Parts Of Speech And Sentence Structure Notes

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  • Parts Of Speech And Sentence Structure Notes

    1. 1. Parts of Speech and Sentence Structure Notes
    2. 2. Parts of Speech Definitions <ul><li>Nouns- name persons, places, or things; may performing different ways such as sentence subjects, verbals, objects,and so on; may be proper or common </li></ul><ul><li>Proper: Names (Atlanta, GA; Microsoft) </li></ul><ul><li>Common: chair, table, she, girl, it </li></ul>
    3. 3. Pronouns <ul><li>Substitutes for nouns, so they also name persons, places, and/or things (he, she, it, they, we, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>*Be careful– THEIR is a pronoun. There is not– it’s directional; They’re is not either, it’s a contraction for “they are.” </li></ul>
    4. 4. Verbs <ul><li>Tell what the person, place or thing is doing in a sentence; may be action or non action (passive) in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Active- run, jump, play, squeeze, give, assign </li></ul><ul><li>Passive includes state of being verbs such as am, is, are, was, were, have, has, had, be, been, etc. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Adjectives <ul><li>Define or modify the meaning of a noun or prounoun; they tell what kind ( brown eyes), which one, ( that girl), or how many ( dozen donuts) </li></ul>
    6. 6. Adverbs <ul><li>Define or modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs; they tell how (walked slowly ), where (walked there ), when (walked then ), and to what extent (walked far ). Adverbs often end in the suffix –ly ( hurriedly, anxiously, eagerly, absolutely ) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Prepositions <ul><li>Related a noun or pronoun to some other word in a sentence; they also introduce phrases, and they may be singular or compound ( of, under, over, on, to ). </li></ul><ul><li>*Be careful- to is directional therefore it is a pronoun. Too is to an extent—not a pronoun. Two is a number therefore it can be a noun or an adjective. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Conjunctions <ul><li>These are “connectors” or words that join one part of a sentence to another; these include coordinating conjunctions ( fanboys ), correlative conjunctions ( either, or ) and subordinating conjunctions ( although, since, because ) </li></ul>
    9. 9. Interjections <ul><li>Express powerful emotions such as hate, disgust, happiness, grief, surprise, an thus are followed by an exclamation mark ( Ugh!, Hurry!, Look Out! ) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Helping Verbs <ul><li>The following are helping verbs and can not be forgotten as the WHOLE VERB. </li></ul><ul><li>Am, are, can, could, do, does, did, has, have, had, be, been, being, is, may, might, must, shall, should, was, were, will, would </li></ul>
    11. 11. State of being verbs <ul><li>The following are “state of being” verbs and can stand alone as the verb itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Am, are, is, was, were, have, has, had, be, being, been </li></ul><ul><li>Example: The dog was in the house. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Sentence formula Key <ul><li>S= subject (nouns/pronouns) </li></ul><ul><li>V= verb (action) </li></ul><ul><li>I= independent clause (simple sentence) </li></ul><ul><li>c = coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS) </li></ul><ul><li>D= dependent clause (phrase that can not stand alone) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Simple Sentence <ul><li>A sentence that has one independent clause. </li></ul><ul><li>Independent clause: a group of words that makes a statement and has a subject and a predicate </li></ul><ul><li>Subject: noun that the subject is about </li></ul><ul><li>Predicate: shows the action or state of being of the subject of the sentence </li></ul>
    14. 14. Simple sentence formulas <ul><li>SV </li></ul><ul><li>SSV </li></ul><ul><li>SVV </li></ul><ul><li>SSVV </li></ul><ul><li>The duck swam. </li></ul><ul><li>Tom and Susan fight a lot. </li></ul><ul><li>Books are heavy and cost quite a bit. </li></ul><ul><li>Walls and windows protect and give us structure. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Helping verbs <ul><li>Am, are, can, could, do, does, did, has, have, had, be, being, been, is, may, might, shall, should, was, were, will, would </li></ul>
    16. 16. Review Assessment- What is the formula? <ul><li>James is in his bedroom sleeping. </li></ul><ul><li>Cut it out and paste it onto your paper. </li></ul><ul><li>The colorful birds and the horses were put away during the storm. </li></ul><ul><li>Help me with my work. </li></ul><ul><li>I need the camera and the zoom lens. </li></ul><ul><li>Caroline and Cynthia made the basketball team. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Check your answers! <ul><li>James is in his bedroom sleeping. (sv) </li></ul><ul><li>Cut it out and paste it onto your paper. (svv) </li></ul><ul><li>The colorful birds and the horses were put away during the storm. (ssv) </li></ul><ul><li>Help me with my work. (sv) </li></ul><ul><li>I need the camera and the zoom lens. (sv) </li></ul><ul><li>Caroline and Cynthia made the basketball team. (ssv) </li></ul>
