li>Propels substances along internal passageways </li></ul><ul><li>Present in walls of hollow organs </li></ul><ul><li>involuntary </li></ul>Smooth Muscle Tissue Tissues Muscular Tissue Cardiac Muscle Tissue Skeletal Muscle Tissue http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&q=smooth+muscle+tissue
  32. 32. <ul><li>Branched neurons with long cellular processes and supports cells </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmits electrical signals from sensory receptors to effectors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Present in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves </li></ul></ul>Nervous Tissue Tissues http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&q=nervous+tissue
  33. 33. <ul><li>Sound- Adobe Soundbooth and Brittney Bennett </li></ul><ul><li>Song-Brandon Millares </li></ul><ul><li>Images from slides 4,6,7,9,11,12,16,17,20,23,24,25,26 and 27 -Brittney Bennett </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues- http://www.flickr.com/photos/jorrflv/1451540811/in/set-72157602184151046 </li></ul><ul><li>Epithelial Tissue, Simple Epithelial and Simple Columnar- http://images.google.com/images?hl=en&q=epithelial+tissue&gbv=2 </li></ul><ul><li>Stratified epithelial- http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&q=stratified+epithelial </li></ul><ul><li>Stratified cuboidal- http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&q=stratified+cuboidal </li></ul><ul><li>Connective Tissue- http://washington.uwc.edu/about/faculty/schaefer_w/TISSUES/fibrous_connective_tissue_tendon.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Connective Tissue Proper- http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://anatomy.iupui.edu/courses/histo_D502/D502f04/Labs.f04/connective%2520lab/s4810x.jpg&imgrefurl=http://anatomy.iupui.edu/courses/histo_D502/D502f04/Labs.f04/connective%2520lab/Lab3f04.html&h=576&w=432&sz=300&hl=en&start=7&tbnid=r2UwEDPOLr2BBM:&tbnh=134&tbnw=101&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dconnective%2Btissue%2Bproper%26gbv%3D2%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den </li></ul><ul><li>Loose Connective Tissue- http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&q=loose+connective+tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Reticular Connective Tissue- http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&q=reticular+tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Dense Connective Tissue- http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&q=dense+connective+tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Dense Irregular- http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&q=dense+irregular+tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilage - http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&q=cartilage+tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular Tissue - http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&q=muscular+tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal Muscle Tissue- http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&q=skeletal+tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac Muscle Tissue - http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&q=cardiac+tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth Muscle Tissue - http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&q=smooth+muscle+tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous Tissue- http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&q=nervous+tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Special thanks to Mr.Orr for letting me live in his room for a whole week! </li></ul>Credits

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