    18. 18. Independent practice <ul><li>Please write a sentence for each of the formulas on your green sheet of paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember to keep the sentences simple. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Compound Sentence <ul><li>Has two or more independent clauses. </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinating conjunction: a word that is used with a comma to join two independent clauses </li></ul><ul><li>Compound sentence formulas – I,cI and I;I </li></ul>
    20. 20. Coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS) <ul><li>,for </li></ul><ul><li>,and </li></ul><ul><li>,nor </li></ul><ul><li>,but </li></ul><ul><li>,or </li></ul><ul><li>,yet </li></ul><ul><li>,so </li></ul>
    21. 21. Examples <ul><li>I,cI: </li></ul><ul><li>The students finished class, and they went to lunch. </li></ul><ul><li>Kevin did not want to hurt Kathy’s feelings, so he said nothing about her mistake. </li></ul><ul><li>I want to see my sister soon, for she has been in Switzerland for two years </li></ul>
    22. 22. Examples, cont’d. <ul><li>I;I </li></ul><ul><li>Susan loves to swim; her brother likes to dive. </li></ul><ul><li>Jason was highly respected; he was always such a responsible person. </li></ul><ul><li>The meeting was over; it was already midnight. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Review Assessment-What is the formula? <ul><li>The artist was at the fair, but she did not bring her work to be sold. </li></ul><ul><li>The storm was near, yet we didn’t get any rain. </li></ul><ul><li>Please figure out what you’re ordering; the waiter is on his way over. </li></ul><ul><li>I’d like you to move, so please choose another seat. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Review Assessment Cont’d <ul><li>The book is on the shelf; please get it for me. </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t want to go swimming, nor do I want to ride on the boat. </li></ul><ul><li>The campus is closed; you’ll have to get your binder tomorrow. </li></ul><ul><li>The Olympic hopefuls were practicing, for they wanted to be chosen to represent the United States. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Check your answers! <ul><li>The artist was at the fair, but she did not bring her work to be sold. (I,cI) </li></ul><ul><li>The storm was near, yet we didn’t get any rain. (I,cI) </li></ul><ul><li>Please figure out what you’re ordering; the waiter is on his way over. (I;I) </li></ul><ul><li>I’d like you to move, so please choose another seat. (I,cI) </li></ul>
    26. 26. Check your answers! <ul><li>The book is on the shelf; please get it for me. (I;I) </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t want to go swimming, nor do I want to ride on the boat. (I,cI) </li></ul><ul><li>The campus is closed; you’ll have to get your binder tomorrow. (I;I) </li></ul><ul><li>The Olympic hopefuls were practicing, for they wanted to be chosen to represent the United States. (I,cI) </li></ul>
    27. 27. Independent Practice <ul><li>Please write a sentence for each of the formulas. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Complex Sentence <ul><li>Has one dependent clause and one or more independent clauses as well as a subordinating conjunction </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent clause: is a group of words with a subject and a verb that can not stand alone. </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinating conjunctions: are words that show the relationship of the dependent clause to the independent clause. </li></ul>
    29. 29. List of Subordinating Conjunctions <ul><li>After, although, as, as if, as long as, as soon as, as though, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order that, just as, like, once, provided, rather than </li></ul><ul><li>So that, than, though, unless, until, when, whenever, while </li></ul><ul><li>Choose your favorite five to memorize; highlight them in your notes! </li></ul>
    30. 30. Complex Sentence Formulas <ul><li>D, I </li></ul><ul><li>ID </li></ul>
    31. 31. Complex Sentence Examples <ul><li>D,I </li></ul><ul><li>When I get to Phoenix, you will be sleeping. </li></ul><ul><li>After the players practiced, they went out for pizza. </li></ul><ul><li>Until the storm is over, we will not know about the damage. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Complex Sentence Examples Cont’d <ul><li>ID </li></ul><ul><li>You will be sleeping when I get to Phoenix. </li></ul><ul><li>The players went out for a pizza after they practiced. </li></ul><ul><li>We will not know about the damage until the storm is over. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Review Assessment-What is the formula? <ul><li>Provided you have done all of your work, you may use the computers for personal use. </li></ul><ul><li>You are looking at me as though you think I’m guilty. </li></ul><ul><li>Unless you comply with the laws of the road, you may possibly get a ticket. </li></ul><ul><li>Camping can be fun if you are prepared. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Review Assessment-What is the formula? <ul><li>Since I’ve begun to clean the pool, there’s no way you can go swimming. </li></ul><ul><li>I’d like to go shopping whenever I get my refund check. </li></ul><ul><li>You may go to your friend’s house as long as there are parents home. </li></ul><ul><li>Even though you are talented, there’s no way you can win the competition. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Check your answers! <ul><li>Provided you have done all of your work, you may use the computers for personal use. (D,I) </li></ul><ul><li>You are looking at me as though you think I’m guilty. (ID) </li></ul><ul><li>Unless you comply with the laws of the road, you may possibly get a ticket. (D,I) </li></ul><ul><li>Camping can be fun if you are prepared. (ID) </li></ul>
    36. 36. Check your answers, cont’d. <ul><li>Since I’ve begun to clean the pool, there’s no way you can go swimming. (D,I) </li></ul><ul><li>I’d like to go shopping whenever I get my refund check. (ID) </li></ul><ul><li>You may go to your friend’s house as long as there are parents home. (ID) </li></ul><ul><li>Even though you are talented, there’s no way you can win the competition. (D,I) </li></ul>
    37. 37. Independent Practice <ul><li>Please write a sentence for each formula. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Compound-Complex Sentences <ul><li>Have two or more independent clauses and at least one dependent clause. </li></ul><ul><li>You are combining the idea of the compound sentence and adding a dependent clause to the sentence at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end. </li></ul><ul><li>Break the sentence out into parts; there should be three total. </li></ul>
    39. 39. Compound-Complex Formulas <ul><li>D,I,cI </li></ul><ul><li>D,I;I </li></ul><ul><li>ID,cI </li></ul><ul><li>ID;I </li></ul><ul><li>I,cID </li></ul><ul><li>I;ID </li></ul>
    40. 40. Compound-Complex Sentence Examples <ul><li>D,I,cI: When you are ready, I will call the store, and we can talk to Reed. </li></ul><ul><li>D,I;I: Before the trick-or-treaters came, Jill made candied apples; they were delicious. </li></ul><ul><li>ID,cI: Jean had a headache after the party was over, so Paul cleaned up the house. </li></ul><ul><li>ID;I: Jennifer calls Chris whenever she feels sad; he cheers her up. </li></ul>
    41. 41. Compound-Complex Examples, cont’d. <ul><li>I,cID: Jean had a headache, so Paul cleaned up the house after the party was over. </li></ul><ul><li>I;ID: The move was entertaining; there were many special effects because it was directed by George Lucas. </li></ul>
    42. 42. Review Assessment-What is the formula? <ul><li>Even if you were to sell your car, there’s no way you’ll be able to afford the house; it’s just too expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Just as you were leaving the house, Susan called, and she said to pick her up at noon. </li></ul><ul><li>Stop at the store, and pick up bread because I used the last of it. </li></ul>
    43. 43. Review Assessment-What is the formula? <ul><li>If you are afraid, you shouldn’t go on the roller coaster, but you meet up with us when we exit the ride. </li></ul><ul><li>I’d like to see your work because it’s always neat, and I would like to used it as an example of a quality assignment. </li></ul><ul><li>We went on the boat; it began to rain just as we started back to the dock. </li></ul>
    44. 44. Review Assessment-What is the formula? <ul><li>While we were at the doctor’s office, I saw James; he broke his leg last week. </li></ul><ul><li>I need to talk to you;I’ll have to do it whenever I return from my meeting. </li></ul><ul><li>Provided you are unhappy, I’d like to help; would you like to see the guidance counselor? </li></ul>
    45. 45. Check your answers! <ul><li>Even if you were to sell your car, there’s no way you’ll be able to afford the house; it’s just too expensive. (D,I;I) </li></ul><ul><li>Just as you were leaving the house, Susan called, and she said to pick her up at noon. (D,I,cI) </li></ul><ul><li>Stop at the store, and pick up bread because I used the last of it. (I,cID) </li></ul>
    46. 46. Check your answers, cont’d! <ul><li>If you are afraid, you shouldn’t go on the roller coaster, but you meet up with us when we exit the ride. (D,I,cI) </li></ul><ul><li>I’d like to see your work because it’s always neat, and I would like to used it as an example of a quality assignment. (ID,cI) </li></ul><ul><li>We went on the boat; it began to rain just as we started back to the dock. (I;ID0 </li></ul>
    47. 47. Check your answers, cont’d! <ul><li>While we were at the doctor’s office, I saw James; he broke his leg last week. (D,I;I) </li></ul><ul><li>I need to talk to you; I’ll have to do it whenever I return from my meeting. (I;ID) </li></ul><ul><li>Provided you are unhappy, I’d like to help; would you like to see the guidance counselor? (D,I;I) </li></ul>
    48. 48. Independent practice <ul><li>Please write a sentence for each of the formulas. </li></ul>
    49. 49. Independent Practice <ul><li>Write a paragraph beginning with a simple sentence, add a compound sentence, then a complex sentence, and last a compound-complex sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>The topic is explain what you did during summer break. </li></ul><ul><li>Use your highligters– highlight the simple sentence in pink, the compound sentence in green, the complex sentence in blue, and the compound-complex sentence in yellow. </li></ul>

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